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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810826/improving-fold-resistance-prediction-of-hiv-1-against-protease-and-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-using-artificial-neural-networks
#1
Olivier Sheik Amamuddy, Nigel T Bishop, Özlem Tastan Bishop
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in HIV treatment is still a worldwide problem. Predicting resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs) before starting any treatment is important. Prediction accuracy is essential, as low-accuracy predictions increase the risk of prescribing sub-optimal drug regimens leading to patients developing resistance sooner. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are a powerful tool that would be able to assist in drug resistance prediction. In this study, we constrained the dataset to subtype B, sacrificing generalizability for a higher predictive performance, and demonstrated that the predictive quality of the ANN regression models have definite improvement for most ARVs...
August 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791972/hcv-co-infection-is-associated-with-metabolic-abnormalities-among-haart-naive-hiv-infected-persons
#2
M A Kuti, J O Akinyemi, B O Ogunbosi, K M Kuti, O A Adesina, O A Awolude, O S Michael, I F Adewole
OBJECTIVES: To determine the metabolic abnormalities among Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) co infected HAART naïve HIV infected persons within the adult ARV clinic of the University College Hospital/University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Methods: This was a retrospective study involving the review of clinical records of newly recruited HIV-infected persons in the adult antiretroviral (ARV) clinic over a 12 month period (January - December 2006). Baseline results for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting lipid profile were retrieved...
July 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753637/collaborative-update-of-a-rule-based-expert-system-for-hiv-1-genotypic-resistance-test-interpretation
#3
Roger Paredes, Philip L Tzou, Gert van Zyl, Geoff Barrow, Ricardo Camacho, Sergio Carmona, Philip M Grant, Ravindra K Gupta, Raph L Hamers, P Richard Harrigan, Michael R Jordan, Rami Kantor, David A Katzenstein, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Frank Maldarelli, Dan Otelea, Carole L Wallis, Jonathan M Schapiro, Robert W Shafer
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. METHODS: An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741965/cost-effectiveness-of-dolutegravir-abacavir-lamivudine-in-hiv-1-treatment-naive-tn-patients-in-france
#4
Gilles Pialoux, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Hélène Cawston, Caroline Guilmet, Laurent Finkielsztejn, Audrey Laurisse, Céline Aubin
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an integrase inhibitor (INI), dolutegravir (DTG), in combination with abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) in France, in treatment-naive (TN) HIV adult patients. METHODS: The ARAMIS microsimulation Markov model, evaluates costs and effects of DTG vs. first-line ARVs options including INIs (raltegravir, elvitegravir/c), protease inhibitors (PIs) (darunavir/r, atazanavir/r, lopinavir/r), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (efavirenz and rilpivirine)...
July 31, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737291/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-reducing-strategies-in-hiv-treatment-assessing-the-evidence
#5
REVIEW
C Orkin, J M Llibre, S Gallien, A Antinori, Gmn Behrens, A Carr
Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, comprising a backbone of two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus another ARV, is the recognized standard of care (SOC), which has helped extend life expectancy in people living with HIV. In a quest to reduce lifelong drug exposure and minimize or avoid the toxicity of NRTIs, "NRTI-reducing" regimens have been investigated. This descriptive review assessing the results of NRTI-reducing strategies from the largest randomized trials focuses on virological efficacy, resistance, regimen safety (in terms of bone mineral density, renal function, lipids and central nervous system function) and simplicity...
July 24, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710808/the-application-of-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modelling-to-assess-the-impact-of-antiretroviral-mediated-drug-drug-interactions-on-piperaquine-antimalarial-therapy-during-pregnancy
#6
Olusola Olafuyi, Michael Coleman, Raj K S Badhan
Antimalarial therapy during pregnancy poses important safety concerns due to potential teratogenicity and maternal physiological and biochemical changes during gestation. Piperaquine (PQ) has gained interest for use in pregnancy in response to increasing resistance towards sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-infection with HIV is common in many developing countries, however, little is known about the impact of anti-retroviral (ARV) mediated drug-drug interaction (DDI) on PQ pharmacokinetics during pregnancy...
