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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114500/analysis-of-energy-restriction-and-physical-activity-on-brain-function-the-role-of-ketone-body-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#1
REVIEW
Chan Ho Park, Yi-Sub Kwak
Brain development is a complex process, and stimuli during this development period may modulate the functional maturation of the brain. It has been shown that environmental stimuli, such as physical activity habits, have a beneficial effect on brain development. Endurance exercise and prolonged fasting state are known to improve brain function including cognition. The exact mechanisms of exercise improving brain function are still unknown. However, it can be considered that energy restriction and stressful challenge induced by long-lasting physical exercise might cause direct effect on brain function...
August 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104678/influence-of-gender-and-age-on-average-dimensions-of-arteries-forming-the-circle-of-willis-study-by-magnetic-resonance-angiography-on-kosovo-s-population
#2
Jeton Shatri, Dorentina Bexheti, Sadi Bexheti, Serbeze Kabashi, Shaip Krasniqi, Ilir Ahmetgjekaj, Valbona Zhjeqi
BACKGROUND: Circulus arteriosus cerebri is the main source of blood supply to the brain; it connects the left and right hemispheres with anterior and posterior parts. Located at the interpenducular fossa at the base of the brain the circle of Willis is the most important source of collateral circulation in the presence of the disease in the carotid or vertebral artery. AIM: The purpose of the research is to study the diameter and length of arteries and provide an important source of reference on Kosovo's population...
October 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101079/graph-theoretical-framework-of-brain-networks-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review-of-concepts
#3
Vinzenz Fleischer, Angela Radetz, Dumitru Ciolac, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Frauke Zipp, Sergiu Groppa
Network science provides powerful access to essential organizational principles of the human brain. It has been applied in combination with graph theory to characterize brain connectivity patterns. In multiple sclerosis (MS), analysis of the brain networks derived from either structural or functional imaging provides new insights into pathological processes within the gray and white matter. Beyond focal lesions and diffuse tissue damage, network connectivity patterns could be important for closely tracking and predicting the disease course...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065406/midsagittal-brain-variation-among-non-human-primates-insights-into-evolutionary-expansion-of-the-human-precuneus
#4
Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, James K Rilling, Xu Chen, Todd M Preuss, Emiliano Bruner
The precuneus is a major element of the superior parietal lobule, positioned on the medial side of the hemisphere and reaching the dorsal surface of the brain. It is a crucial functional region for visuospatial integration, visual imagery, and body coordination. Previously, we argued that the precuneus expanded in recent human evolution, based on a combination of paleontological, comparative, and intraspecific evidence from fossil and modern human endocasts as well as from human and chimpanzee brains. The longitudinal proportions of this region are a major source of anatomical variation among adult humans and, being much larger in Homo sapiens, is the main characteristic differentiating human midsagittal brain morphology from that of our closest living primate relative, the chimpanzee...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060545/stroke-lesion-location-influences-the-decoding-of-movement-intention-from-eeg
#5
Eduardo Lopez-Larraz, Andreas M Ray, Thiago C Figueiredo, Carlos Bibian, Niels Birbaumer, Ander Ramos-Murguialday
Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of brain-machine interfaces (BMI) for motor rehabilitation after stroke, especially for those patients with severe paralysis. However, a cerebro-vascular accident can affect the brain in many different manners, and lesions in diverse areas, even from significantly different volumes, can lead to similar or equal motor deficits. The location of the insult influences the way the brain activates when moving or attempting to move a paralyzed limb. Since the essence of a rehabilitative BMI is to precisely decode motor commands from the brain, it is crucial to characterize how lesion location affects the measured signals and if and how it influences BMI performance...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049379/mathematical-model-of-early-reelin-induced-src-family-kinase-mediated-signaling
#6
Helge Hass, Friederike Kipkeew, Aziz Gauhar, Elisabeth Bouché, Petra May, Jens Timmer, Hans H Bock
Reelin is a large glycoprotein with a dual role in the mammalian brain. It regulates the positioning and differentiation of postmitotic neurons during brain development and modulates neurotransmission and memory formation in the adult brain. Alterations in the Reelin signaling pathway have been described in different psychiatric disorders. Reelin mainly signals by binding to the lipoprotein receptors Vldlr and ApoER2, which induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Dab1 mediated by Src family kinases (SFKs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049003/-tau-immunotherapy-hopes-and-hindrances
#7
Koorosh Shahpasand, Alireza Sepehri Shamloo, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Xiao Zhen Zhou, Kun Ping Lu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder having two major pathological hallmarks: the extracellular senile plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed of amyloid beta protein and hyperphosphorylated tau respectively. Removal of protein deposits from AD brains are the newer attempts for treating AD. The major developments in this direction have been the amyloid and tau based therapeutics. While senile plaque removal employing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) restore brain function in mouse models of AD, tau has been recently introduced as the major neurodegenerative factor mediating neural cell death...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047261/deciphering-the-genes-for-taste-receptors-for-fructose-in-drosophila
#8
Shun Uchizono, Taichi Q Itoh, Haein Kim, Naoki Hamada, Jae Young Kwon, Teiichi Tanimura
Taste sensitivity to sugars plays an essential role in the initiation of feeding behavior. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified several gustatory receptor (Gr) genes required for sensing sweet compounds. However, it is as yet undetermined how these GRs function as taste receptors tuned to a wide range of sugars. Among sugars, fructose has been suggested to be detected by a distinct receptor from other sugars. While GR43A has been reported to sense fructose in the brain, it is not expressed in labellar gustatory receptor neurons that show taste response to fructose...
