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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912190/ex-vivo-calcium-imaging-for-visualizing-brain-responses-to-endocrine-signaling-in-drosophila
#1
Hiroshi Ishimoto, Hiroko Sano
Organ-to-organ communication by endocrine signaling, for example, from the periphery to the brain, is essential for maintaining homeostasis. As a model animal for endocrine research, Drosophila melanogaster, which has sophisticated genetic tools and genome information, is being increasingly used. This article describes a method for the calcium imaging of Drosophila brain explants. This method enables the detection of the direct signaling of a hormone to the brain. It is well known that many peptide hormones act through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), whose activation causes an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911072/inhibiting-glycine-decarboxylase-suppresses-pyruvate-to-lactate-metabolism-in-lung-cancer-cells
#2
Chern Chiuh Woo, Kavita Kaur, Wei Xin Chan, Xing Qi Teo, Teck Hock Philip Lee
Glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) gene is frequently upregulated in various types of cancer including lung, prostate and brain. It catabolizes glycine to yield 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, an important substrate in one-carbon metabolism for nucleotide synthesis. In this study, we used exon splicing modulating steric hindrance antisense oligonucleotide (shAON) to suppress GLDC expression and investigated its effect on pyruvate metabolism via hyperpolarized carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The MRS technique allows us to study in vivo metabolic flux in tumor tissues with/without GLDC-shAON intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908258/orexin-a-presynaptically-decreases-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-rat-locus-coeruleus-neurons
#3
Hossein Mohammad-Pour Kargar, Hossein Azizi, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Ali Reza Mani, Saeed Semnaniann
Locus coeruleus nucleus (LC) is a major noradrenergic nucleus in the brain. It receives dense orexinergic projections from lateral hypothalamus. Whilst it is known that orexin A increases firing rate of LC neurons, its effect on spontaneous and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs and eIPSCs, respectively) has not been yet identified. In this research, we investigated the effect of orexin A on eIPSCs and sIPSCs in LC neurons. Whole-cell recordings revealed that orexin A suppresses eIPSCs amplitude in which this effect was blocked by an orexin type-1 receptors antagonist (SB-334867) and cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors antagonist (AM251)...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905912/oxidation-resistance-1-modulates-glycolytic-pathways-in-the-cerebellum-via-an-interaction-with-glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase
#4
Mattéa J Finelli, Teresa Paramo, Elisabete Pires, Brent J Ryan, Richard Wade-Martins, Philip C Biggin, James McCullagh, Peter L Oliver
Glucose metabolism is essential for the brain: it not only provides the required energy for cellular function and communication but also participates in balancing the levels of oxidative stress in neurons. Defects in glucose metabolism have been described in neurodegenerative disease; however, it remains unclear how this fundamental process contributes to neuronal cell death in these disorders. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms driving the selective neurodegeneration in an ataxic mouse model lacking oxidation resistance 1 (Oxr1) and discovered an unexpected function for this protein as a regulator of the glycolytic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI/Gpi1)...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887532/-the-brain-the-source-of-multilingualism
#5
Keita Umejima, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Multiple languages can be used at command, if those language abilities were acquired in childhood. In this article, we report the possibility that such abilities are retained throughout adulthood for linguistic savants. We focus on Emil Krebs, a speaker of dozens of languages, and argue about the vast capacity of the multilingual brain. Moreover, we introduce the asymmetry of the grammar center and brain activation changes due to linguistic proficiency, both of which are findings from research on the second language acquisition capability of the brain...
June 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871874/effect-of-the-actin-and-calcium-regulating-activities-of-itpkb-on-the-metastatic-potential-of-lung-cancer-cells
#6
Selina Bäder, Elina Glaubke, Saskia Grüb, Stefanie Muhs, Jasmin Wellbrock, Marcus Nalaskowski, Tobias Lange, Sabine Windhorst
Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase-A (ITPKA) exhibits oncogenic activity in lung cancer cells by regulating Ins(1,4,5)P3 -mediated calcium release and cytoskeletal dynamics. Since in normal cells ITPKA is mainly expressed in the brain, it is an excellent target for selected therapy of lung cancer. However, ITPKB is strongly expressed in normal lung tissue but is down-regulated in lung cancer cells by miR-375, assuming that ITPKB might have tumor suppressor activity. In addition, ITPKB binds to F-actin making it likely that, similar to ITPKA, it controls actin dynamics...
