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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913708/emergency-neurological-life-support-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#1
J Claude Hemphill, Arthur Lam
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subset of stroke due to spontaneous bleeding within the parenchyma of the brain. It is potentially lethal, and survival depends on ensuring an adequate airway, proper diagnosis, and early management of several specific issues such as blood pressure, coagulopathy reversal, and surgical hematoma evacuation for appropriate patients. ICH was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) protocol because intervention within the first hours may improve outcome, and it is critical to have site-specific protocols to drive care quickly and efficiently...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912642/nox-inhibitors-a-promising-avenue-for-ischemic-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Jong Youl Kim, Joohyun Park, Jong Eun Lee, Midori A Yenari
NADPH-oxidase (NOX) mediated superoxide originally found on leukocytes, but now recognized in several types of cells in the brain. It has been shown to play an important role in the progression of stroke and related cerebrovascular disease. NOX is a multisubunit complex consisting of 2 membrane-associated and 4 cytosolic subunits. NOX activation occurs when cytosolic subunits translocate to the membrane, leading to transport electrons to oxygen, thus producing superoxide. Superoxide produced by NOX is thought to function in long-term potentiation and intercellular signaling, but excessive production is damaging and has been implicated to play an important role in the progression of ischemic brain...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912640/spike-frequency-adaptation-in-neurons-of-the-central-nervous-system
#3
REVIEW
Go Eun Ha, Eunji Cheong
Neuronal firing patterns and frequencies determine the nature of encoded information of the neurons. Here we discuss the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels such as BKCa and SKCa channels have long been known to be important mediators of spike adaptation via generation of a large afterhyperpolarization when neurons are hyper-activated. However, it has been shown that a strong hyperpolarization via these KCa channels would cease action potential generation rather than reducing the frequency of spike generation...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898302/-belief-system-regarding-cannabis-its-use-and-consequences-users-versus-non-users-in-colombian-university-students
#4
Gonzalo Galván, Álvaro Sánchez-Carballo, Ileana Gómez-Morales, Oscar Humánez-Julio, Manuel Guerrero-Martelo, Francisco Vásquez De la Hoz
Descriptive and comparative study of cross-sectional that had as objective to evaluate and compare the beliefs about cannabis, its use and potential consequences between two groups of Colombian university students, matched by gender and age. The frst group consisted of ordinary consumers of cannabis (n=35) the second group consisted of students that have never tried cannabis (n=35). The results showed that the group of consumers presents a moderate risk of abuse and only the 20% fulflled dependence criteria...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894304/quantification-of-brain-cholinergic-denervation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-using-pet-imaging-with-18-f-feobv
#5
M Aghourian, C Legault-Denis, J-P Soucy, P Rosa-Neto, S Gauthier, A Kostikov, P Gravel, M-A Bédard
(18)F-fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol (FEOBV) is a new PET radiotracer that binds to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. In both animals and healthy humans, FEOBV was found sensitive and reliable to characterize presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals in the brain. It has been used here for we believe the first time in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to quantify brain cholinergic losses. The sample included 12 participants evenly divided in healthy subjects and patients with AD, all assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) cognitive scales...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875233/glutamate-dependent-translational-control-of-glutamine-synthetase-in-bergmann-glia-cells
#6
Reynaldo Tiburcio-Félix, Miguel Escalante-López, Bruno López-Bayghen, Daniel Martínez, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Samuel Zinker, Dinorah Hernández-Melchor, Esther López-Bayghen, Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter of the vertebrate brain. It exerts its actions through the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors expressed both in neurons and in glial cells. Recent evidence has shown that glutamate uptake systems, particularly enriched in glia cells, trigger biochemical cascades in a similar fashion as receptors. A tight regulation of glutamate extracellular levels prevents neuronal overstimulation and cell death, and it is critically involved in glutamate turnover...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865022/drebrin-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Yuta Ishizuka, Kenji Hanamura
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by severe progressive memory and cognitive impairment. The brain of AD patients has an abundance of two abnormal structures, amyloid plaques (senile plaques) and neurofibrillary tangles. In addition, drebrin loss is another hallmark of AD brains, which is a common feature in the brain of both AD patients and AD mouse models. Strong evidence from human genetics and transgenic mouse models has indicated that amyloid β (Aβ) is part of the etiology and pathogenesis of AD...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862769/histamine-and-migraine
#8
Hsiangkuo Yuan, Stephen D Silberstein
BACKGROUND: Histamine is an ancient "tissue amine" preceding multicellular organisms. In the central nervous system (CNS), its fibers originate solely from the tuberomammillary nucleus and travel throughout the brain. It is mainly responsible for wakefulness, energy homeostasis, and memory consolidation. Recently, several studies suggest a potential role of histamine in migraine pathogenesis and management. METHODS: Narrative review of current literature regarding histamine and migraine...