October 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031577/structural-biology-of-gabab-receptor
#9
REVIEW
Aurel Frangaj, Qing R Fan
Metabotropic GABAB receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates slow and prolonged inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. It functions as a constitutive heterodimer composed of the GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits. Each subunit contains three domains; the extracellular Venus flytrap module, seven-helix transmembrane region and cytoplasmic tail. In recent years, the three-dimensional structures of GABAB receptor extracellular and intracellular domains have been elucidated. These structures reveal the molecular basis of ligand recognition, receptor heterodimerization and receptor activation...
October 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021994/stereotaxic-adeno-associated-virus-injection-and-cannula-implantation-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-of-mice
#10
Patrícia A Correia, Sara Matias, Zachary F Mainen
Optogenetic methods are now widespread in neuroscience research. Here we present a detailed surgical procedure to inject adeno-associated viruses and implant optic fiber cannulas in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of living mice. Combined with transgenic mouse lines, this protocol allows specific targeting of serotonin-producing neurons in the brain. It includes fixing a mouse in a stereotaxic frame, performing a craniotomy, virus injection and fiber implantation. Animals can be later used in behavioral experiments, combined with optogenetic manipulations (Dugué et al...
September 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979238/n-acetylaspartate-metabolism-outside-the-brain-lipogenesis-histone-acetylation-and-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Juliane G Bogner-Strauss
N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is a highly abundant brain metabolite. Aberrant NAA concentrations have been detected in many pathological conditions and although the function of NAA has been extensively investigated in the brain it is still controversial. Only recently, a role of NAA has been reported outside the brain. In brown adipocytes, which show high expression of the NAA-producing and the NAA-cleaving enzyme, the metabolism of NAA has been implicated in lipid synthesis and histone acetylation. Increased expression of N-acetyltransferase 8-like (Nat8l, the gene encoding the NAA synthesizing enzyme) induces de novo lipogenesis and the brown adipocyte phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978666/aqp4e-based-orthogonal-arrays-regulate-rapid-cell-volume-changes-in-astrocytes
#12
Marjeta Lisjak, Maja Potokar, Boštjan Rituper, Jernej Jorgačevski, Robert Zorec
Water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) plays a key role in the regulation of water homeostasis in the brain. It is predominantly expressed in astrocytes at the blood-brain and blood-liquor interfaces. Although several AQP4 isoforms have been identified in the mammalian brain, two, AQP4a (M1) and AQP4c (M23), have been confirmed to cluster into plasma membrane supramolecular structures, termed orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) and to enhance water transport through the plasma membrane. However, the role of the newly described water-conductive mammalian isoform AQP4e is unknown...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976233/a-review-of-drug-therapy-for-sporadic-fatal-insomnia
#13
Pardis Tabaee Damavandi, Martin T Dove, Richard W Pickersgill
BACKGROUND: Sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI) is a rapid progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by gradual to perpetual insomnia, followed by dysautonomia, coma and death. (1) The cause of sFI was recently mapped to a mutation in a protein, the prion, found in the human brain. It is the unfolding of the prion that leads to the generation of toxic oligomers that destroy brain tissue and function. Recent studies have confirmed that a methionine mutation at codon 129 of the human Prion is characteristic of sFI...
