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Arv resistance

Mance E Buttram, Steven P Kurtz
Background: Limited information suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) are informally obtaining antiretroviral medication (ARVs) and using them for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Methods: Data are drawn from an on-going study examining the use of non-prescribed ARVs for PrEP. To date, 24 qualitative interviews have been conducted with HIV-negative, substance-using MSM living in Miami, Florida, USA. Data are presented from two participants who reported HIV seroconversion while using non-prescribed ARVs for PrEP...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
Nirajan Bhusal, Ruengpung Sutthent, Navin Horthongkham, Niracha Athipanyasilp, Wannee Kantakamalakul
BACKGROUND: There have been very few reports of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) from Nepal which is geographically located between two high-prevalence HIV-1 infection countries, China and India. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of acquired and transmitted DRMs and HIV-1 subtypes in Nepal. METHODS: Thirty-five HIV-1 seropositive samples from central region of Nepal were collected in 2011. The subjects were divided into two groups, antiretroviral (ARV) drug naïve group (n=15) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) group (n=20), 90% (18/20) of them received zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (AZT/3TC/NVP) regimen...
October 3, 2016: Current HIV Research
Alejandro de la Sierra, Julia Pareja, Pedro Armario, Ángela Barrera, Sergi Yun, Susana Vázquez, Laia Sans, Julio Pascual, Anna Oliveras
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic renal denervation (SRD) has been proposed as a therapeutic alternative for patients with resistant hypertension not controlled on pharmacological therapy. Two studies have suggested an effect of SRD in reducing short-term blood pressure variability (BPV). However, this has not been addressed in a randomized comparative trial. We aimed to compare the effects of spironolactone and SRD on circadian BP and BPV. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of a randomized trial in 24 true resistant hypertensive patients (15 men, 9 women; mean age 64 years) comparing 50mg of spironolactone (n = 13) vs...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
Dana S Clutter, Michael R Jordan, Silvia Bertagnolio, Robert W Shafer
The global scale-up of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (ART) has led to dramatic reductions in HIV-1 mortality and incidence. However, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a potential threat to the long-term success of ART and is emerging as a threat to the elimination of AIDS as a public health problem by 2030. In this review we describe the genetic mechanisms, epidemiology, and management of HIVDR at both individual and population levels across diverse economic and geographic settings. To describe the genetic mechanisms of HIVDR, we review the genetic barriers to resistance for the most commonly used ARVs and describe the extent of cross-resistance between them...
August 29, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Elizabeth Mills
Based on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa, this article explores the skies that fight, the proverbial lightning strikes that bring HIV into women's lives and bodies. Departing from earlier studies on ARV programmes in and beyond South Africa, and broadening out to explore the chronic struggle for life in a context of entrenched socio-economic inequality, this article presents findings on women's embodiment of and strategic resistance to structural and interpersonal violence. These linked forms of violence are discussed in light of the concept of precarity...
May 2016: Reproductive Health Matters
Machline Paim Paganella, Rachel A Cohen, D Robert Harris, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Rosa Dea Sperhacke, Sergio Kakuta Kato, Carmem Lúcia Oliveira da Silva, Fernanda Tomé Sturzbecher, Ricardo Hugo S Oliveira, Noris Pavía-Ruz, Rohan Hazra
OBJECTIVE(S): To estimate the incidence of lipid and glucose abnormalities and assess their association with exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) regimens among perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Pediatric Latin American Countries Epidemiologic Study (PLACES)...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Tiffany N Grooms, Hung R Vuong, Kevin M Tyo, Danial A Malik, Lee B Sims, Carli P Whittington, Kenneth E Palmer, Nobuyuki Matoba, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
Despite current prophylactic strategies, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain significant contributors to global health challenges, spurring the development of new multipurpose delivery technologies to protect and treat virus infections. However, there are few methods currently available to prevent - and none-to-date that cure - human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or combinations of STIs. While current oral and topical pre-exposure prophylaxis have protected against HIV infection, they have primarily relied on antiretrovirals (ARVs) to inhibit infection...
