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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432201/mg53-biological-function-and-potential-as-a-therapeutic-target
#1
Yan Zhang, Hong-Kun Wu, Fengxiang Lv, Rui-Ping Xiao
MG53 (also known as TRIM72) is a cardiac and skeletal muscle-specific TRIM-family protein that exhibits multiple biological functions. First, MG53 participates in plasma membrane repair of the heart, skeletal muscle and other tissues. Second, MG53 is essentially involved in the cardioprotection of cardiac ischemic, pre-conditioning and post-conditioning, by activating the PI3K-Akt-GSK3β and ERK1/2 survival signaling pathways. Moreover, systemic delivery of recombinant MG53 protein ameliorates the impact of a range of injury insults on heart, skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, skin and brain...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424147/treatment-of-leukoencephalopathy-with-calcifications-and-cysts-with-bevacizumab
#2
Alex J Fay, Allison A King, Joshua S Shimony, Yanick J Crow, Jan E Brunstrom-Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts is a rare, autosomal recessive cerebral microangiopathy that causes progressive white matter disease, calcifications, and cysts within the brain. It is typically associated with slowly progressive psychomotor regression, seizures, and movement disorders. Although leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts affects only the central nervous system, it demonstrates remarkable neuropathologic and radiologic overlap with Coats plus, a disorder of small vessels of the brain, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and bone...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421538/roles-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-isoforms-in-neurogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Cheong-Meng Chong, Nana Ai, Minjing Ke, Yuan Tan, Zhijian Huang, Yong Li, Jia-Hong Lu, Wei Ge, Huanxing Su
Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas, acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central nervous system (CNS). It has been widely explored as a mediator of neuroinflammation, neuronal damages, and neurodegeneration at its pathological levels. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that NO plays key roles in mediating adult neurogenesis, the process of neural stem cells (NSCs) to generate newborn neurons for replacing damaged neurons or maintaining the function of the brain. NO synthase (NOS) is a major enzyme catalyzing the generation of NO in the brain...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421141/excess-of-aminopeptidase-a-in-the-brain-elevates-blood-pressure-via-the-angiotensin-ii-type-1-and-bradykinin-b2-receptors-without-dipsogenic-effect
#4
Takuto Nakamura, Masanobu Yamazato, Akio Ishida, Yusuke Ohya
Aminopeptidase A (APA) cleaves angiotensin (Ang) II, kallidin, and other related peptides. In the brain, it activates the renin angiotensin system and causes hypertension. Limited data are available on the dipsogenic effect of APA and pressor effect of degraded peptides of APA such as bradykinin. Wistar-Kyoto rats received intracerebroventricular (icv) APA in a conscious, unrestrained state after pretreatment with (i) vehicle, (ii) 80 μg of telmisartan, an Ang II type-1 (AT1) receptor blocker, (iii) 800 nmol of amastatin, an aminopeptidase inhibitor, and (iv) 1 nmol of HOE-140, a bradykinin B2 receptor blocker...
2017: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420580/comparative-pharmacodynamic-analysis-of-imidazoline-compounds-using-rat-model-of-ocular-mydriasis-with-a-test-of-quantitative-structure-activity-relationships
#5
Joanna Raczak-Gutknecht, Antoni Nasal, Teresa Frąckowiak, Anita Kornicka, Franciszek Sączewski, Renata Wawrzyniak, Łukasz Kubik, Roman Kaliszan
Imidazol(in)e derivatives, having the chemical structure similar to clonidine, exert diverse pharmacological activities connected with their interactions with alpha2-adrenergic receptors, e.g. hypotension, bradycardia, sedation as well as antinociceptive, anxiolytic, antiarrhythmic, muscle relaxant and mydriatic effects. The mechanism of pupillary dilation observed after systemic administration of imidazol(in)es to rats, mice and cats depends on the stimulation of postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptors within the brain...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411304/numbers-and-brains
#6
C R Gallistel
The representation of discrete and continuous quantities appears to be ancient and pervasive in animal brains. Because numbers are the natural carriers of these representations, we may discover that in brains, it's numbers all the way down.
