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brucella evolution

Pauline L Kamath, Jeffrey T Foster, Kevin P Drees, Gordon Luikart, Christine Quance, Neil J Anderson, P Ryan Clarke, Eric K Cole, Mark L Drew, William H Edwards, Jack C Rhyan, John J Treanor, Rick L Wallen, Patrick J White, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Paul C Cross
Whole-genome sequencing has provided fundamental insights into infectious disease epidemiology, but has rarely been used for examining transmission dynamics of a bacterial pathogen in wildlife. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), outbreaks of brucellosis have increased in cattle along with rising seroprevalence in elk. Here we use a genomic approach to examine Brucella abortus evolution, cross-species transmission and spatial spread in the GYE. We find that brucellosis was introduced into wildlife in this region at least five times...
2016: Nature Communications
Marcos Mancilla
Dissociation encompasses changes in a series of phenotypes: colony and cell morphology, inmunological and biochemical reactions and virulence. The concept is generally associated to the in vitro transition between smooth (S) and rough (R) colonies, a phenotypic observation in Gram-negative bacteria commonly made since the beginning of microbiology as a science. It is also well known that the loss of the O-polysaccharide, the most external lipopolysaccharide (LPS) moiety, triggers the change in the colony phenotype...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ning Liu, Yingying Li, Chunyan Dong, Xiaohan Xu, Pan Wei, Wanchun Sun, Qisheng Peng
UNLABELLED: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is well conserved during evolution. AMPK activation inhibits production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells via suppression of NADPH oxidase. However, the role of AMPK during the process of Brucella infection remains unknown. Our data demonstrate that B. abortus infection induces AMPK activation in HeLa cells in a time-dependent manner. The known AMPK kinases LKB1, CAMKKβ, and TAK1 are not required for the activation of AMPK by B...
March 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Amid Rahi, Naghmeh Sattarahmady, Hossein Heli
Gold nanoribbons covered by gold nanoblooms were sonoelectrodeposited on a polycrystalline gold surface at -1800 mV (vs. AgCl) with the assistance of ultrasound and co-occurrence of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The nanostructure, as a transducer, was utilized to immobilize a Brucella-specific probe and fabrication of a genosensor, and the process of immobilization and hybridization was detected by electrochemical methods, using methylene blue as a redox marker. The proposed method for detection of the complementary sequence, sequences with base-mismatched (one-, two- and three-base mismatches), and the sequence of non-complementary sequence was assayed...
2015: Scientific Reports
Udayakumar S Vishnu, Jagadesan Sankarasubramanian, Jayavel Sridhar, Paramasamy Gunasekaran, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Brucella is a facultative intracellular bacterium belongs to the class alpha proteobacteria. It causes zoonotic disease brucellosis to wide range of animals. Brucella species are highly conserved in nucleotide level. Here, we employed a comparative genomics approach to examine the role of homologous recombination and positive selection in the evolution of Brucella. For the analysis, we have selected 19 complete genomes from 8 species of Brucella. Among the 1599 core genome predicted, 24 genes were showing signals of recombination but no significant breakpoint was found...
December 2015: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Seyed Hossein Shahcheraghi, Jamshid Ayatollahi
Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic infection in the world. The disease is endemic in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It is an important re-emerging infectious disease. This disease is closely associated with the evolution of mankind as an agrarian society linked to the practice of shepherding and popularization of animal husbandry. The patients with this disease are typically present with chills, fever, asthenia and sweating. This paper describes a patient with brucellosis and skin rashes on the leg...
2015: Acta Medica Iranica
Ekaterine Tevdoradze, Jason Farlow, Adam Kotorashvili, Natia Skhirtladze, Irina Antadze, Sophio Gunia, Nana Balarjishvili, Leila Kvachadze, Mzia Kutateladze
BACKGROUND: Recently the genome sequences of two brucellaphages, isolated in Georgia (Tb) and Mexico (Pr) were reported revealing pronounced sequence homogeneity and the presence of two major indels discriminating the two phages. Subsequent genome sequencing of six diagnostic brucellaphages: Tbilisi (Tb), Firenze (Fz), Weybridge (Wb), S708, Berkeley (Bk) and R/C phages identified three major genetic groups. However, the propensity for fine-scale genetic variability of diverse brucellaphages grown on multiple hosts within a single Brucella species remains unknown...
