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Kynurenine depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738351/major-depression-as-a-neuroprogressive-prelude-to-dementia-what-is-the-evidence
#1
Brian E Leonard
Epidemiological studies implicate chronic depression as a predisposing factor for dementia in later life. However, the link is incompletely understood and controversial. The aim of this review is to consider some of the biological factors that contribute to neuroprogressive brain dysfunction in late life as a consequence of prolonged, low-grade inflammation in the course of depressive episodes. As chronic inflammation is known to precipitate increased apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes, this could be a contributing factor to brain dysfunction...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723608/breastfeeding-and-the-gut-brain-axis-is-there-a-role-for-melatonin
#2
REVIEW
George Anderson, Cathy Vaillancourt, Michael Maes, Russel J Reiter
The benefits of breastfeeding over formula feed are widely appreciated. However, for many mothers breastfeeding is not possible, highlighting the need for a significant improvement in the contents of formula feed. In this article, the overlooked role of melatonin and the melatonergic pathways in breast milk and in the regulation of wider breast milk components are reviewed. There is a growing appreciation that the benefits of breastfeeding are mediated by its effects in the infant gut, with consequences for the development of the gut-brain axis and the immune system...
July 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712413/sleep-disturbance-and-kynurenine-metabolism-in-depression
#3
Hyong Jin Cho, Jonathan Savitz, Robert Dantzer, T Kent Teague, Wayne C Drevets, Michael R Irwin
OBJECTIVE: Although the interrelationships between sleep disturbance, inflammation, and depression have been found, molecular mechanisms that link these conditions are largely unknown. Kynurenine metabolism is hypothesized to be a key mechanism that links inflammation and depression. Inflammation activates the kynurenine pathway, leading to increases in 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK) and quinolinic acid (QA), potentially neurotoxic metabolites, and decreases in kynurenic acid (KynA), a potentially neuroprotective compound...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709913/upregulation-of-neuronal-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-mediates-depression-like-behavior-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#4
Geoffroy Laumet, Wenjun Zhou, Robert Dantzer, Jules D Edralin, XiaoJiao Huo, David P Budac, Jason C O'Connor, Anna W Lee, Cobi J Heijnen, Annemieke Kavelaars
Pain and depression often co-occur, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we used the spared nerve injury (SNI) model in mice to induce both neuropathic pain and depression-like behavior. We investigated whether brain IL-1 signaling and activity of kynurenine 3-monoxygenase (KMO), a key enzyme for metabolism of kynurenine into the neurotoxic NMDA receptor agonist quinolinic acid, are necessary for comorbid neuropathic pain and depression-like behavior. SNI mice showed increased expression levels of Il1b and Kmo mRNA in the contralateral side of the brain...
July 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690204/depressive-anxiety-and-hypomanic-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-may-be-driven-by-tryptophan-catabolite-trycat-patterning-of-iga-and-igm-responses-directed-to-trycats
#5
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, George Anderson, Piotr Galecki, Michael Maes
The aim of this study was to delineate the associations between the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway and affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Towards this end we measured immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgM responses to relatively noxious TRYCATs, namely quinolinic (QA), xanthurenic (XA), picolinic (PA) acid and 3-OH-kynurenine (3HK), and generally protective TRYCATs, namely anthranilic (AA) and kynurenic (KA) acid in 80 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) and anxiety (HAMA), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) as well as the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale of Schizophrenia (PANSS) were measured...
July 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687801/altered-kyn-trp-gln-glu-and-met-methionine-sulfoxide-ratios-in-the-blood-plasma-of-medication-free-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Hidehiro Umehara, Shusuke Numata, Shin-Ya Watanabe, Yutaka Hatakeyama, Makoto Kinoshita, Yukiko Tomioka, Kiyoshi Nakahara, Takeshi Nikawa, Tetsuro Ohmori
Capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) is a comprehensive, quantitative, and high throughput tool used to analyze metabolite profiles. In the present study, we used CE-TOFMS to profile metabolites found in the blood plasma of 33 medication-free patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 33 non-psychiatric control subjects. We then investigated changes which occurred in the metabolite levels during an 8-week treatment period. The medication-free MDD patients and control subjects showed significant differences in their mean levels of 33 metabolites, including kynurenine (KYN), glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), methionine sulfoxide, and methionine (Met)...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669666/a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-efficacy-of-resistant-dextrin-as-functional-food-in-women-with-type-2-diabetes-targeting-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-immune-system
#7
Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Ahmad Zare Javid, Bahareh Sarmadi, Poran Karimi, Parvin Dehghan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to determine the efficacy of a resistant dextrin on immune-mediated inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Females (n = 55) with T2DM were randomly allocated into intervention group (n = 30) and control group (n = 25), in which they received 10 g/d of Nutriose(®)06 (a resistant dextrin) or maltodextrin for 8 weeks, respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure immune system related parameters like white blood cell count, CD4, CD8, interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukins (IL12, IL4, IL10), cortisol, tryptophan (TRP), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone), Kynurenine (KYN) and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at the beginning and end of trial...
