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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440606/pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-radiation-induced-myocardial-fibrosis
#1
Li Kun Liu, Weiwei Ouyang, Xing Zhao, Sheng Fa Su, Yan Yang, Wen Jin Ding, Da Xian Luo, Zhi Xu He, Bing Lu
Radiation therapy is one of the most important methods for the treatment of malignant tumors. However, in radiotherapy for thoracic tumors such as breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and mediastinal lymphoma, the heart, located in the mediastinum, is inevitably affected by the irradiation, leading to pericardial disease, myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery disease, valvular lesions, and cardiac conduction system injury, which are considered radiation-induced heart diseases. Delayed cardiac injury especially myocardial fibrosis is more prominent, and its incidence is as high as 20–80%...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440530/comorbidity-in-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-lung-cancer-do-we-have-an-adequate-tool-to-assess-it
#2
Marta Lembicz, Piotr Gabryel, Beata Brajer-Luftmann, Wojciech Dyszkiewicz, Halina Batura-Gabryel
INTRODUCTION: In the recent years comorbidity has been discussed as a factor affecting therapeutic decisions, the course of treatment, and prognosis of patients with lung cancer. The aim of the study was 1. to evaluate the occurrence of comorbidities in patients with lung cancer undergoing surgery, and 2. to investigate the utility of Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Simplified Comorbidity Score (SCS) for preoperative evaluation of Polish patients with lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective study included 476 patients with lung cancer, who underwent surgical treatment...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439569/the-obesity-paradox-in-kidney-disease-how-to-reconcile-it-with-obesity-management
#3
Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Connie M Rhee, Jason Chou, S Foad Ahmadi, Jongha Park, Joline Lt Chen, Alpesh N Amin
Obesity, a risk factor for de novo chronic kidney disease (CKD), confers survival advantages in advanced CKD. This so-called obesity paradox is the archetype of the reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risks, in addition to the lipid, blood pressure, adiponectin, homocysteine, and uric acid paradoxes. These paradoxical phenomena are in sharp contradistinction to the known epidemiology of cardiovascular risks in the general population. In addition to advanced CKD, the obesity paradox has also been observed in heart failure, chronic obstructive lung disease, liver cirrhosis, and metastatic cancer, as well as in the elderly...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439189/development-and-evaluation-of-two-abbreviated-questionnaires-for-mentoring-and-research-self-efficacy
#4
Donna B Jeffe, Treva K Rice, Josephine E A Boyington, Dabeeru C Rao, Girardin Jean-Louis, Victor G Dávila-Román, Anne L Taylor, Betty S Pace, Mohamed Boutjdir
OBJECTIVES: To reduce respondent burden for future evaluations of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-supported Programs to Increase Diversity Among Individuals Engaged in Health-Related Research (PRIDE), a mentored-research education program, we sought to shorten the 33-item Ragins and McFarlin Mentor Role Instrument (RMMRI), measuring mentor-role appraisals, and the 69-item Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory (CRAI), measuring research self-efficacy. METHODS: Three nationally recruited, junior-faculty cohorts attended two, annual 2-3 week Summer Institutes (SI-1/SI-2: 2011/2012, 2012/2013, 2013/2014) at one of six PRIDE sites...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438110/temporal-progression-of-lesions-in-guinea-pigs-infected-with-lassa-virus
#5
T M Bell, C I Shaia, J J Bearss, M E Mattix, K A Koistinen, S P Honnold, X Zeng, C D Blancett, G C Donnelly, J D Shamblin, E R Wilkinson, K A Cashman
