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Kynurenine depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631232/activation-of-brain-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-contributes-to-depressive-like-behavior-induced-by-an-intracerebroventricular-injection-of-streptozotocin-in-mice
#1
Leandro Cattelan Souza, Cristiano R Jesse, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, Lucian Del Fabbro, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Franciele Donato, Silvana Peterini Boeira
There is a lack of information concerning the molecular events underlying the depressive-like effect of an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in mice. The elevated activity of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been proposed to mediate depression in inflammatory disorders. In the present study, we reported that ICV-STZ activates IDO in the hippocampus of mice and culminates in depressive-like behaviors, as measured by the increased duration of immobility in the tail suspension test and decreased sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test...
June 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599322/monoamine-oxidase-a-upregulated-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-activates-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-and-neurodegeneration
#2
Chun-Sing Lam, Jing-Jie Li, George Lim Tipoe, Moussa B H Youdim, Man-Lung Fung
Co-morbid depression is prevalent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Here we report that monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) plays pathogenic roles in the comorbidity. We found that chronic intermittent hypoxia significantly increased the MAO-A expression in the rat hippocampus and markedly decreased the dendritic length and spine density in the pyramidal neurons with less pre- and post-synaptic proteins. The MAO-A upregulation resulted in increased 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/serotonin ratio, oxidative stress, leading to NF-κB activation, inflammation and apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595944/ido-chronic-immune-activation-and-tryptophan-metabolic-pathway-a-potential-pathophysiological-link-between-depression-and-obesity
#3
REVIEW
Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Camila Nayane Carvalho Lima, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, David Freitas de Lucena, Michael Maes, Danielle Macedo
Obesity and depression are among the most pressing health problems in the contemporary world. Obesity and depression share a bidirectional relationship, whereby each condition increases the risk of the other. By inference, shared pathways may underpin the comorbidity between obesity and depression. Activation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is a key factor in the pathophysiology of depression. CMI cytokines, including IFN-γ, TNFα and IL-1β, induce the catabolism of tryptophan (TRY) by stimulating indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) resulting in the synthesis of kynurenine (KYN) and other tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs)...
June 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585214/the-interactions-between-kynurenine-folate-methionine-and-pteridine-pathways-in-obesity
#4
Ayse Basak Engin, Atilla Engin
Obesity activates both innate and adaptive immune responses in adipose tissue. Elevated levels of eosinophils with depression of monocyte and neutrophil indicate the deficiencies in the immune system of morbidly obese individuals. Actually, adipose tissue macrophages are functional antigen-presenting cells that promote the proliferation of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing CD4+ T cells in adipose tissue of obese subjects. Eventually, diet-induced obesity is associated with the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of type 1 inflammatory responses in visceral adipose tissue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566947/immunological-aspects-of-the-treatment-of-depression-and-schizophrenia
#5
Norbert Müller
Schizophrenia and major depression (MD) have been associated with immune system dysfunction. One example of this is the altered level of cytokines-important inflammatory mediators-in blood, and a proinflammatory immune state has been described in some subgroups of patients. A knock to the immune system in early life might trigger a life-long increased immune reactivity, and infections and autoimmune disorders are now known to be risk factors for development of schizophrenia and MD. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines mediate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity; this enzyme drives metabolism of tryptophan and kynurenin in the central nervous system and degrades serotonin...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529072/rescue-of-il-1%C3%AE-induced-reduction-of-human-neurogenesis-by-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-antidepressants
#6
Alessandra Borsini, Silvia Alboni, Mark A Horowitz, Luis M Tojo, Giuseppe Cannazza, Kuan-Pin Su, Carmine M Pariante, Patricia A Zunszain
Both increased inflammation and reduced neurogenesis have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depression. We have previously described how interleukin-1 (IL-1) β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine increased in depressed patients, decreases neurogenesis in human hippocampal progenitor cells. Here, using the same human in vitro model, we show how omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and conventional antidepressants reverse this reduction in neurogenesis, while differentially affecting the kynurenine pathway...
May 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524767/immune-biomarkers-in-older-adults-role-of-physical-activity
#7
Vanessa Valdiglesias, María Sánchez-Flores, Ana Maseda, Laura Lorenzo-López, Diego Marcos-Pérez, Ana López-Cortón, Barbara Strasser, Dietmar Fuchs, Blanca Laffon, José C Millán-Calenti, Eduardo Pásaro
Aging is associated with a decline in the normal functioning of the immune system. Several studies described the relationship between immunological alterations, including immunosenescence and inflammation, and aging or age-related outcomes, such as sarcopenia, depression, and neurodegenerative disorders. Physical activity is known to improve muscle function and to exert a number of benefits on older adult health, including reduced risk for heart and metabolic system chronic diseases. However, the positive influence of physical activity on the immune system has not been elucidated...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502732/swimming-exercise-prevents-behavioural-disturbances-induced-by-an-intracerebroventricular-injection-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-peptide-through-modulation-of-cytokine-nf-kappab-pathway-and-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-mouse-brain
#8
Leandro Cattelan Souza, Cristiano R Jesse, Lucian Del Fabbro, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Carlos Borges Filho, Cristiane Luchese, Albanin Aparecida Mielniczki Pereira, Silvana Peterini Boeira
Emerging evidence indicates that the activation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a first and rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, is involved in amyloid-beta (Aβ1-42)-neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Physical exercise has been considered an effective intervention in AD, attenuating or limiting their progression. Nevertheless, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of exercise have not yet been fully elucidated. In present study, we investigated the protective effect of an 8-week swimming training (ST) exercise on cognitive and non-cognitive functions and its role in modulating biomarkers of KYN pathway, before an intracerebroventricular (i...
