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Arv resistance

Raj Harjani, Ram Malkani
BACKGROUND: About 10% of the patients had surveillance drug-related mutations for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) in an Indian study. It was also reported that resistance was maximum for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and minimum for PIs. METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional assessment of 21 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals attending a HIV care center in a tertiary care center in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Victoria C Gill, Tarah Lynch, Soheil Ramazani, Hartmut B Krentz
BACKGROUND: Failure to achieve complete viral suppression with antiretroviral drugs (ARV) may lead to uncontrolled HIV replication, ARV resistance, and negative outcomes. Monitoring and reporting of HIV resistance trends is important but problematic. We examined prevalent resistance rates in a HIV population over 20 years and document how rates may appear to vary dramatically based solely on which parameters are utilized. METHODS: We determined the annual use of GART (genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing) from 1995 to 2014 for all patients receiving HIV care in southern Alberta, Canada, and the presence of resistance mutations in those tested...
November 2, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Sui-Yuan Chang, Pi-Han Lin, Chien-Lin Cheng, Mao-Yuan Chen, Hsin-Yun Sun, Szu-Min Hsieh, Wang-Huei Sheng, Yi-Ching Su, Li-Hsin Su, Shu-Fang Chang, Wen-Chun Liu, Chien-Ching Hung, Shan-Chwen Chang
Antiretroviral therapy containing an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) plus two NRTIs has become the recommended treatment for antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients in the updated guidelines. We aimed to determine the prevalence of INSTI-related mutations in Taiwan. Genotypic resistance assays were performed on plasma from ARV-naïve patients (N = 948), ARV-experienced but INSTI-naive patients (N = 359), and raltegravir-experienced patients (N = 63) from 2006 to 2015. Major INSTI mutations were defined according to the IAS-USA list and other substitutions with a Stanford HIVdb score ≧ 10 to at least one INSTI were defined as minor mutations...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ameya R Kirtane, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso
The human immunodeficiency virus has infected millions of people and the epidemic continues to grow rapidly in some parts of the world. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has provided improved treatment and prolonged the life expectancy of patients. Moreover, there is growing interest in using ARVs to protect against new infections. Hence, ARVs have emerged as our primary strategy in combating the virus. Unfortunately, several challenges limit the optimal performance of these drugs. First, ARVs often require life-long use and complex dosing regimens...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mance E Buttram, Steven P Kurtz
Background: Limited information suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) are informally obtaining antiretroviral medication (ARVs) and using them for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Methods: Data are drawn from an on-going study examining the use of non-prescribed ARVs for PrEP. To date, 24 qualitative interviews have been conducted with HIV-negative, substance-using MSM living in Miami, Florida, USA. Data are presented from two participants who reported HIV seroconversion while using non-prescribed ARVs for PrEP...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
Nirajan Bhusal, Ruengpung Sutthent, Navin Horthongkham, Niracha Athipanyasilp, Wannee Kantakamalakul
BACKGROUND: There have been very few reports of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) from Nepal which is geographically located between two high-prevalence HIV-1 infection countries, China and India. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of acquired and transmitted DRMs and HIV-1 subtypes in Nepal. METHODS: Thirty-five HIV-1 seropositive samples from central region of Nepal were collected in 2011. The subjects were divided into two groups, antiretroviral (ARV) drug naïve group (n=15) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) group (n=20), 90% (18/20) of them received zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (AZT/3TC/NVP) regimen...
