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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805558/oxytocin-modulates-expression-of-neuron-and-glial-markers-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#1
T Havránek, Z Lešťanová, B Mravec, V Štrbák, J Bakoš, Z Bačová
Neuropeptides including oxytocin belong to the group of factors that may play a role in the control of neuronal cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential contribution of oxytocin to neuronal differentiation by measuring gene and protein expression of specific neuron and glial markers in the brain. Neonatal and adult oxytocin administration was used to reveal developmental and/or acute effects of oxytocin in Wistar rats. Gene and protein expression of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in the hippocampus was increased in 21-day and 2-month old rats in response to neonatal oxytocin administration...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794972/fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-falff-in-post-stroke-depression
#2
Natalia Egorova, Michele Veldsman, Toby Cumming, Amy Brodtmann
Depression is a common outcome following stroke, associated with reduced quality of life and poorer recovery. Despite attempts to associate depression symptoms with specific lesion sites, the neural basis of post-stroke depression remains poorly understood. Resting state fMRI has provided new insights into the neural underpinnings of post-stroke depression, but has been limited to connectivity analyses exploring interregional correlations in the time-course of activity. Other aspects of resting state BOLD signal remain unexamined...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782443/cerebral-a%C3%AE-40-and-systemic-hypertension
#3
Hannah M Tayler, Jennifer C Palmer, Taya L Thomas, Patrick G Kehoe, Julian Fr Paton, Seth Love
Mid-life hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion may be preclinical abnormalities in people who later develop Alzheimer's disease. Although accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease and is associated with upregulation of the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 within the brain, it is unclear how this affects systemic arterial pressure. We have investigated whether infusion of Aβ40 into ventricular cerebrospinal fluid modulates blood pressure in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775328/inhibition-of-glutamate-decarboxylase-gad-by-ethyl-ketopentenoate-ekp-induces-treatment-resistant-epileptic-seizures-in-zebrafish
#4
Yifan Zhang, Michiel Vanmeert, Aleksandra Siekierska, Annelii Ny, Jubi John, Geert Callewaert, Eveline Lescrinier, Wim Dehaen, Peter A M de Witte, Rafal M Kaminski
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures due to abnormal, excessive and synchronous neuronal activities in the brain. It affects approximately 65 million people worldwide, one third of which are still estimated to suffer from refractory seizures. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) that converts glutamate into GABA is a key enzyme in the dynamic regulation of neural network excitability. Importantly, clinical evidence shows that lowered GAD activity is associated with several forms of epilepsy which are often treatment resistant...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764932/adeno-associated-viral-serotypes-differentially-transduce-inhibitory-neurons-within-the-rat-amygdala
#5
C A de Solis, M P Hosek, R Holehonnur, A Ho, A Banerjee, J A Luong, L E Jones, D Chaturvedi, J E Ploski
Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are frequently used to make localized genetic manipulations within the rodent brain. It is accepted that the different viral serotypes possess differing affinities for particular cell types, but it is not clear how these properties affect their ability to transduce specific neuronal cell sub-types. Here, we examined ten AAV serotypes for their ability to transduce neurons within the rat basal and lateral nuclei of the amygdala (BLA) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA)...
July 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757413/restoration-of-mir-30a-expression-inhibits-growth-tumorigenicity-of-medulloblastoma-cells-accompanied-by-autophagy-inhibition
#6
Satishkumar Vishram Singh, Aditi Nigam Dakhole, Akash Deogharkar, Sadaf Kazi, Rohan Kshirsagar, Atul Goel, Aliasgar Moiyadi, Rakesh Jalali, Epari Sridhar, Tejpal Gupta, Prakash Shetty, Nikhil Gadewal, Neelam Vishwanath Shirsat
Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant pediatric brain tumor. About 30% patients have metastasis at diagnosis and respond poorly to treatment. Those that survive, suffer long term neurocognitive, endocrine and developmental defects due to the cytotoxic treatment to developing child brain. It is therefore necessary to develop targeted treatment strategies based on underlying biology for effective treatment of medulloblastoma with minimal side effects. Medulloblastomas are believed to be the result of deregulated nervous system development as evident from the role of WNT and SHH developmental signaling pathways in pathogenesis of medulloblastomas...
July 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752347/-prolonged-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-after-haloperidol-injection
#7
N Wystub, S Heymel, M Fritzenwanger, P C Schulze, R Pfeifer
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare disorder caused by drug-induced dopamine-receptor-blockage or low dopamine concentration in the brain. It is a severe reaction to neuroleptic drugs in antipsychotic therapy. Symptoms in NMS typically consist of fever, muscle rigidity and cognitive changes; laboratory findings include elevated infectious disease markers and creatine kinase as well as signs of rhabdomyolysis. To differentiate NMS from other malignant hyperthermia syndromes identifying the offending drug and clinical history are essential...