May 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482311/tryptophan-breakdown-and-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder
#9
Martina Platzer, Nina Dalkner, Frederike T Fellendorf, Armin Birner, Susanne A Bengesser, Robert Queissner, Nora Kainzbauer, René Pilz, Simone Herzog-Eberhard, Carlo Hamm, Christa Hörmanseder, Alexander Maget, Philipp Rauch, Harald Mangge, Dietmar Fuchs, Sieglinde Zelzer, Gregor Schütze, Natalie Moll, Markus J Schwarz, Rodrigo B Mansur, Roger S McIntyre, Eva Z Reininghaus
INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated that bipolar disorder (BD) is often accompanied by cognitive deficits across all subdomains including verbal memory, attention and executive functioning. Cognitive deficits are observed both during episodes of mania or depression, as well as during the euthymic phase. It has been proposed that chronic immune-mediated inflammation in the central nervous system results in alterations in neural structures that subserve cognitive function. Kynurenine is an intermediate in the inflammatory cascade and can be peripherally measured to proxy inflammatory activity...
April 27, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463241/serum-kynurenic-acid-is-reduced-in-affective-psychosis
#10
B E Wurfel, W C Drevets, S A Bliss, J R McMillin, H Suzuki, B N Ford, H M Morris, T K Teague, R Dantzer, J B Savitz
A subgroup of individuals with mood and psychotic disorders shows evidence of inflammation that leads to activation of the kynurenine pathway and the increased production of neuroactive kynurenine metabolites. Depression is hypothesized to be causally associated with an imbalance in the kynurenine pathway, with an increased metabolism down the 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK) branch of the pathway leading to increased levels of the neurotoxic metabolite, quinolinic acid (QA), which is a putative N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist...
May 2, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452488/metabolomics-study-of-the-effects-of-inflammation-hypoxia-and-high-glucose-on-isolated-human-pancreatic-islets
#11
Marta Garcia-Contreras, Alejandro Tamayo-Garcia, Kirk L Pappan, Gregory A Michelotti, Cherie L Stabler, Camillo Ricordi, Peter Buchwald
The transplantation of human pancreatic islets is a therapeutic possibility for a subset of type 1 diabetic patients who experience severe hypoglycemia. Pre- and post-transplantation loss in islet viability and function, however, is a major efficacy-limiting impediment. To investigate the effects of inflammation and hypoxia, the main obstacles hampering the survival and function of isolated, cultured, and transplanted islets, we conducted a comprehensive metabolomics evaluation of human islets in parallel with dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIR) perifusion studies for functional evaluation...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442354/the-influence-of-stress-on-neuroinflammation-and-alterations-in-brain-structure-and-function-in-major-depressive-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Yong-Ku Kim, Eunsoo Won
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition which has often been associated with chronic stress. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously activated without the normal counteraction of the parasympathetic nervous system under the influence of chronic stress. As a result, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels are increased, and acetylcholine levels are decreased, which in turn can increase the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Peripheral inflammatory responses can access the brain, with neuroinflammation contributing to the increase in neurotoxic kynurenine pathway metabolites such as 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid, and decrease in neuroprotective metabolites such as kynurenic acid...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415022/simultaneous-determination-of-tryptophan-and-8-metabolites-in-human-plasma-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#13
Lysiane Boulet, Patrice Faure, Patrice Flore, Julien Montérémal, Véronique Ducros
Tryptophan (Trp) is an essential amino-acid and the precursor of many biologically active substances such as kynurenine (KYN) and serotonin (5HT). Its metabolism is involved in different physiopathological states, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, immunomodulation or depression. Hence, the quantification of Trp catabolites, from both KYN and 5HT pathways, might be usefulfor the discovery of novel diagnostic and follow-up biomarkers. We have developed a simple method for quantification of Trp and 8 of its metabolites,involved in both KYN and 5HT pathways, using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412922/abnormalities-in-kynurenine-pathway-metabolism-in-treatment-resistant-depression-and-suicidality-a-systematic-review
#14
Gianluca Serafini, Giulia Adavastro, Giovanna Canepa, Laura Capobianco, Claudia Conigliaro, Federica Pittaluga, Martino Belvederi Murri, Alessandro Valchera, Domenico De Berardis, Maurizio Pompili, Daniel Lindqvist, Lena Brundin, Mario Amore
Treatment resistant depression (TRD) and suicidal behavior are among the most important public health problems and are commonly associated with significant disability and psychosocial impairment. Although there have been recent advances in identifying neurobiological correlates of these complex conditions, their pathophysiology still remains unclear. Although the recent advances concerning the neurobiological determinants underlying these complex conditions, their pathophysiology still remains unclear. Compared to non-suicidal subjects, higher mean concentrations of inflammatory mediators have been found in both the periphery and brain of individuals at risk for suicide...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408830/twelve-week-physical-exercise-does-not-have-a-long-lasting-effect-on-kynurenines-in-plasma-of-depressed-patients