June 5, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792540/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-diagnosis-and-potential-therapies
#7
Stewart A Weber, Ranish K Patel, Helmi L Lutsep
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the pathologic deposition of amyloid-beta within cortical and leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, capillaries and, in rare cases, the venules of the brain. It is often associated with the development of lobar intracerebral hemorrhages but may cause other neurologic symptoms or be asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, such as lobar microbleeds, support a diagnosis of CAA and assist with hemorrhage risk assessments. Immunosuppressants are used to treat rarer inflammatory forms of CAA...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790085/white-matter-microstructure-in-bipolar-disorder-is-influenced-by-the-interaction-between-a-glutamate-transporter-eaat1-gene-variant-and-early-stress
#8
Sara Poletti, Irene Bollettini, Cristina Lorenzi, Alice Vitali, Silvia Brioschi, Alessandro Serretti, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In mature brains, it is critically involved in neuroplasticity and, at high levels, neurotoxicity. The concentrations of glutamate in the extracellular space are maintained at low physiological levels by molecular glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters-EAATs). Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are highly reported in bipolar disorder (BD) and interact with the glutamatergic system in the brain. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of a glutamate transporter polymorphism EAAT2-181A > C (rs4354668) and exposure to ACE on white matter microstructure in patients with BD...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785670/polymorphic-imprinting-of-slc38a4-gene-in-bovine-placenta
#9
Da Xu, Cui Zhang, Junliang Li, Guannan Wang, Weina Chen, Dongjie Li, Shijie Li
Imprinted genes are characterized by monoallelic expression that is dependent on parental origin. Comparative analysis of imprinted genes between species is a powerful tool for understanding the biological significance of genomic imprinting. The slc38a4 gene encodes a neutral amino acid transporter and is identified as imprinted in mice. In this study, the imprinting status of SLC38A4 was assessed in bovine adult tissues and placenta using a polymorphism-based approach. Results indicate that SLC38A4 is not imprinted in eight adult bovine tissues including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, fat, and brain...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774535/physiology-and-molecular-biology-of-barrier-mechanisms-in-the-fetal-and-neonatal-brain
#10
Norman R Saunders, Katarzyna M Dziegielewska, Kjeld Møllgård, Mark D Habgood
Properties of the local internal environment of the adult brain are tightly controlled providing a stable milieu essential for its normal function. The mechanisms involved in this complex control are structural, molecular and physiological (influx and efflux transporters) frequently referred to as the "blood-brain barrier". These mechanisms include regulation of ion levels in brain interstitial fluid essential for normal neuronal function, supply of nutrients, removal of metabolic products and prevention of entry or elimination of toxic agents...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769037/a-method-for-estimating-relative-changes-in-the-synaptic-density-in-drosophila-central-nervous-system
#11
Dipti Rai, Swagata Dey, Krishanu Ray
BACKGROUND: Synapse density is an essential indicator of development and functioning of the central nervous system. It is estimated indirectly through the accumulation of pre and postsynaptic proteins in tissue sections. 3D reconstruction of the electron microscopic images in serial sections is one of the most definitive means of estimating the formation of active synapses in the brain. It is tedious and highly skill-dependent. Confocal imaging of whole mounts or thick sections of the brain provides a natural alternative for rapid gross estimation of the synapse density in large areas...
May 16, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755338/a-review-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Isobel T French, Kalai A Muthusamy
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is situated in the upper pons in the dorsolateral portion of the ponto-mesencephalic tegmentum. Its main mass is positioned at the trochlear nucleus level, and is part of the mesenphalic locomotor region (MLR) in the upper brainstem. The human PPN is divided into two subnuclei, the pars compacta (PPNc) and pars dissipatus (PPNd), and constitutes both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons with afferent and efferent projections to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum, and spinal cord...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752427/molecular-basis-of-brain-ras-in-cardiovascular-and-neurological-disorders-uncovering-a-key-role-for-the-astroglial-at1r
#13
Dhanush Haspula, Michelle A Clark
The central renin angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the most widely investigated cardiovascular systems in the brain. It is implicated in a myriad of cardiovascular diseases. However, studies from the last decade have identified its involvement in several neurological abnormalities. Understanding the molecular functionality of the various RAS components can thus provide considerable insight into the phenotypic differences and mechanistic drivers of not just cardiovascular, but also neurological disorders. Since activation of one of its primary receptors, the angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1R) results in an augmentation of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines, it becomes essential to investigate not just neuronal RAS, but also glial RAS as well...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746906/multi-subject-hierarchical-inverse-covariance-modelling-improves-estimation-of-functional-brain-networks
#14
Giles L Colclough, Mark W Woolrich, Samuel J Harrison, Pedro A Rojas López, Pedro A Valdes-Sosa, Stephen M Smith
A Bayesian model for sparse, hierarchical inverse covariance estimation is presented, and applied to multi-subject functional connectivity estimation in the human brain. It enables simultaneous inference of the strength of connectivity between brain regions at both subject and population level, and is applicable to fmri, meg and eeg data. Two versions of the model can encourage sparse connectivity, either using continuous priors to suppress irrelevant connections, or using an explicit description of the network structure to estimate the connection probability between each pair of regions...