September 3, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968785/the-genetic-contributions-to-maturational-coupling-in-the-human-cerebrum-a-longitudinal-pediatric-twin-imaging-study
#14
J Eric Schmitt, Jay N Giedd, Armin Raznahan, Michael C Neale
Although prior studies have demonstrated that genetic factors play the dominant role in the patterning of the pediatric brain, it remains unclear how these patterns change over time. Using 1748 longitudinal anatomic MRI scans from 792 healthy twins and siblings, we quantified how genetically mediated inter-regional associations change over time via multivariate longitudinal structural equation modeling. These analyses found that genetic correlations for both lobar volumes and cortical thickness are dynamic, with relatively static effects on surface area...
August 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966597/intelligence-and-brain-efficiency-investigating-the-association-between-working-memory-performance-glutamate-and-gaba
#15
Anouk Marsman, René C W Mandl, Dennis W J Klomp, Wiepke Cahn, René S Kahn, Peter R Luijten, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol
Intelligence is a measure of general cognitive functioning capturing a wide variety of different cognitive functions. It has been hypothesized that the brain works to minimize the resources allocated toward higher cognitive functioning. Thus, for the intelligent brain, it may be that not simply more is better, but rather, more efficient is better. Energy metabolism supports both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission processes. Indeed, in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, the primary energetic costs are associated with neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932982/cerebral-fat-embolism-recognition-complications-and-prognosis
#16
Daniel Agustín Godoy, Mario Di Napoli, Alejandro A Rabinstein
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a rare syndrome caused by embolization of fat particles into multiple organs including the brain. It typically manifests with petechial rash, deteriorating mental status, and progressive respiratory insufficiency, usually occurring within 24-48 h of trauma with long-bone fractures or an orthopedic surgery. The diagnosis of FES is based on clinical and imaging findings, but requires exclusion of alternative diagnoses. Although there is no specific treatment for FES, prompt recognition is important because it can avoid unnecessary interventions and clarify prognosis...
September 20, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923480/impact-of-morphine-on-the-expression-of-insulin-receptor-and-protein-levels-of-insulin-igfs-in-rat-neural-stem-cells
#17
Sadegh Salarinasab, AliReza Nourazarian, Masoud Nikanfar, Nima Abdyazdani, Masoumeh Kazemi, Navid Feizy, Reza Rahbarghazi
Alzheimer's disease is correlated with neuronal degeneration and loss of neuronal precursors in different parts of the brain. It has been found disturbance in the homeostasis neural stem cells (NSCs) can cause neurodegeneration. Morphine, an analgesic agent, can disrupt the dynamic and normal state of NSCs. However, more investigations are required to clearly address underlying mechanisms. The current experiment aimed to investigate the effects of morphine on the cell distribution of insulin factor and receptor and insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) in NSCs...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913708/emergency-neurological-life-support-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#18
J Claude Hemphill, Arthur Lam
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subset of stroke due to spontaneous bleeding within the parenchyma of the brain. It is potentially lethal, and survival depends on ensuring an adequate airway, proper diagnosis, and early management of several specific issues such as blood pressure, coagulopathy reversal, and surgical hematoma evacuation for appropriate patients. ICH was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) protocol because intervention within the first hours may improve outcome, and it is critical to have site-specific protocols to drive care quickly and efficiently...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912642/nox-inhibitors-a-promising-avenue-for-ischemic-stroke
#19
REVIEW
Jong Youl Kim, Joohyun Park, Jong Eun Lee, Midori A Yenari
NADPH-oxidase (NOX) mediated superoxide originally found on leukocytes, but now recognized in several types of cells in the brain. It has been shown to play an important role in the progression of stroke and related cerebrovascular disease. NOX is a multisubunit complex consisting of 2 membrane-associated and 4 cytosolic subunits. NOX activation occurs when cytosolic subunits translocate to the membrane, leading to transport electrons to oxygen, thus producing superoxide. Superoxide produced by NOX is thought to function in long-term potentiation and intercellular signaling, but excessive production is damaging and has been implicated to play an important role in the progression of ischemic brain...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912640/spike-frequency-adaptation-in-neurons-of-the-central-nervous-system
#20
REVIEW
Go Eun Ha, Eunji Cheong
Neuronal firing patterns and frequencies determine the nature of encoded information of the neurons. Here we discuss the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels such as BKCa and SKCa channels have long been known to be important mediators of spike adaptation via generation of a large afterhyperpolarization when neurons are hyper-activated. However, it has been shown that a strong hyperpolarization via these KCa channels would cease action potential generation rather than reducing the frequency of spike generation...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
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