July 27, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743011/posterior-parietal-cortex
#8
Jonathan R Whitlock
The posterior parietal cortex, along with temporal and prefrontal cortices, is one of the three major associative regions in the cortex of the mammalian brain. It is situated between the visual cortex at the caudal pole of the brain and the somatosensory cortex just behind the central sulcus. Technically, any cortex covered by the parietal bone is referred to as 'parietal cortex', but the posterior sector, formally referred to as posterior parietal cortex, is indeed its own functional section of cortex, consisting of Brodmann's areas 5, 7, 39, and 40 in humans, areas 5 and 7 in macaques, and area 7 in rodents (Figure 1)...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736149/methylmercury-augments-nrf2-activity-by-downregulation-of-the-src-family-kinase-fyn
#9
Megan Culbreth, Ziyan Zhang, Michael Aschner
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent developmental neurotoxicant that induces an oxidative stress response in the brain. It has been demonstrated that MeHg exposure increases nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that translocates to the nucleus in response to oxidative stress, and upregulates phase II detoxifying enzymes. Although, Nrf2 activity is augmented subsequent to MeHg exposure, it has yet to be established whether Nrf2 moves into the nucleus as a result...
July 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734765/ampakines-and-morphine-provide-complementary-analgesia
#10
Yongjun Sun, Kevin Liu, Erik Martinez, Jahrane Dale, Dong Huang, Jing Wang
Glutamate signaling in the central nervous system is known to play a key role in pain regulation. AMPAkines can enhance glutamate signaling through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. previous studies have shown that AMPAkines are effective analgesic agents, and their site of action is likely in the brain. It is not known, however, if AMPAkines can provide complementary analgesia in combination with opioids, the most commonly used analgesics. Here, we show that the co-administration of an AMPAkine with morphine can provide additional analgesia, both in naïve rats and in rats that experience postoperative pain...
July 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733038/ferulic-acid-reverses-depression-like-behavior-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-chronic-corticosterone-treatment-in-mice
#11
Ana Lúcia Bertarello Zeni, Anderson Camargo, Ana Paula Dalmagro
Corticosterone (CORT) treatment has been evidenced to develop a depression-like state in animals, that mimic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulation implicated in the development of depression. The present study aimed to examine the ferulic acid (FA), a natural phenolic compound, antidepressant and antioxidant activities on the CORT chronic model. Mice orally treated with 20mg/kg of CORT for 21days were connsidered control group, while mice treated with FA (1mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10mg/kg) for the last week of CORT treatment, as drug groups...
July 19, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699085/laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-epilepsy
#12
REVIEW
Eric Prince, Shahin Hakimian, Andrew L Ko, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Michelle S Kim, John W Miller
MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MgLiTT) uses a narrow diameter cannula to stereotactically target and heat deeper cerebral structures. This technique produces a precise lesion in the brain with great reliability because the localized tissue temperature change is monitored in real time. Because MgLiTT minimizes injury to surrounding brain, it appears to have a lower risk of affecting normal neurological function, and because it is done through a burr hole, there is less operative risk, less discomfort, and shorter hospitalizations...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694523/visualizing-changes-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-expression-using-bioluminescence-imaging-in-living-mice
#13
Mamoru Fukuchi, Hironori Izumi, Hisashi Mori, Masahiro Kiyama, Satoshi Otsuka, Shojiro Maki, Yosuke Maehata, Akiko Tabuchi, Masaaki Tsuda
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a fundamental role in expressing various neural functions including memory consolidation. Alterations of BDNF levels in the brain are associated with neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore, it is important to understand how levels of BDNF are controlled. Recently we generated a novel transgenic mouse strain, termed the Bdnf-Luciferase transgenic (Bdnf-Luc Tg) mouse, to monitor changes in Bdnf expression. In the present study, we detected the bioluminescence signal from living Bdnf-Luc Tg mice after intraperitoneal administration of d-luciferin...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683143/region-specific-changes-in-nonapeptide-levels-during-client-fish-interactions-with-allopatric-and-sympatric-cleaner-fish
#14
Marta C Soares, Sónia C Cardoso, Renata Mazzei, Gonçalo I André, Marta Morais, Magdalena Gozdowska, Hanna Kalamarz-Kubiak, Ewa Kulczykowska
Social relationships are crucially dependent on individual ability to learn and remember ecologically relevant cues. However, the way animals recognize cues before engaging in any social interaction and how their response is regulated by brain neuromodulators remains unclear. We examined the putative involvement of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), acting at different brain regions, during fish decision-making in the context of cooperation, by trying to identify how fish distinguish and recognize the value of other social partners or species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681758/basal-ganglia-their-role-in-complex-cognitive-procedures-in-experimental-models-and-in-clinical-practice
#15
Rita Moretti, Paola Caruso, Elena Crisman, Silvia Gazzin
Apart from the well known role of the basal ganglia (BG) in motor control, their important role in regulating the cognitive functions is emerging. This article traces the scientific work that explores this role of BG in reinforcement learning, perceptual decision making, and other nonmotor pathways (speech fluency, cognition, attention and behaviour). It also highlights the important role played by the BG networks in determining the development of a child's brain. It retraces the various pathways and connections of the BG with the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and other regions that may be utilized in the establishment of complex cognitive procedures...