May 7, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721406/focused-ultrasound-augmented-delivery-of-biodegradable-multifunctional-nanoplatforms-for-imaging-guided-brain-tumor-treatment
#15
Meiying Wu, Wenting Chen, Yu Chen, Haixian Zhang, Chengbo Liu, Zhiting Deng, Zonghai Sheng, Jingqin Chen, Xin Liu, Fei Yan, Hairong Zheng
The blood brain barrier is the main obstacle to delivering diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the diseased sites of brain. It is still of great challenge for the combined use of focused ultrasound (FUS) and theranostic nanotechnology to achieve noninvasive and localized delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs into orthotopic brain tumor. In this work, a unique theranostic nanoplatform for highly efficient photoacoustic imaging - guided chemotherapy of brain tumor both in vitro and in vivo, which is based on the utilization of hollow mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (HMONs) to integrate ultrasmall Cu2- x Se particles on the surface and doxorubicin inside the hollow interior, is synthesized...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704690/a-systematic-review-of-the-semi-sitting-position-in-neurosurgical-patients-with-patent-foramen-ovale-how-frequent-is-paradoxical-embolism
#16
REVIEW
Johann Klein, Tareq A Juratli, Matthias Weise, Gabriele Schackert
The semi-sitting position is preferred in some surgeries of the posterior fossa and the cervical spine. At the same time, it is associated with the risk of air embolism. In the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) with intracardial right-to-left shunt, an air embolism can result in a paradoxical embolism to the heart or brain. It is unclear whether the risk-benefit ratio favors the semi-sitting position in this scenario. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the relevant studies published after 2007 by searching the databases PubMed, Science Direct and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for relevant articles...
April 25, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690824/performance-evaluation-of-a-multiplex-assay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-four-clinically-relevant-tbi-biomarkers
#17
Frederick Kofi Korley, John K Yue, David Wilson, Kevin Hrusovsky, Ramon Diaz-Arrasta, Adam R Ferguson, Esther Lim Yuh, Pratik Mukherjee, Kevin K W Wang, Alex Valadka, Ava Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Geoffrey Manley
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in heterogeneous pathology affecting multiple cells and tissue types in the brain. It is likely that assessment of such complexity will require simultaneous measurement of multiple molecular biomarkers in a single sample of biological fluid. We measured glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), neurofilament light chain (NF-L) and total tau in plasma samples obtained from 107 subjects enrolled in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) Study using the Quanterix Simoa 4-Plex assay...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684510/the-rodent-tibia-fracture-model-a-critical-review-and-comparison-with-the-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-literature
#18
REVIEW
Frank Birklein, Alaa Ibrahim, Tanja Schlereth, Wade S Kingery
Distal limb fracture is the most common cause of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), thus the rodent tibia fracture model (TFM) was developed to study CRPS pathogenesis. This comprehensive review summarizes the published TFM research and compares these experimental results with the CRPS literature. The TFM generated spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors, inflammatory symptoms (edema, warmth) and trophic changes (skin thickening, osteoporosis) resembling symptoms in early CRPS. Neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines, and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been linked to pain behaviors, inflammation, and trophic changes in the TFM model and proliferating keratinocytes were identified as the primary source of cutaneous cytokines and NGF...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677623/cerebrospinal-fluid-fgf23-levels-correlate-with-a-measure-of-impulsivity
#19
Hui Li, Zhiyong Cao, Jinzhong Xu, Fan Wang, Rongrong Xiong, Zeping Xu, Xianming Luo, Guohua Li, Xingqi Tan, Zhiyang Liu, Zhiqin Gao, Yimin Kang, Jian Xiao, Yanlong Liu, Xiaokun Li
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived protein produced mainly by osteocytes and osteoblasts and at low levels in specific parts of the brain. It has been shown to associate with mood regulation. Lithium treatment gives rise to significant elevations of serum FGF23 levels in depressive patients. High peripheral blood FGF23 levels correlated with poor cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients. However, no direct evidence demonstrates a relationship between FGF23 and mood regulation. In this study, we aimed to measure the concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) FGF23 and to explore its relationship with a cluster of emotional characteristics...
June 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656335/role-of-microglia-under-cardiac-and-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-i-r-injury
#20
REVIEW
Poomarin Surinkaew, Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Both cerebral and cardiac ischemia causes loss of cerebral blood flow, which may lead to neuronal cell damage, neurocognitive impairment, learning and memory difficulties, neurological deficits, and brain death. Although reperfusion is required immediately to restore the blood supply to the brain, it could lead to several detrimental effects on the brain. Several studies demonstrate that microglia activity increases following cerebral and cardiac ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the effects of microglial activation in the brain following I/R remains unclear...
April 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
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