2015: Virology Journal
George C diCenzo, Allyson M MacLean, Branislava Milunovic, G Brian Golding, Turlough M Finan
Many bacteria carry two or more chromosome-like replicons. This occurs in pathogens such as Vibrio cholerea and Brucella abortis as well as in many N2-fixing plant symbionts including all isolates of the alfalfa root-nodule bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti. Understanding the evolution and role of this multipartite genome organization will provide significant insight into these important organisms; yet this knowledge remains incomplete, in part, because technical challenges of large-scale genome manipulations have limited experimental analyses...
October 2014: PLoS Genetics
Hachung Yoon, Oun-Kyong Moon, Soo-Han Lee, Won-Chang Lee, Moon Her, Wooseog Jeong, Suk-Chan Jung, Do-Soon Kim
In the present study, the outbreak patterns of bovine brucellosis in Korea from 2000 to 2011 were analyzed to understand the epidemiological evolution of this disease in the country. A total of 85,521 brucella reactor animals were identified during 14,215 outbreaks over the 12-year study period. The number of bovine brucellosis cases increased after 2003 and peaked in 2006 before decreasing thereafter. The majority of the bovine brucellosis cases were Korean native cattle, Han Woo. The numbers of human brucellosis cases and cattle outbreaks increased and decreased in the same pattern...
December 2014: Journal of Veterinary Science
Hugo Lebrette, Céline Brochier-Armanet, Barbara Zambelli, Hilde de Reuse, Elise Borezée-Durant, Stefano Ciurli, Christine Cavazza
In human pathogenic bacteria, nickel is required for the activation of two enzymes, urease and [NiFe]-hydrogenase, necessary for host infection. Acquisition of Ni(II) is mediated by either permeases or ABC-importers, the latter including a subclass that involves an extracytoplasmic nickel-binding protein, Ni-BP. This study reports on the structure of three Ni-BPs from a diversity of human pathogens and on the existence of three new nickel-binding motifs. These are different from that previously described for Escherichia coli Ni-BP NikA, known to bind nickel via a nickelophore, and indicate a variegated ligand selectivity for Ni-BPs...
October 7, 2014: Structure
Adrian M Whatmore
The potentially debilitating zoonotic disease brucellosis is thought to have been a scourge of mankind throughout history. New work by Kay et al. [mBio 5(4):e01337-14, 2014] adds to evidence for this by exploiting the huge advances in next-generation sequencing technology and applying shotgun metagenomics to a calcified nodule obtained from a 14th-century skeleton from Sardinia. While not the first DNA-based confirmation of Brucella in medieval DNA samples, Kay et al.'s study goes much further than previous reports based on single gene fragments in that it allows a full-genome reconstruction and thus facilitates meaningful comparative analysis of relationships with extant Brucella strains...
2014: MBio
Gemma L Kay, Martin J Sergeant, Valentina Giuffra, Pasquale Bandiera, Marco Milanese, Barbara Bramanti, Raffaella Bianucci, Mark J Pallen
Shotgun metagenomics provides a powerful assumption-free approach to the recovery of pathogen genomes from contemporary and historical material. We sequenced the metagenome of a calcified nodule from the skeleton of a 14th-century middle-aged male excavated from the medieval Sardinian settlement of Geridu. We obtained 6.5-fold coverage of a Brucella melitensis genome. Sequence reads from this genome showed signatures typical of ancient or aged DNA. Despite the relatively low coverage, we were able to use information from single-nucleotide polymorphisms to place the medieval pathogen genome within a clade of B...
2014: MBio
J L Saez, C Sanz, M Durán, P García, F Fernandez, O Minguez, L Carbajo, F Mardones, A Perez, S Gonzalez, L Dominguez, J Alvarez
RB51 vaccination can minimise the diagnostic problems associated with S19 vaccination of adult cattle, but its use for bovine brucellosis (BB) control remains controversial. Here, the evolution of BB prevalence in five high prevalence areas in Spain subjected to different control measures is described: herd depopulation of infected herds (I-III) or mass vaccination with RB51 and S19-RB51 vaccination of replacement heifers (IV-V). Annual data from the eradication campaigns were analysed at the special incidence area (SIA) level and the time to obtain herd prevalence levels of <1 per cent ('controlled status') was obtained at the local veterinary unit (LVU) level and compared using Cox's proportional hazard model...