June 10, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668713/the-association-between-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-tryptophan-metabolism-in-persons-with-recurrent-major-depressive-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#8
F J H Sorgdrager, B Doornbos, B W J H Penninx, P de Jonge, I P Kema
OBJECTIVES: Persistent changes in serotonergic and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning are implicated in recurrent types of major depressive disorder (MDD). Systemic tryptophan levels, which influence the rate of serotonin synthesis, are regulated by glucocorticoids produced along the HPA axis. We investigated tryptophan metabolism and its association with HPA axis functioning in single episode MDD, recurrent MDD and non-depressed individuals. METHODS: We included depressed individuals (n = 1320) and controls (n = 406) from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631232/activation-of-brain-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-contributes-to-depressive-like-behavior-induced-by-an-intracerebroventricular-injection-of-streptozotocin-in-mice
#9
Leandro Cattelan Souza, Cristiano R Jesse, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, Lucian Del Fabbro, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Franciele Donato, Silvana Peterini Boeira
There is a lack of information concerning the molecular events underlying the depressive-like effect of an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in mice. The elevated activity of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been proposed to mediate depression in inflammatory disorders. In the present study, we reported that ICV-STZ activates IDO in the hippocampus of mice and culminates in depressive-like behaviors, as measured by the increased duration of immobility in the tail suspension test and decreased sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test...
June 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599322/monoamine-oxidase-a-upregulated-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-activates-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-and-neurodegeneration
#10
Chun-Sing Lam, Jing-Jie Li, George Lim Tipoe, Moussa B H Youdim, Man-Lung Fung
Co-morbid depression is prevalent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Here we report that monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) plays pathogenic roles in the comorbidity. We found that chronic intermittent hypoxia significantly increased the MAO-A expression in the rat hippocampus and markedly decreased the dendritic length and spine density in the pyramidal neurons with less pre- and post-synaptic proteins. The MAO-A upregulation resulted in increased 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/serotonin ratio, oxidative stress, leading to NF-κB activation, inflammation and apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595944/ido-chronic-immune-activation-and-tryptophan-metabolic-pathway-a-potential-pathophysiological-link-between-depression-and-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Camila Nayane Carvalho Lima, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, David Freitas de Lucena, Michael Maes, Danielle Macedo
Obesity and depression are among the most pressing health problems in the contemporary world. Obesity and depression share a bidirectional relationship, whereby each condition increases the risk of the other. By inference, shared pathways may underpin the comorbidity between obesity and depression. Activation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is a key factor in the pathophysiology of depression. CMI cytokines, including IFN-γ, TNFα and IL-1β, induce the catabolism of tryptophan (TRY) by stimulating indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) resulting in the synthesis of kynurenine (KYN) and other tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs)...
June 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585214/the-interactions-between-kynurenine-folate-methionine-and-pteridine-pathways-in-obesity
#12
Ayse Basak Engin, Atilla Engin
Obesity activates both innate and adaptive immune responses in adipose tissue. Elevated levels of eosinophils with depression of monocyte and neutrophil indicate the deficiencies in the immune system of morbidly obese individuals. Actually, adipose tissue macrophages are functional antigen-presenting cells that promote the proliferation of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing CD4+ T cells in adipose tissue of obese subjects. Eventually, diet-induced obesity is associated with the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of type 1 inflammatory responses in visceral adipose tissue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566947/immunological-aspects-of-the-treatment-of-depression-and-schizophrenia
#13
Norbert Müller
Schizophrenia and major depression (MD) have been associated with immune system dysfunction. One example of this is the altered level of cytokines-important inflammatory mediators-in blood, and a proinflammatory immune state has been described in some subgroups of patients. A knock to the immune system in early life might trigger a life-long increased immune reactivity, and infections and autoimmune disorders are now known to be risk factors for development of schizophrenia and MD. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines mediate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity; this enzyme drives metabolism of tryptophan and kynurenin in the central nervous system and degrades serotonin...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529072/rescue-of-il-1%C3%AE-induced-reduction-of-human-neurogenesis-by-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-antidepressants
#14
Alessandra Borsini, Silvia Alboni, Mark A Horowitz, Luis M Tojo, Giuseppe Cannazza, Kuan-Pin Su, Carmine M Pariante, Patricia A Zunszain
Both increased inflammation and reduced neurogenesis have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depression. We have previously described how interleukin-1 (IL-1) β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine increased in depressed patients, decreases neurogenesis in human hippocampal progenitor cells. Here, using the same human in vitro model, we show how omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and conventional antidepressants reverse this reduction in neurogenesis, while differentially affecting the kynurenine pathway...