Lassa virus (LASV) infection causes an acute, multisystemic viral hemorrhagic fever that annually infects an estimated 100 000 to 300 000 persons in West Africa. This pathogenesis study evaluated the temporal progression of disease in guinea pigs following aerosol and subcutaneous inoculation of the Josiah strain of LASV as well as the usefulness of Strain 13 guinea pigs as an animal model for Lassa fever. After experimental infection, guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus; n = 67) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and serum chemistry and hematologic changes...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437620/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-guidelines-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#6
Paul S Jellinger, Yehuda Handelsman, Paul D Rosenblit, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Chris K Guerin, David S H Bell, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Kathleen Wyne, Donald Smith, Eliot A Brinton, Sergio Fazio, Michael Davidson
OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
April 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437377/microrna-21-is-required-for-local-and-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-multiple-organ-protection-against-sepsis
#7
Ping Jia, Xiaoli Wu, Yan Dai, Jie Teng, Yi Fang, Jiachang Hu, Jianzhou Zou, Mingyu Liang, Xiaoqiang Ding
OBJECTIVE: Sepsis, triggered by microbial infection, is a common and life-threatening systemic illness, often leads to impaired function of vital organs. Ischemic preconditioning induced by transient brief episodes of ischemia is a powerful innate mechanism of organ protection. We have reported that a 15-minute renal ischemic preconditioning substantially attenuated subsequent renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, we investigate whether a brief ischemia and reperfusion in kidney can provide protection at local and remote sites against sepsis-induced organ injury, and whether this protection is microRNA-21 dependent...
April 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436723/asymptomatic-peripheral-artery-disease-can-limit-maximal-exercise-capacity-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-regardless-of-airflow-obstruction-and-lung-hyperinflation
#8
Ernesto Crisafulli, Chiara Scelfo, Panagiota Tzani, Marina Aiello, Giuseppina Bertorelli, Alfredo Chetta
Background Silent/asymptomatic peripheral artery disease may occur in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but it is poorly investigated. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients the impact of asymptomatic/silent peripheral artery disease on maximal exercise capacity; the secondary aim was to search for predictors of peripheral artery disease. Methods We prospectively enrolled chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outpatients. Data on anthropometric characteristics, lung function, cardiopulmonary exercise test and ankle-brachial index were recorded...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433992/the-aachen-minipig-phenotype-genotype-hematological-and-biochemical-characterization-and-comparison-to-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig
#9
Kerstin Pawlowsky, Lisa Ernst, Julia Steitz, Thaddäus Stopinski, Babette Kögel, Anna Henger, Reinhart Kluge, René Tolba
BACKGROUND: The pig is one of the most frequently used large animal models for biomedical research, especially in the field of translational research and surgical models. While standard livestock breeds are used in short-term and acute studies, minipig breeds are the preferred breeds in long-term and chronic studies due to their limited growth and body weight. OBJECTIVE: In consideration of the 3R principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) and the increasing demand, the aim of this study was to generate a new, robust, non-specific-pathogen-free minipig breed, the Aachen minipig...
April 22, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433747/chemical-composition-of-ocimum-sanctum-by-lc-esi-ms-ms-analysis-and-its-protective-effects-against-smoke-induced-lung-and-neuronal-tissue-damage-in-rats
#10
M P Venuprasad, Hemanth Kumar Kandikattu, Sakina Razack, Narayanappa Amruta, Farhath Khanum
Smoke induced oxidative stress is known to cause various cancers and associated health problems including lung cancer. Herbal extracts have been reported as antioxidant supplements which attenuate free radical induced oxidative damage of tissues, among which Ocimum sanctum has been reported as the elixir of life due to its innumerable health benefits. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of O. sanctum against cracker smoke induced lung and brain tissue damage. The results of the study demonstrate that O...