October 3, 2016: Current HIV Research
Alejandro de la Sierra, Julia Pareja, Pedro Armario, Ángela Barrera, Sergi Yun, Susana Vázquez, Laia Sans, Julio Pascual, Anna Oliveras
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic renal denervation (SRD) has been proposed as a therapeutic alternative for patients with resistant hypertension not controlled on pharmacological therapy. Two studies have suggested an effect of SRD in reducing short-term blood pressure variability (BPV). However, this has not been addressed in a randomized comparative trial. We aimed to compare the effects of spironolactone and SRD on circadian BP and BPV. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of a randomized trial in 24 true resistant hypertensive patients (15 men, 9 women; mean age 64 years) comparing 50mg of spironolactone (n = 13) vs...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
Dana S Clutter, Michael R Jordan, Silvia Bertagnolio, Robert W Shafer
The global scale-up of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (ART) has led to dramatic reductions in HIV-1 mortality and incidence. However, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a potential threat to the long-term success of ART and is emerging as a threat to the elimination of AIDS as a public health problem by 2030. In this review we describe the genetic mechanisms, epidemiology, and management of HIVDR at both individual and population levels across diverse economic and geographic settings. To describe the genetic mechanisms of HIVDR, we review the genetic barriers to resistance for the most commonly used ARVs and describe the extent of cross-resistance between them...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Elizabeth Mills
Based on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa, this article explores the skies that fight, the proverbial lightning strikes that bring HIV into women's lives and bodies. Departing from earlier studies on ARV programmes in and beyond South Africa, and broadening out to explore the chronic struggle for life in a context of entrenched socio-economic inequality, this article presents findings on women's embodiment of and strategic resistance to structural and interpersonal violence. These linked forms of violence are discussed in light of the concept of precarity...
May 2016: Reproductive Health Matters
Machline P Paganella, Rachel A Cohen, Donald R Harris, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Rosa D Sperhacke, Sergio K Kato, Carmem L Oliveira da Silva, Fernanda T Sturzbecher, Ricardo H S Oliveira, Noris Pavía-Ruz, Rohan Hazra
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of lipid and glucose abnormalities and assess their association with exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) regimens among perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Pediatric Latin American Countries Epidemiologic Study...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Tiffany N Grooms, Hung R Vuong, Kevin M Tyo, Danial A Malik, Lee B Sims, Carli P Whittington, Kenneth E Palmer, Nobuyuki Matoba, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
Despite current prophylactic strategies, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain significant contributors to global health challenges, spurring the development of new multipurpose delivery technologies to protect and treat virus infections. However, there are few methods currently available to prevent - and none-to-date that cure - human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or combinations of STIs. While current oral and topical pre-exposure prophylaxis have protected against HIV infection, they have primarily relied on antiretrovirals (ARVs) to inhibit infection...
August 22, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jingbo Qiao, Magdalena M Grabowska, Ingrid S Forestier-Roman, Janni Mirosevich, Thomas C Case, Dai H Chung, Justin M M Cates, Robert J Matusik, H Charles Manning, Renjie Jin
Numerous studies indicate that androgen receptor splice variants (ARVs) play a critical role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), including the resistance to the new generation of inhibitors of androgen receptor (AR) action. Previously, we demonstrated that activation of NF-κB signaling increases ARVs expression in prostate cancer (PC) cells, thereby promoting progression to CRPC. However, it is unclear how NF-κB signaling is activated in CRPC. In this study, we report that long-term treatment with anti-androgens increases a neuroendocrine (NE) hormone - gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) expression in PC cells...
August 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Irene Lostalé-Seijo, José Martínez-Costas, Javier Benavente
UNLABELLED: We have previously shown that the replication of avian reovirus (ARV) in chicken cells is much more resistant to interferon (IFN) than the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) or vaccinia virus (VV). In this study, we have investigated the role that the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays in the sensitivity of these three viruses toward the antiviral action of chicken interferon. Our data suggest that while interferon priming of avian cells blocks vaccinia virus replication by promoting PKR activation, the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus appears to be blocked at a pretranslational step...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Xierong Wei, Amanda J Smith, David W Forrest, Gabriel A Cardenas, Dano W Beck, Marlene LaLota, Lisa R Metsch, Catlainn Sionean, S Michele Owen, Jeffrey A Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of cost-effective dried blood spot (DBS) field sampling for incidence and drug resistance surveillance of persons at high risk for HIV infection. METHODS: We evaluated DBS collected in 2007-2010 in non-clinical settings by finger-stick from HIV-positive heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV infection (n = 124), men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 110), and persons who inject drugs (PWID, n = 58). Relative proportions of recent-infection findings among risk groups were assessed at avidity index (AI) cutoffs of ≤25%, ≤30%, and ≤35%, corresponding to an infection mean duration of recency (MDR) of 220...