September 1, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834867/cortical-blindness-and-not-optic-neuritis-as-a-cause-of-vision-loss-in-a-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-ss-patient-with-the-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-challenges-of-ascribing-demyelinating-syndromes-to-ss-a-case-report
#9
Aliya Lalji, Izlem Izbudak, Julius Birnbaum
RATIONALE: The conception that multiple sclerosis may be challenging to distinguish from demyelinating manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) was introduced more than 30 years ago. However, it is now recognized that the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) may occur more frequently in SS as opposed to multiple sclerosis. Characteristic NMOSD features can include severe attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis which is frequently longitudinally-extensive (spanning at least three vertebral segments on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), and an association with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805558/oxytocin-modulates-expression-of-neuron-and-glial-markers-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#10
T Havránek, Z Lešťanová, B Mravec, V Štrbák, J Bakoš, Z Bačová
Neuropeptides including oxytocin belong to the group of factors that may play a role in the control of neuronal cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential contribution of oxytocin to neuronal differentiation by measuring gene and protein expression of specific neuron and glial markers in the brain. Neonatal and adult oxytocin administration was used to reveal developmental and/or acute effects of oxytocin in Wistar rats. Gene and protein expression of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in the hippocampus was increased in 21-day and 2-month old rats in response to neonatal oxytocin administration...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794972/fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-falff-in-post-stroke-depression
#11
Natalia Egorova, Michele Veldsman, Toby Cumming, Amy Brodtmann
Depression is a common outcome following stroke, associated with reduced quality of life and poorer recovery. Despite attempts to associate depression symptoms with specific lesion sites, the neural basis of post-stroke depression remains poorly understood. Resting state fMRI has provided new insights into the neural underpinnings of post-stroke depression, but has been limited to connectivity analyses exploring interregional correlations in the time-course of activity. Other aspects of resting state BOLD signal remain unexamined...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791958/the-%C3%AE-7-nach-nicotinic-receptor-and-its-role-in-memory-and-selected-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#12
REVIEW
Urszula Baranowska, Róża Julia Wiśniewska
α7-nACh is one of the major nicotinic cholinergic receptor subtypes found in the brain. It is broadly expressed in the hippocampal and cortical neurons, the regions which play a key role in memory formation. Although α7-nACh receptors may serve as postsynaptic receptors mediating classical neurotransmission, they usually function as presynaptic modulators responsible for the release of other neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, and norepinephrine. They can, therefore, affect a wide array of neurobiological functions...
July 30, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782443/cerebral-a%C3%AE-40-and-systemic-hypertension
#13
Hannah M Tayler, Jennifer C Palmer, Taya L Thomas, Patrick G Kehoe, Julian Fr Paton, Seth Love
Mid-life hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion may be preclinical abnormalities in people who later develop Alzheimer's disease. Although accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease and is associated with upregulation of the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 within the brain, it is unclear how this affects systemic arterial pressure. We have investigated whether infusion of Aβ40 into ventricular cerebrospinal fluid modulates blood pressure in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775328/inhibition-of-glutamate-decarboxylase-gad-by-ethyl-ketopentenoate-ekp-induces-treatment-resistant-epileptic-seizures-in-zebrafish
#14
Yifan Zhang, Michiel Vanmeert, Aleksandra Siekierska, Annelii Ny, Jubi John, Geert Callewaert, Eveline Lescrinier, Wim Dehaen, Peter A M de Witte, Rafal M Kaminski
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures due to abnormal, excessive and synchronous neuronal activities in the brain. It affects approximately 65 million people worldwide, one third of which are still estimated to suffer from refractory seizures. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) that converts glutamate into GABA is a key enzyme in the dynamic regulation of neural network excitability. Importantly, clinical evidence shows that lowered GAD activity is associated with several forms of epilepsy which are often treatment resistant...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764932/adeno-associated-viral-serotypes-differentially-transduce-inhibitory-neurons-within-the-rat-amygdala
#15
C A de Solis, M P Hosek, R Holehonnur, A Ho, A Banerjee, J A Luong, L E Jones, D Chaturvedi, J E Ploski
Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are frequently used to make localized genetic manipulations within the rodent brain. It is accepted that the different viral serotypes possess differing affinities for particular cell types, but it is not clear how these properties affect their ability to transduce specific neuronal cell sub-types. Here, we examined ten AAV serotypes for their ability to transduce neurons within the rat basal and lateral nuclei of the amygdala (BLA) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA)...