April 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433665/advancing-the-science-of-myocardial-recovery-with-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-working-group-of-the-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute
#11
Stavros G Drakos, Francis D Pagani, Martha S Lundberg, J Timothy Baldwin
The medical burden of heart failure (HF) has spurred interest in clinicians and scientists to develop therapies to restore the function of a failing heart. To advance this agenda, the National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group of experts on June 2-3, 2016 in Bethesda Maryland to develop recommendations for the NHLBI aimed at advancing the science of cardiac recovery in the setting of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). MSC devices effectively reduce volume and pressure overload that drives the cycle of progressive myocardial dysfunction, thereby triggering structural and functional reverse remodeling...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432201/mg53-biological-function-and-potential-as-a-therapeutic-target
#12
Yan Zhang, Hong-Kun Wu, Fengxiang Lv, Rui-Ping Xiao
MG53 (also known as TRIM72) is a cardiac and skeletal muscle-specific TRIM-family protein that exhibits multiple biological functions. First, MG53 participates in plasma membrane repair of the heart, skeletal muscle and other tissues. Second, MG53 is essentially involved in the cardioprotection of cardiac ischemic, pre-conditioning and post-conditioning, by activating the PI3K-Akt-GSK3β and ERK1/2 survival signaling pathways. Moreover, systemic delivery of recombinant MG53 protein ameliorates the impact of a range of injury insults on heart, skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, skin and brain...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431934/etiological-analysis-and-epidemiological-comparison-among-adult-cap-and-nhcap-patients-in-okinawa-japan
#13
Gretchen Parrott, Daijiro Nebeya, Takeshi Kinjo, Kazuya Miyagi, Shusaku Haranaga, Futoshi Higa, Masao Tateyama, Jiro Fujita
BACKGROUND: Etiological epidemiology and diagnosis are important issues for CAP and NHCAP. Despite the availability of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality ensues. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the etiology of 200 pneumonia patients at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Patients were categorized into CAP (n = 97) or NHCAP (n = 103), according to the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines. Diagnoses were made using clinical tests including, Gram stain, bacterial culture, serum and urinary tests...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431417/the-occurrence-of-single-and-multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-pediatric-electrical-versus-other-thermal-burns
#14
Gabriel Hundeshagen, Paul Wurzer, Abigail A Forbes, Charles D Voigt, Vanessa N Collins, Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Celeste C Finnerty, David N Herndon, Ludwik K Branski
BACKGROUND: Multiple organ failure (MOF) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in burned children. While various complications induced by electrical injuries have been described, the incidence and severity of single organ failure (SOF) and MOF associated with this type of injury are unknown. The study was undertaken to compare the incidence and severity of SOF and MOF as well as other complications between electrically and thermally burned children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2001 and 2016, 288 pediatric patients with electrical burns (EB; n = 96) or thermal burns (CTR; n = 192) were analyzed in this study...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431317/ambient-pm2-5-exposure-and-premature-mortality-burden-in-the-holy-city-varanasi-india
#15
Vaishali Jain, Sagnik Dey, Sourangsu Chowdhury
More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5-3% per year) increase in PM2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM2...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430738/three-dimensional-fractal-analysis-of-99mtc-maa-spect-images-in-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-for-evaluation-of-response-to-balloon-pulmonary-angioplasty-association-with-pulmonary-arterial-pressure
#16
Yasuhiro Maruoka, Michinobu Nagao, Shingo Baba, Takuro Isoda, Yoshiyuki Kitamura, Yuzo Yamazaki, Koichiro Abe, Masayuki Sasaki, Kohtaro Abe, Hiroshi Honda
OBJECTIVE: Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is used for inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), but its effect cannot be evaluated noninvasively. We devised a noninvasive quantitative index of response to BPA using three-dimensional fractal analysis (3D-FA) of technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin (Tc-MAA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty CTEPH patients who underwent pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) measurement by right heart catheterization before and after BPA were studied...