August 22, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jingbo Qiao, Magdalena M Grabowska, Ingrid S Forestier-Roman, Janni Mirosevich, Thomas C Case, Dai H Chung, Justin M M Cates, Robert J Matusik, H Charles Manning, Renjie Jin
Numerous studies indicate that androgen receptor splice variants (ARVs) play a critical role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), including the resistance to the new generation of inhibitors of androgen receptor (AR) action. Previously, we demonstrated that activation of NF-κB signaling increases ARVs expression in prostate cancer (PC) cells, thereby promoting progression to CRPC. However, it is unclear how NF-κB signaling is activated in CRPC. In this study, we report that long-term treatment with anti-androgens increases a neuroendocrine (NE) hormone - gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) expression in PC cells...
August 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Irene Lostalé-Seijo, José Martínez-Costas, Javier Benavente
UNLABELLED: We have previously shown that the replication of avian reovirus (ARV) in chicken cells is much more resistant to interferon (IFN) than the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) or vaccinia virus (VV). In this study, we have investigated the role that the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays in the sensitivity of these three viruses toward the antiviral action of chicken interferon. Our data suggest that while interferon priming of avian cells blocks vaccinia virus replication by promoting PKR activation, the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus appears to be blocked at a pretranslational step...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Xierong Wei, Amanda J Smith, David W Forrest, Gabriel A Cardenas, Dano W Beck, Marlene LaLota, Lisa R Metsch, Catlainn Sionean, S Michele Owen, Jeffrey A Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of cost-effective dried blood spot (DBS) field sampling for incidence and drug resistance surveillance of persons at high risk for HIV infection. METHODS: We evaluated DBS collected in 2007-2010 in non-clinical settings by finger-stick from HIV-positive heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV infection (n = 124), men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 110), and persons who inject drugs (PWID, n = 58). Relative proportions of recent-infection findings among risk groups were assessed at avidity index (AI) cutoffs of ≤25%, ≤30%, and ≤35%, corresponding to an infection mean duration of recency (MDR) of 220...
2016: PloS One
Gweneth B Lazenby, Okeoma Mmeje, Barbra M Fisher, Adriana Weinberg, Erika K Aaron, Maria Keating, Amneris E Luque, Denise Willers, Deborah Cohan, Deborah Money
Objective. To compare HIV drug resistance in pregnant women with perinatal HIV (PHIV) and those with nonperinatal HIV (NPHIV) infection. Methods. We conducted a multisite cohort study of PHIV and NPHIV women from 2000 to 2014. Sample size was calculated to identify a fourfold increase in antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance in PHIV women. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Categorical variables were compared using χ (2) and Fisher's exact tests. Univariate analysis was used to determine factors associated with antiretroviral drug resistance...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Edson Delatorre, Carlos Silva-de-Jesus, José C Couto-Fernandez, José Henrique Pilotto, Mariza G Morgado
Antiretroviral (ARV) resistance mutations in HIV-1 infection may reduce the efficacy of prophylactic therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and future treatments options. This study evaluated the diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions of HIV-1 pol gene among 87 ARV-naïve HIV-1-infected pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro - Brazil between 2012 and 2015. The viral diversity comprised HIV-1 subtypes B (67.8%), F1 (17...
July 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Yanna Andressa Ramos Lima, Mônica Nogueira Guarda Reis, Ludimila Paula Vaz Cardoso, Mariane Martins Araújo Stefani
OBJECTIVES: To describe socioeconomic and antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance profiles among young pregnant women infected with HIV-1. SETTING: A public health antenatal programme responsible for screening ∼90 000 pregnant women per year for nine different infectious diseases in Central Western Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 96 young pregnant women (15-24 years) infected with HIV-1. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Standard interviews and blood samples were taken at the time of recruitment, at the first medical appointment after confirmation of diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, and before ARV prophylaxis initiation...
2016: BMJ Open
Andrew Mulato, Derek Hansen, Alexander Thielen, Danielle Porter, George Stepan, Kirsten White, Martin Daeumer, Tomas Cihlar, Stephen Yant
Failure of combination antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in HIV-infected patients is often associated with the emergence of drug resistance-associated mutants (RAMs). To facilitate analysis of the barrier to resistance at therapeutically relevant ARV concentrations, we performed fixed-dose in vitro HIV-1 drug resistance selection assays using the immortalized MT-2 T-cell line and primary human CD4+ T cells with a panel of FDA-approved ARVs, each at their respective cell culture equivalent clinical trough concentration (CCE Cmin)...