July 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757413/restoration-of-mir-30a-expression-inhibits-growth-tumorigenicity-of-medulloblastoma-cells-accompanied-by-autophagy-inhibition
#16
Satishkumar Vishram Singh, Aditi Nigam Dakhole, Akash Deogharkar, Sadaf Kazi, Rohan Kshirsagar, Atul Goel, Aliasgar Moiyadi, Rakesh Jalali, Epari Sridhar, Tejpal Gupta, Prakash Shetty, Nikhil Gadewal, Neelam Vishwanath Shirsat
Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant pediatric brain tumor. About 30% patients have metastasis at diagnosis and respond poorly to treatment. Those that survive, suffer long term neurocognitive, endocrine and developmental defects due to the cytotoxic treatment to developing child brain. It is therefore necessary to develop targeted treatment strategies based on underlying biology for effective treatment of medulloblastoma with minimal side effects. Medulloblastomas are believed to be the result of deregulated nervous system development as evident from the role of WNT and SHH developmental signaling pathways in pathogenesis of medulloblastomas...
July 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752347/-prolonged-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-after-haloperidol-injection
#17
N Wystub, S Heymel, M Fritzenwanger, P C Schulze, R Pfeifer
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare disorder caused by drug-induced dopamine-receptor-blockage or low dopamine concentration in the brain. It is a severe reaction to neuroleptic drugs in antipsychotic therapy. Symptoms in NMS typically consist of fever, muscle rigidity and cognitive changes; laboratory findings include elevated infectious disease markers and creatine kinase as well as signs of rhabdomyolysis. To differentiate NMS from other malignant hyperthermia syndromes identifying the offending drug and clinical history are essential...
July 27, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743011/posterior-parietal-cortex
#18
Jonathan R Whitlock
The posterior parietal cortex, along with temporal and prefrontal cortices, is one of the three major associative regions in the cortex of the mammalian brain. It is situated between the visual cortex at the caudal pole of the brain and the somatosensory cortex just behind the central sulcus. Technically, any cortex covered by the parietal bone is referred to as 'parietal cortex', but the posterior sector, formally referred to as posterior parietal cortex, is indeed its own functional section of cortex, consisting of Brodmann's areas 5, 7, 39, and 40 in humans, areas 5 and 7 in macaques, and area 7 in rodents (Figure 1)...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736149/methylmercury-augments-nrf2-activity-by-downregulation-of-the-src-family-kinase-fyn
#19
Megan Culbreth, Ziyan Zhang, Michael Aschner
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent developmental neurotoxicant that induces an oxidative stress response in the brain. It has been demonstrated that MeHg exposure increases nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that translocates to the nucleus in response to oxidative stress, and upregulates phase II detoxifying enzymes. Although, Nrf2 activity is augmented subsequent to MeHg exposure, it has yet to be established whether Nrf2 moves into the nucleus as a result...
July 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734765/ampakines-and-morphine-provide-complementary-analgesia
#20
Yongjun Sun, Kevin Liu, Erik Martinez, Jahrane Dale, Dong Huang, Jing Wang
Glutamate signaling in the central nervous system is known to play a key role in pain regulation. AMPAkines can enhance glutamate signaling through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. previous studies have shown that AMPAkines are effective analgesic agents, and their site of action is likely in the brain. It is not known, however, if AMPAkines can provide complementary analgesia in combination with opioids, the most commonly used analgesics. Here, we show that the co-administration of an AMPAkine with morphine can provide additional analgesia, both in naïve rats and in rats that experience postoperative pain...
July 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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