June 21, 2014: Veterinary Record
Fabien Aujoulat, Frédéric Roger, Alice Bourdier, Anne Lotthé, Brigitte Lamy, Hélène Marchandin, Estelle Jumas-Bilak
Environment is recognized as a huge reservoir for bacterial species and a source of human pathogens. Some environmental bacteria have an extraordinary range of activities that include promotion of plant growth or disease, breakdown of pollutants, production of original biomolecules, but also multidrug resistance and human pathogenicity. The versatility of bacterial life-style involves adaptation to various niches. Adaptation to both open environment and human specific niches is a major challenge that involves intermediate organisms allowing pre-adaptation to humans...
2012: Genes
Fabien Aujoulat, Sara Romano-Bertrand, Agnès Masnou, Hélène Marchandin, Estelle Jumas-Bilak
Ochrobactrum intermedium is considered as an emerging human environmental opportunistic pathogen with mild virulence. The distribution of isolates and sequences described in literature and databases showed frequent association with human beings and polluted environments. As population structures are related to bacterial lifestyles, we investigated by multi-locus approach the genetic structure of a population of 65 isolates representative of the known natural distribution of O. intermedium. The population was further surveyed for genome dynamics using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and genomics...
2014: PloS One
Alice R Wattam, Jeffrey T Foster, Shrinivasrao P Mane, Stephen M Beckstrom-Sternberg, James M Beckstrom-Sternberg, Allan W Dickerman, Paul Keim, Talima Pearson, Maulik Shukla, Doyle V Ward, Kelly P Williams, Bruno W Sobral, Renee M Tsolis, Adrian M Whatmore, David O'Callaghan
Brucella species include important zoonotic pathogens that have a substantial impact on both agriculture and human health throughout the world. Brucellae are thought of as "stealth pathogens" that escape recognition by the host innate immune response, modulate the acquired immune response, and evade intracellular destruction. We analyzed the genome sequences of members of the family Brucellaceae to assess its evolutionary history from likely free-living soil-based progenitors into highly successful intracellular pathogens...
March 2014: Journal of Bacteriology
G E Plumb, S C Olsen, D Buttke
Brucellosis is an ancient disease with host-specific evolutionary mechanisms that allow itto hide from or manipulate cellular immunity and achieve intracellular persistence. The disease yields low fatality rates but can cause substantial disabilities. Zoonotic brucellosis remains widespread and neglected in many areas despite notable advances in science, technology, and management in the 19th and 20th Centuries. The burden appears to remain greatest, and yet most under-prioritised globally, amongst pastoral peoples and small-scale livestock farmers...
April 2013: Revue Scientifique et Technique
H C Scholz, G Vergnaud
The genus Brucella (Mayer and Shaw, 1920) currently consists often species with validly published names. Within most species further differentiation into biovars exists. Genetically, all Brucella species are highly related to each other, exhibiting sequence similarity values of 98% to 100% in aligned regions (core genome). The population structure is clonal. Despite this close genetic relatedness, the various species can be clearly distinguished from each other by application of high-resolution molecular typing tools, in addition to assessment of phenotype and host preference...
April 2013: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Alejandra G Díaz, María Clausse, Fernando A Paolicchi, María A Fiorentino, Giselle Ghersi, Vanesa Zylberman, Fernando A Goldbaum, Silvia M Estein
Brucella ovis is the etiologic agent of ovine brucellosis. The control measures for this disease are periodical diagnosis by serological tests and/or bacteriological culture and culling of positive animals. Vaccination with Brucella melitensis Rev 1 is recommended when prevalence is high. This attenuated strain vaccine gives protection against B. ovis but it has important disadvantages associated with the development of antibodies interfering with serodiagnosis, virulence for humans and the prohibition of its use in countries considered free of B...
July 15, 2013: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Miklós Gyuranecz, Brandy D Rannals, Christina A Allen, Szilárd Jánosi, Paul S Keim, Jeffrey T Foster
BACKGROUND: Little is currently known about Brucella evolution within the host during infection. The current study is the first to employ fine-scale genotyping on an isolate collection derived from a Brucella canis outbreak. Eight isolates of B. canis, cultured from different tissues of three dogs (female, stud dog, puppy of another female) from a single kennel over three months were genetically characterized with a 15-marker multi-locus, variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) to assess the genetic relatedness of isolates and potential rapid mutational changes...
2013: BMC Veterinary Research
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