May 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524767/immune-biomarkers-in-older-adults-role-of-physical-activity
#15
Vanessa Valdiglesias, María Sánchez-Flores, Ana Maseda, Laura Lorenzo-López, Diego Marcos-Pérez, Ana López-Cortón, Barbara Strasser, Dietmar Fuchs, Blanca Laffon, José C Millán-Calenti, Eduardo Pásaro
Aging is associated with a decline in the normal functioning of the immune system. Several studies described the relationship between immunological alterations, including immunosenescence and inflammation, and aging or age-related outcomes, such as sarcopenia, depression, and neurodegenerative disorders. Physical activity is known to improve muscle function and to exert a number of benefits on older adult health, including reduced risk for heart and metabolic system chronic diseases. However, the positive influence of physical activity on the immune system has not been elucidated...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502732/swimming-exercise-prevents-behavioural-disturbances-induced-by-an-intracerebroventricular-injection-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-peptide-through-modulation-of-cytokine-nf-kappab-pathway-and-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-mouse-brain
#16
Leandro Cattelan Souza, Cristiano R Jesse, Lucian Del Fabbro, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Carlos Borges Filho, Cristiane Luchese, Albanin Aparecida Mielniczki Pereira, Silvana Peterini Boeira
Emerging evidence indicates that the activation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a first and rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, is involved in amyloid-beta (Aβ1-42)-neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Physical exercise has been considered an effective intervention in AD, attenuating or limiting their progression. Nevertheless, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of exercise have not yet been fully elucidated. In present study, we investigated the protective effect of an 8-week swimming training (ST) exercise on cognitive and non-cognitive functions and its role in modulating biomarkers of KYN pathway, before an intracerebroventricular (i...
May 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482311/tryptophan-breakdown-and-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder
#17
Martina Platzer, Nina Dalkner, Frederike T Fellendorf, Armin Birner, Susanne A Bengesser, Robert Queissner, Nora Kainzbauer, René Pilz, Simone Herzog-Eberhard, Carlo Hamm, Christa Hörmanseder, Alexander Maget, Philipp Rauch, Harald Mangge, Dietmar Fuchs, Sieglinde Zelzer, Gregor Schütze, Natalie Moll, Markus J Schwarz, Rodrigo B Mansur, Roger S McIntyre, Eva Z Reininghaus
INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated that bipolar disorder (BD) is often accompanied by cognitive deficits across all subdomains including verbal memory, attention and executive functioning. Cognitive deficits are observed both during episodes of mania or depression, as well as during the euthymic phase. It has been proposed that chronic immune-mediated inflammation in the central nervous system results in alterations in neural structures that subserve cognitive function. Kynurenine is an intermediate in the inflammatory cascade and can be peripherally measured to proxy inflammatory activity...
April 27, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463241/serum-kynurenic-acid-is-reduced-in-affective-psychosis
#18
B E Wurfel, W C Drevets, S A Bliss, J R McMillin, H Suzuki, B N Ford, H M Morris, T K Teague, R Dantzer, J B Savitz
A subgroup of individuals with mood and psychotic disorders shows evidence of inflammation that leads to activation of the kynurenine pathway and the increased production of neuroactive kynurenine metabolites. Depression is hypothesized to be causally associated with an imbalance in the kynurenine pathway, with an increased metabolism down the 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK) branch of the pathway leading to increased levels of the neurotoxic metabolite, quinolinic acid (QA), which is a putative N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist...
May 2, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452488/metabolomics-study-of-the-effects-of-inflammation-hypoxia-and-high-glucose-on-isolated-human-pancreatic-islets
#19
Marta Garcia-Contreras, Alejandro Tamayo-Garcia, Kirk L Pappan, Gregory A Michelotti, Cherie L Stabler, Camillo Ricordi, Peter Buchwald
The transplantation of human pancreatic islets is a therapeutic possibility for a subset of type 1 diabetic patients who experience severe hypoglycemia. Pre- and post-transplantation loss in islet viability and function, however, is a major efficacy-limiting impediment. To investigate the effects of inflammation and hypoxia, the main obstacles hampering the survival and function of isolated, cultured, and transplanted islets, we conducted a comprehensive metabolomics evaluation of human islets in parallel with dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIR) perifusion studies for functional evaluation...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442354/the-influence-of-stress-on-neuroinflammation-and-alterations-in-brain-structure-and-function-in-major-depressive-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Yong-Ku Kim, Eunsoo Won
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition which has often been associated with chronic stress. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously activated without the normal counteraction of the parasympathetic nervous system under the influence of chronic stress. As a result, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels are increased, and acetylcholine levels are decreased, which in turn can increase the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Peripheral inflammatory responses can access the brain, with neuroinflammation contributing to the increase in neurotoxic kynurenine pathway metabolites such as 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid, and decrease in neuroprotective metabolites such as kynurenic acid...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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