April 20, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430547/enhancing-insights-into-pulmonary-vascular-disease-pvd-through-a-precision-medicine-approach-a-joint-nhlbi-cmref-workshop-report
#17
John H Newman, Stuart Rich, Steven H Abman, John H Alexander, John Barnard, Gerald J Beck, Raymond L Benza, Todd M Bull, Stephen Y Chan, Hyung J Chun, Declan Doogan, Jocelyn Dupuis, Serpil C Erzurum, Robert P Frantz, Mark Geraci, Hunter Gillies, Mark Gladwin, Michael P Gray, Anna R Hemnes, Roy S Herbst, Adrian F Hernandez, Nicholas S Hill, Evelyn M Horn, Kendall Hunter, Zhi-Cheng Jing, Roger Johns, Sanjay Kaul, Steven M Kawut, Tim Lahm, Jane A Leopold, Greg D Lewis, Stephen C Mathai, Vallerie V McLaughlin, Evangelos D Michelakis, Steven D Nathan, William Nichols, Grier Page, Marlene Rabinovitch, Jonathan Rich, Franz Rischard, Sharon Rounds, Sanjiv J Shah, Victor F Tapson, Naomi Lowy, Norman Stockbridge, Gail Weinmann, Lei Xiao
The Division of Lung Diseases of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, (NHLBI) and the Cardiovascular Medical Education and Research Fund (CMREF), held a workshop to discuss to leverage of the anticipated scientific output from the recently launched "Redefining Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) through Pulmonary Vascular Disease Phenomics" (PVDOMICS) program. PVDOMICS is a protocol driven network to analyze PH patient populations to define novel pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) phenotypes. Basic, translational and clinical investigators, patient advocacy organizations, regulatory agencies, and pharmaceutical industry experts discussed the application of precision medicine to PVD clinical trials...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428038/non-invasive-tracking-of-hydrogel-degradation-using-upconversion-nanoparticles
#18
Yuqing Dong, Guorui Jin, Changchun Ji, Rongyan He, Min Lin, Xin Zhao, Ang Li, Tian Jian Lu, Feng Xu
Tracking the distribution and degradation of hydrogels in vivo is important for various applications including tissue engineering and drug delivery. Among various imaging modalities, fluorescence imaging has attracted intensive attention due to their high sensitivity, low cost and easy operation. Particularly, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that emit visible lights upon near-infrared (NIR) light excitation as tracking probes are promising in deciphering the fate of hydrogels after transplantation. Herein, we reported a facile and non-invasive in vivo hydrogel tracking method using UCNPs, where the degradation of hydrogels was determined using the decrease in fluorescence intensity from the UCNPs encapsulated in the hydrogels...
April 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428026/dietary-cyanidin-3-glucoside-from-purple-corn-ameliorates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-mice
#19
K Petroni, M Trinei, M Fornari, V Calvenzani, A Marinelli, L A Micheli, R Pilu, A Matros, H-P Mock, C Tonelli, M Giorgio
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anthracyclines are effective anticancer drugs that have improved prognosis of hundred thousand cancer patients worldwide and are currently the most common chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of blood, breast, ovarian and lung cancers. However, their use is limited because of a cumulative dose-dependent and irreversible cardiotoxicity that can cause progressive cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. Aim of the present study was to determine the cardioprotective activity of a dietary source of cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G), such as purple corn, against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427958/micro-anatomical-changes-in-major-blood-vessel-caused-by-dengue-virus-serotype-2-infection
#20
Sivan Padma Priya, S Sakinah, Mok Pooi Ling, Hui-Yee Chee, Akon Higuchi, Rukman Awang Hamat, Vasantha Kumari Neela, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Murugan A Munusamy, Ashraf A Hatamleh, Ahmed E Al-Sabri, Ibrahim Ahmad Abdulaziz Al-Suwailem, Mariappan Rajan, Giovanni Benelli, Marlina, S Suresh Kumar
Dengue virus (DENV) has emerged as a major economic concern in developing countries, with 2.5 billion people believed to be at risk. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) lining the circulatory system from heart to end vessels perform crucial functions in the human body, by aiding gas exchange in lungs, gaseous, nutritional and its waste exchange in all tissues, including the blood brain barrier, filtration of fluid in the glomeruli, neutrophil recruitment, hormone trafficking, as well as maintenance of blood vessel tone and hemostasis...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
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