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678541/mechanical-role-of-a-growing-solid-tumor-on-cortical-folding
#16
Mir Jalil Razavi, Mary Reeves, Xianqiao Wang
Cortical folding, or convolution of the brain, is a vital process in mammals that causes the brain to have a wrinkled appearance. The existence of different types of prenatal solid tumors may alter this complex phenomenon and cause severe brain disorders. Here we interpret the effects of a growing solid tumor on the cortical folding in the fetal brain by virtue of theoretical analyses and computational modeling. The developing fetal brain is modeled as a simple, double-layered, and soft structure with an outer cortex and an inner core, in combination with a circular tumor model imbedded in the structure to investigate the developmental mechanism of cortical convolution...
July 5, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676309/correlation-of-clinical-findings-and-brain-volume-data-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Yara Dadalti Fragoso, Paulo Roberto Wille, Marcelo Abreu, Joseph Bruno B Brooks, Ronaldo Maciel Dias, Juliana Avila Duarte, Luciano Farage, Alessandro Finkelsztejn, Alan Christmann Frohlich, Marcus Vinicius Magno Goncalves, Bruno V Sobreira Guedes, Leonardo Medeiros, Rodrigo Andre Oliveira, Flavio Diniz Ribas, Fernando Coronetti Gomes da Rocha, Gutemberg Augusto C Santos, Claudio Scorcine, Guilherme Lopes da Silveira, Carina Tellaroli Spedo, Carlos Bernardo Tauil, Juliana Santos Varela, Vera Lucia Ferreira Vieira
Brain volume measurements are becoming an important tool for assessing success in controlling multiple sclerosis (MS) activity. MSmetrix (icometrix) is an easy-to-use platform, specific for MS magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. It provides data on total brain volume, grey matter volume and lesion load volume. The objective of the present study was to assess whether disability and the number of relapses during the previous year correlated with brain volume measurements from MSmetrix. Data on 185 icometrix reports from patients with MS were used to evaluate the potential correlation between brain volume measurements and clinical parameters...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675557/neurobehavioral-comorbidities-of-epilepsy-role-of-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Andrey M Mazarati, Megan L Lewis, Quentin J Pittman
Epilepsy is associated with a high incidence of comorbid neurologic and psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the association of epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and depression. There is high concordance of these behavioral pathologies with epilepsy. We review data that unambiguously reveal that epilepsy, ASD, and depression are associated with elevated brain inflammatory markers and that these may interact with serotoninergic pathways. Interference with inflammatory pathways or actions can reduce the severity of seizures, depression, and ASD-like behavior...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665289/design-of-patient-specific-focused-ultrasound-arrays-for-non-invasive-brain-therapy-with-increased-trans-skull-transmission-and-steering-range
#19
Alec Hughes, Kullervo Hynynen
The use of a phased array of ultrasound transducer elements to sonicate through the skull has opened the way for new treatments and the delivery of therapeutics beyond the blood-brain barrier. The limited steering range of current clinical devices, particularly at higher frequencies, limits the regions of the brain that are considered treatable by ultrasound. A new array design is introduced that allows for high levels of beam steering and increased transmission throughout the brain. These improvements are achieved using concave transducers normal to the outer-skull surface in a patient-specific configuration to target within the skull, so that the far-field of each beam is within the brain...
August 3, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661962/brain-changes-associated-with-age-related-hearing-loss
#20
Justin S Golub
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss brain changes associated with age-related hearing loss (ARHL), including cognitive abilities and neuroimaging findings. This information will be helpful to hypothesize and ultimately understand how ARHL may be mechanistically related to changes in brain structure and function. It will also be helpful to guide the strength of treatment recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: ARHL has recently been associated with cognitive impairment and dementia...
June 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
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