2016: PloS One
Gweneth B Lazenby, Okeoma Mmeje, Barbra M Fisher, Adriana Weinberg, Erika K Aaron, Maria Keating, Amneris E Luque, Denise Willers, Deborah Cohan, Deborah Money
Objective. To compare HIV drug resistance in pregnant women with perinatal HIV (PHIV) and those with nonperinatal HIV (NPHIV) infection. Methods. We conducted a multisite cohort study of PHIV and NPHIV women from 2000 to 2014. Sample size was calculated to identify a fourfold increase in antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance in PHIV women. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Categorical variables were compared using χ (2) and Fisher's exact tests. Univariate analysis was used to determine factors associated with antiretroviral drug resistance...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Edson Delatorre, Carlos Silva-de-Jesus, José C Couto-Fernandez, José Henrique Pilotto, Mariza G Morgado
Antiretroviral (ARV) resistance mutations in HIV-1 infection may reduce the efficacy of prophylactic therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and future treatments options. This study evaluated the diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions of HIV-1 pol gene among 87 ARV-naïve HIV-1-infected pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro - Brazil between 2012 and 2015. The viral diversity comprised HIV-1 subtypes B (67.8%), F1 (17...
July 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Yanna Andressa Ramos Lima, Mônica Nogueira Guarda Reis, Ludimila Paula Vaz Cardoso, Mariane Martins Araújo Stefani
OBJECTIVES: To describe socioeconomic and antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance profiles among young pregnant women infected with HIV-1. SETTING: A public health antenatal programme responsible for screening ∼90 000 pregnant women per year for nine different infectious diseases in Central Western Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 96 young pregnant women (15-24 years) infected with HIV-1. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Standard interviews and blood samples were taken at the time of recruitment, at the first medical appointment after confirmation of diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, and before ARV prophylaxis initiation...
2016: BMJ Open
Andrew Mulato, Derek Hansen, Alexander Thielen, Danielle Porter, George Stepan, Kirsten White, Martin Daeumer, Tomas Cihlar, Stephen Yant
Failure of combination antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in HIV-infected patients is often associated with the emergence of drug resistance-associated mutants (RAMs). To facilitate analysis of the barrier to resistance at therapeutically relevant ARV concentrations, we performed fixed-dose in vitro HIV-1 drug resistance selection assays using the immortalized MT-2 T-cell line and primary human CD4+ T cells with a panel of FDA-approved ARVs, each at their respective cell culture equivalent clinical trough concentration (CCE Cmin)...
June 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ian Tietjen, Teresia Gatonye, Barbara N Ngwenya, Amos Namushe, Sundana Simonambanga, Mbaki Muzila, Philip Mwimanzi, Jianbo Xiao, David Fedida, Zabrina L Brumme, Mark A Brockman, Kerstin Andrae-Marobela
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) strains resistant to licensed anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) continue to emerge. On the African continent, uneven access to ARVs combined with occurrence of side-effects after prolonged ARV therapy have led to searches for traditional medicines as alternative or complementary remedies to conventional HIV/AIDS management. AIM OF THE STUDY: Here we characterize a specific three-step traditional HIV/AIDS treatment regimen consisting of Cassia sieberiana root, Vitex doniana root, and Croton megalobotrys bark by combining qualitative interviews of traditional medical knowledge users in Botswana with in vitro HIV replication studies...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Maria Letícia Cruz, Edwiges Santos, Maria de Lourdes Benamor Teixeira, Monica Poletti, Carolina Sousa, Maria Isabel Gouvea, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Esaú João
Our objective was to describe viral suppression and antiretroviral (ARV) resistance mutations in an ongoing cohort of perinatally-infected HIV+ (PHIV+) pregnant women. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0. From 2011 to 2014, we followed 22 PHIV+ pregnant women. Median age at prenatal entry was 19 years (Interquartile range (IQR) 17.6-21.0); 86% had an AIDS diagnosis; 81% had disclosed their HIV status to partner 11. The median age at HIV diagnosis was 8.3 y (IQR 4.0-13.6), the median age at sexual debut was 16 years (IQR 14-18)...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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