July 14, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663582/bet-protein-proteolysis-targeting-chimera-protac-exerts-potent-lethal-activity-against-mantle-cell-lymphoma-cells
#7
B Sun, W Fiskus, Y Qian, K Rajapakshe, K Raina, K G Coleman, A P Crew, A Shen, D T Saenz, C P Mill, A J Nowak, N Jain, L Zhang, M Wang, J D Khoury, C Coarfa, C M Crews, K N Bhalla
Bromodomain extraterminal protein (BETP) inhibitors transcriptionally repress oncoproteins and NFkB target genes, which undermines the growth and survival of MCL cells. However, BETi treatment causes accumulation of BETPs, associated with reversible binding and incomplete inhibition of BRD4, which potentially compromises the activity of BETi in MCL cells. Unlike BETi, BET-PROTACs (proteolysis-targeting chimera) ARV-825 and ARV-771 (Arvinas, Inc.) recruit and utilize an E3-ubiquitin ligase to effectively degrade BETPs in MCL cells...
June 30, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649306/decreasing-prevalence-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-among-art-naive-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-iceland-1996-2012
#8
Malik Sallam, Gülşen Özkaya Şahin, Hlynur Indriðason, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Arthur Löve, Anders Widell, Magnus Gottfreðsson, Patrik Medstrand
Introduction: Resistance to antiretroviral drugs can complicate the management of HIV-1 infection and impair control of its spread. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance among 106 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients diagnosed in Iceland (1996-2012). Methods: HIV-1 polymerase sequences were analysed using the Calibrated Population Resistance tool. Domestic spread of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was investigated through maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627427/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-once-daily-single-tablet-regimen-of-tenofovir-lamivudine-and-efavirenz-assessed-at-144-weeks-among-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-and-experienced-hiv-1-infected-thai-adults
#9
Anchalee Avihingsanon, Wirach Maek-A-Nantawat, Sivaporn Gatechompol, Vorapot Sapsirisavat, Wanida Thiansanguankul, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Narujakorn Thammajaruk, Sasiwimol Ubolyam, David M Burger, Kiat Ruxrungtham
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of a new single-tablet regimen (STR) of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) 300mg, lamivudine (3TC) 300mg, and efavirenz (EFV) 600mg in HIV-infected Thai patients. METHODS: This was a prospective study performed for 144 weeks among 51 treatment-naïve patients and 49 experienced patients on separate tablets of TDF, 3TC, and EFV with HIV RNA<50 copies/ml. CD4, HIV RNA, liver and renal function, and lipid profiles were assessed at baseline, weeks 12, 24, and 48, and then every 24 weeks...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600675/a-novel-capillary-nano-immunoassay-for-assessing-androgen-receptor-splice-variant-7-in-plasma-correlation-with-cd133-antigen-expression-in-circulating-tumor-cells-a-pilot-study-in-prostate-cancer-patients
#10
J L García, R Lozano, I Misiewicz-Krzeminska, J Fernández-Mateos, P Krzeminski, S Alfonso, R A Marcos, R García, F Gómez-Veiga, Á Virseda, M Herrero, D Olmos, J J Cruz-Hernández
PURPOSE: Androgen receptor (AR) splice variant 7 (AR-V7) has been related with both a higher risk of prostate cancer (PC) progression and differential responsiveness to hormonal agents versus chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a novel capillary nano-immunoassay in assessing AR-V7 in plasma from PC patients. METHODS: Patients with either localized or advanced PC were included in the study. Assessment of AR-V7 in plasma was performed through a capillary nano-immunoassay platform...