June 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ian Tietjen, Teresia Gatonye, Barbara N Ngwenya, Amos Namushe, Sundana Simonambanga, Mbaki Muzila, Philip Mwimanzi, Jianbo Xiao, David Fedida, Zabrina L Brumme, Mark A Brockman, Kerstin Andrae-Marobela
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) strains resistant to licensed anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) continue to emerge. On the African continent, uneven access to ARVs combined with occurrence of side-effects after prolonged ARV therapy have led to searches for traditional medicines as alternative or complementary remedies to conventional HIV/AIDS management. AIM OF THE STUDY: Here we characterize a specific three-step traditional HIV/AIDS treatment regimen consisting of Cassia sieberiana root, Vitex doniana root, and Croton megalobotrys bark by combining qualitative interviews of traditional medical knowledge users in Botswana with in vitro HIV replication studies...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Maria Letícia Cruz, Edwiges Santos, Maria de Lourdes Benamor Teixeira, Monica Poletti, Carolina Sousa, Maria Isabel Gouvea, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Esaú João
Our objective was to describe viral suppression and antiretroviral (ARV) resistance mutations in an ongoing cohort of perinatally-infected HIV+ (PHIV+) pregnant women. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0. From 2011 to 2014, we followed 22 PHIV+ pregnant women. Median age at prenatal entry was 19 years (Interquartile range (IQR) 17.6-21.0); 86% had an AIDS diagnosis; 81% had disclosed their HIV status to partner 11. The median age at HIV diagnosis was 8.3 y (IQR 4.0-13.6), the median age at sexual debut was 16 years (IQR 14-18)...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anthony T Podany, Kimberly K Scarsi, Courtney V Fletcher
Dolutegravir (DTG), elvitegravir (EVG) and raltegravir (RAL) are members of the latest class of antiretrovirals (ARVs) that have become available to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). INSTIs are potent inhibitors of the HIV integrase enzyme, with protein binding-adjusted concentration inhibiting viral replication by 90/95 % [IC90/95] values in the low nanogram per millilitre range, and they retain antiviral activity against strains of HIV with acquired resistance to other classes of ARVs...
June 17, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
More Mungati, Mutsa Mhangara, Elizabeth Gonese, Owen Mugurungi, Janet Dzangare, Stella Ngwende, Patience Musasa, Maureen Wellington, Gerald Shambira, Tsitsilina Apollo, Chunfu Yang, Joshua DeVos, Jennifer Sabatier, Peter Kilmarx, Christine Chakanyuka-Musanhu, Mufuta Tshimanga
BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe set up 12 sentinel sites to monitor HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) following the international standards for prevention of HIVDR from 2008 to 2010. METHODS: Participants were consecutively enrolled. Blood was collected and used for CD4 count, viral load (VL) and pre-treatment DR (PDR) tests besides routine baseline tests. We analyzed the characteristics of participants enrolled into the survey and estimated the point prevalence of PDR and its associated factors among ART initiators in a cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data collected from a prospective cohort in 12 purposefully selected sentinel sites...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Kanak Raina, Jing Lu, Yimin Qian, Martha Altieri, Deborah Gordon, Ann Marie K Rossi, Jing Wang, Xin Chen, Hanqing Dong, Kam Siu, James D Winkler, Andrew P Crew, Craig M Crews, Kevin G Coleman
Prostate cancer has the second highest incidence among cancers in men worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths of men in the United States. Although androgen deprivation can initially lead to remission, the disease often progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which is still reliant on androgen receptor (AR) signaling and is associated with a poor prognosis. Some success against CRPC has been achieved by drugs that target AR signaling, but secondary resistance invariably emerges, and new therapies are urgently needed...
June 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mounerou Salou, Christelle Butel, Abla A Konou, Didier K Ekouevi, Nicole Vidal, Sika Dossim, Koko Lawson-Evi, Yawo T Nyasenu, Assetina Singo-Tokofaï, Senyedji d'Almeida, Raïssa Tchama, Eric Delaporte, Mireille Prince-David, Martine Peeters, Anoumou Y Dagnra
BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs have been largely scaled-up, but data on infant HIV drug resistance from PMTCT programs implemented in resource-limited countries are lacking. METHODS: Remnant dried blood spots from HIV-infected children (aged <18 months) tested through the Togo national early infant diagnosis program during 2012 and 2013 were collected and assessed for HIV drug resistance. Pol-RT (reverse transcriptase) region was amplified, sequenced and analyzed for the presence of drug resistance mutations (DRMs)...
August 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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