#15
Vincent Millischer, Sophie Erhardt, Örjan Ekblom, Yvonne Forsell, Catharina Lavebratt
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise has well-characterized positive effects on depressive symptoms. The underlying biologic mechanisms are, however, far from established. A recently discovered mechanism has linked the enhanced conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid (KYNA) to an increased resilience toward stress-induced depression in mice. The aim of this study was to translate these findings to humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Kynurenine and KYNA levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples from 117 patients affected by mild-to-moderate depression before and within a week after a 12-week training period at three different intensities...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407315/drugs-with-antidepressant-properties-affect-tryptophan-metabolites-differently-in-rodent-models-with-depression-like-behavior
#16
Amanda Eskelund, Yan Li, David P Budac, Heidi K Müller, Maria Gulinello, Connie Sanchez, Gregers Wegener
The metabolism of tryptophan through kynurenine and serotonin pathways is linked to depression. Here, effects of different drugs with antidepressant properties (vortioxetine, fluoxetine, and ketamine) on various tryptophan metabolites in different brain regions and plasma were examined using tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), in Flinders Sensitive Line rats, a genetic rat model of depression, and its controls: Flinders Sensitive Line and Sprague-Dawley rats. Protein levels of kynurenine pathway enzymes were measured in the brains and livers of these rat strains...
July 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366444/tryptophan-and-kynurenine-levels-and-its-association-with-sleep-nonphysical-fatigue-and-depression-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#17
Rakesh Malhotra, Vanja Persic, Weifang Zhang, Jill Brown, Xia Tao, Laura Rosales, Stephan Thijssen, Fredric O Finkelstein, Mark L Unruh, Alp Ikizler, Pranav S Garimella, Joachim H Ix, Jeroen Kooman, Nathan W Levin, Garry J Handelman, Peter Kotanko
OBJECTIVE: Sleep and mood disorders are common in hemodialysis (HD) patients and the pathophysiology is still unclear. Tryptophan (TRP) and its metabolites may play a prominent role in neural pathways related to sleep, fatigue, and depression. Here, we sought to compare the levels of TRP and its metabolites between HD patients and healthy subjects and examine their association with sleep, fatigue, and depression in HD patients. The design was cross-sectional analysis. SUBJECTS: Ninety-nine adult patients on stable thrice weekly HD schedule between September 2011 and March 2014 and 10 healthy controls...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353360/association-between-psychological-measures-with-inflammatory-anddisease-related-markers-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
Áine Abautret-Daly, Elaine Dempsey, Sabino Riestra, Ruth de Francisco-García, Adolfo Parra-Blanco, Luis Rodrigo, Carlos Medina, Thomas J Connor, Andrew Harkin
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the associations between inflammatory mediators, symptoms and psychological disturbances in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. METHODS: IBD patients and patient controls were examined during a single visit to a gastroenterology clinic. Disease activity was assessed using the Mayo index for ulcerative colitis (UC), inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ), Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and Crohn's disease endoscopic index of severity (CDEIS)...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319697/genetic-variants-of-the-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-and-postpartum-depressive-symptoms-after-cesarean-section-in-chinese-women
#19
Sai-Ying Wang, Kai-Ming Duan, Xiao-Fang Tan, Ji-Ye Yin, Xiao-Yuan Mao, Wei Zheng, Chun-Yan Wang, Mi Yang, Cheng Peng, Hong-Hao Zhou, Zhao-Qian Liu
BACKGROUND: New conceptualizations of depression have emphasized the role of the kynurenine pathway (KP) in the pathogenesis of postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS). Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a rate-limiting enzyme of the KP, where it catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine (KYN) to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK). Previous work indicates that KMO is closely linked to the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether variations in the KMO gene affect PDS development after cesarean section...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266612/microbiota-alteration-is-associated-with-the-development-of-stress-induced-despair-behavior
#20
Ioana A Marin, Jennifer E Goertz, Tiantian Ren, Stephen S Rich, Suna Onengut-Gumuscu, Emily Farber, Martin Wu, Christopher C Overall, Jonathan Kipnis, Alban Gaultier
Depressive disorders often run in families, which, in addition to the genetic component, may point to the microbiome as a causative agent. Here, we employed a combination of behavioral, molecular and computational techniques to test the role of the microbiota in mediating despair behavior. In chronically stressed mice displaying despair behavior, we found that the microbiota composition and the metabolic signature dramatically change. Specifically, we observed reduced Lactobacillus and increased circulating kynurenine levels as the most prominent changes in stressed mice...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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