June 9, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585361/prevalence-of-hiv-1-transmitted-drug-resistance-in-the-incarcerated-population
#11
J Sapozhnikov, J D Young, M Patel, T D Chiampas, P Vaughn, M E Badowski
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR)-associated mutations among treatment-naïve, incarcerated individuals with HIV-1 infection in the USA as well as the class TDR and antiretroviral (ARV) mutations present at baseline. METHODS: Patients over the age of 18 years were included in the study if they had been diagnosed with HIV infection, if their HIV infection was managed through telemedicine and if they were incarcerated in the State of Illinois Department of Corrections between 10 July 2010 and 29 April 2016...
June 6, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560896/bayesian-two-part-bent-cable-tobit-models-with-skew-distributions-application-to-aids-studies
#12
Getachew A Dagne
This paper presents a new development of a bent-cable two-part Tobit model to identify both phasic patterns and mixture of advancing (to AIDS) and non-advancing patients of HIV. In identification of such phasic patterns, estimation of a transition period for the development of drug resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drug or therapy is carried out using longitudinal data that have a gradual change from a declining phase to an increasing phase. In addition to phasic changes, there are also problems of skewness and left-censoring in the response variable because of a lower limit of detection...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537061/dolutegravir-lamivudine-as-initial-therapy-in-hiv-1-infected-arv-naive-patients-48-week-results-of-the-paddle-pilot-antiretroviral-design-with-dolutegravir-lamivudine-study
#13
Pedro Cahn, María José Rolón, María Inés Figueroa, Ana Gun, Patricia Patterson, Omar Sued
INTRODUCTION: A proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate the antiviral efficacy, safety and tolerability of a two-drug regimen with dolutegravir 50 mg once daily (QD) plus lamivudine 300 mg once daily as initial highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among antiretroviral (ARV)-naive patients. METHODS: PADDLE is a pilot study including 20 treatment-naive adults. To be selected, participants had no IAS-USA-defined resistance, HIV-1 RNA ≤100,000 copies/mL at screening and negative HBsAg...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520611/treatment-outcomes-of-third-line-antiretroviral-regimens-in-hiv-infected-thai-adolescents
#14
Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Jurai Wongsawat, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Pope Kosalaraksa, Chaiwat Ngampiyakul, Pakarat Sangkla, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Stephen J Kerr, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Jintanat Ananworanich
BACKGROUND: Efficacy and safety data of third-line antiretroviral (ARV) regimens in adolescents are limited. METHODOLOGY: This study enrolled HIV-infected Thais who were treated with third-line regimens consisting of darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r), etravirine (ETR), tipranavir/ritonavir (TPV/r) or raltegravir (RAL). RESULTS: Fifty-four adolescents 2-17 years of age were enrolled from 8 sites and followed for 48 weeks. Reasons for switch were second-line failure (n=44) and toxicity to second-line regimens (n=10)...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473532/novel-androgen-receptor-coregulator-grhl2-exerts-both-oncogenic-and-antimetastatic-functions-in-prostate-cancer
#15
Steve Paltoglou, Rajdeep Das, Scott L Townley, Theresa E Hickey, Gerard A Tarulli, Isabel Coutinho, Rayzel Fernandes, Adrienne R Hanson, Iza Denis, Jason S Carroll, Scott M Dehm, Ganesh V Raj, Stephen R Plymate, Wayne D Tilley, Luke A Selth
Alteration to the expression and activity of androgen receptor (AR) coregulators in prostate cancer is an important mechanism driving disease progression and therapy resistance. Using a novel proteomic technique, we identified a new AR coregulator, the transcription factor Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2), and demonstrated its essential role in the oncogenic AR signaling axis. GRHL2 colocalized with AR in prostate tumors and was frequently amplified and upregulated in prostate cancer. Importantly, GRHL2 maintained AR expression in multiple prostate cancer model systems, was required for cell proliferation, enhanced AR's transcriptional activity, and colocated with AR at specific sites on chromatin to regulate genes relevant to disease progression...
July 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468637/drug-transporter-mediated-interactions-between-anthelminthic-and-antiretroviral-drugs-across-the-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#16
Gabriel Kigen, Geoffrey Edwards
BACKGROUND: Drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and anthelminthic drugs, ivermectin (IVM) and praziquantel (PZQ) were assessed by investigating their permeation through the Caco-2 cell monolayers in a transwell. The impact of anthelminthics on the transport of ARVs was determined by assessing the apical to basolateral (AP → BL) [passive] and basolateral to apical (BL → AP) [efflux] directions alone, and in presence of an anthelminthic. The reverse was conducted for the assessment of the influence of ARVs on anthelminthics...
May 4, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453240/virological-response-and-resistances-over-12-months-among-hiv-infected-children-less-than-two-years-receiving-first-line-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-cote-d-ivoire-and-burkina-faso-the-monod-anrs-12206-cohort
#17
Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Karen Malateste, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Malik Coulibaly, Sophie Dattez, Arlette Emieme, Mamadou Barry, Christine Rouzioux, Sylvie N'gbeche, Caroline Yonaba, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Véronique Mea, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Stéphane Blanche, Nicolas Meda, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Valériane Leroy
INTRODUCTION: Lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all HIV-infected children less than three years. However, little is known about its field implementation and effectiveness in West Africa. We assessed the 12-month response to lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of West African children treated before the age of two years. METHODS: HIV-1-infected, ART-naive except for a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), tuberculosis-free, and less than two years of age children with parent's consent were enrolled in a 12-month prospective therapeutic cohort with lopinavir/ritonavir ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Ouagadougou and Abidjan...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448537/mapping-of-quantitative-trait-loci-associated-with-resistance-to-net-form-net-blotch-pyrenophora-teres-f-teres-in-a-doubled-haploid-norwegian-barley-population
#18
Ronja Wonneberger, Andrea Ficke, Morten Lillemo
Barley net blotch caused by the necrotrophic fungus Pyrenophora teres is a major barley disease in Norway. It can cause grain shriveling and yield losses, and resistance in currently grown cultivars is insufficient. In this study, a set of 589 polymorphic SNP markers was used to map resistance loci in a population of 109 doubled haploid lines from a cross between the closely related Norwegian cultivars Arve (moderately susceptible) and Lavrans (moderately resistant). Resistance to three net form net blotch (P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438932/evaluation-of-a-multidrug-assay-for-monitoring-adherence-to-a-regimen-for-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-in-a-clinical-study-hiv-prevention-trials-network-073
#19
Yinfeng Zhang, William Clarke, Mark A Marzinke, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Geetha Beauchamp, Autumn Breaud, Craig W Hendrix, Gavin A Cloherty, Lynda Emel, Scott Rose, Lisa Hightow-Weidman, Marc Siegel, Steven Shoptaw, Sheldon D Fields, Darrell Wheeler, Susan H Eshleman
Daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC) is a safe and effective intervention for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We evaluated the performance of a qualitative assay that detects 20 antiretroviral (ARV) drugs (multidrug assay) in assessing recent PrEP exposure (detection limit, 2 to 20 ng/ml). Samples were obtained from 216 Black men who have sex with men (208 HIV-uninfected men and 8 seroconverters) who were enrolled in a study in the United States evaluating the acceptability of TDF-FTC PrEP (165 of the uninfected men and 5 of the seroconverters accepted PrEP)...
July 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422610/joint-bent-cable-tobit-models-for-longitudinal-and-time-to-event-data
#20
Getachew A Dagne
In this article, we show how to estimate a transition period for the evolvement of drug resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drug or other related treatments in the framework of developing a Bayesian method for jointly analyzing time-to-event and longitudinal data. For HIV/AIDS longitudinal data, developmental trajectories of viral loads tend to show a gradual change from a declining trend after initiation of treatment to an increasing trend without an abrupt change. Such characteristics of trajectories are also associated with a time-to-event process...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
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