April 14, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397252/is-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-a-developmental-disorder
#7
Thomas Arendt, Jens Stieler, Uwe Ueberham
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of higher age that specifically occurs in human. Its clinical phase, characterized by a decline in physiological, psychological and social functioning, is preceded by a long clinically silent phase of at least several decades that might perhaps even start very early in life. Overall, key functional abilities decline in AD patients in reverse order of the development of these abilities during childhood and adolescence. Early symptoms of AD, thus, typically affect mental functions that have been acquired only during very recent hominid evolution and as such are specific to human...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386213/exosomes-in-the-diseased-brain-first-insights-from-in-vivo-studies
#8
REVIEW
Efrat Levy
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoscale size vesicles secreted by cells and are important mediators of intercellular communication and genetic exchange. Exosomes, EVs generated in endosomal multivesicular bodies, have been the focus of numerous publications as they have emerged as clinically valuable markers of disease states. Exosomes have been mostly studied from conditioned culture media and body fluids, with the difficulty of isolating exosomes from tissues having delayed their study in vivo. The implementation of a method designed to isolate exosomes from tissues, however, has yielded the first insights into characteristics of exosomes in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362983/association-between-c807t-c-t-polymorphism-of-platelet-glycoprotein-gene-and-sensitivity-to-ischemic-stroke-a-meta-analysis
#9
C Luo, L H Fan, H Zhang, J Zhao, L Li, L Zhang, H X Zhang, M M Ma
Ischemic stroke can lead to loss of neurologic functions. It occurs due to obstruction in blood supply to the brain. It has been proposed that C807T(C/T) polymorphism within the platelet glycoprotein gene may be associated with density and function of glycoprotein Ia/IIa receptors and contributes to the pathogenesis of thrombotic disease. We assessed the association between C807T(C/T) and risk of ischemic stroke. Databases such as PubMed, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, Wanfang Data (Chinese), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Chinese) were used to search for relevant studies...
March 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351256/wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment
#10
Alexander Donnelly
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a potentially debilitating and fatal condition that is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the brain. It can be treated effectively or prevented completely; however, the condition is often undiagnosed and inadequately managed. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is commonly considered to be specific to individuals who misuse alcohol; however, there are many other predisposing factors and causes associated with the condition. This article aims to raise awareness of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, to enable nurses in all practice settings to recognise the signs, symptoms and risk factors associated with the condition and be informed about available treatments...
March 29, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351041/mechanisms-of-retinal-fluid-accumulation-and-blood-retinal-barrier-breakdown
#11
José Cunha-Vaz
Macular edema is the swelling of the central portion of the human retina and it is associated with increased retinal thickness. It can be simply defined as an excess of fluid within the retinal tissue. It must be realized that the normal retina possesses a functional extracellular space. With regard to the extracellular volume of the retina, there have been few physiologic studies, but there are reported values of 24.8% for the cerebrum and 23.6% for the cerebellum. It is accepted that the retinal extracellular space is similar to the brain...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342092/evaluation-of-structural-connectivity-changes-in-betel-quid-chewers-using-generalized-q-sampling-mri
#12
Jun-Cheng Weng, Te-Wei Kao, Guo-Joe Huang, Yeu-Sheng Tyan, Hsien-Chun Tseng, Ming-Chou Ho
RATIONALE: Betel quid (BQ) is a common addictive substance in many Asian countries. However, few studies have focused on the influences of BQ on the brain. It remains unclear how BQ can affect structural brain abnormalities in BQ chewers. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to use generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI) to evaluate the impact of the neurological structure of white matter caused by BQ. METHODS: The study population comprised 16 BQ chewers, 15 tobacco and alcohol controls, and 17 healthy controls...
March 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336494/minocycline-reduces-inflammatory-parameters-in-the-brain-structures-and-serum-and-reverses-memory-impairment-caused-by-the-administration-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-in-mice
#13
Michelle Lima Garcez, Francielle Mina, Tatiani Bellettini-Santos, Franciellen Gonçalves Carneiro, Aline Pereira Luz, Gustavo Luis Schiavo, Matheus Scopel Andrighetti, Maylton Grégori Scheid, Renan Pereira Bolfe, Josiane Budni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of age-related dementia. Cognitive decline, beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation are the main pathophysiological characteristics of AD. Minocycline is a tetracycline derivative with anti-inflammatory properties that has a neuroprotective effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of minocycline on memory, neurotrophins and neuroinflammation in an animal model of AD induced by the administration of Aβ (1-42) oligomer...
March 21, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329785/beet-root-juice-an-ergogenic-aid-for-exercise-and-the-aging-brain
#14
Meredith Petrie, W Jack Rejeski, Swati Basu, Paul J Laurienti, Anthony P Marsh, James L Norris, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro, Jonathan H Burdette
Background: Exercise has positive neuroplastic effects on the aging brain. It has also been shown that ingestion of beet root juice (BRJ) increases blood flow to the brain and enhances exercise performance. Here, we examined whether there are synergistic effects of BRJ and exercise on neuroplasticity in the aging brain. Methods: Peak metabolic equivalent (MET) capacity and resting-state magnetic resonance imaging functional brain network organization are reported on 26 older (mean age = 65...
November 9, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328228/reversible-morphological-control-of-cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide-amyloid-assemblies-as-a-function-of-ph
#15
Frédéric Gobeaux, Florence Porcher, Rajeev Dattani
Most amyloid assemblies are seen as irreversible and exhibit polymorphism because their assembly is kinetically controlled and different structures are trapped during the aggregation process. However, in the specific case of peptide hormones, formation of amyloid assemblies for storage purposes has been reported. This suggests a strict control of assembly and the ability to disassemble upon hormone secretion. In the present work, we have sought to test these assertions with a short peptide, the cholecystokinin (or gastrin) tetrapeptide (CCK-4), that has been found in both gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, and whose sequence is shared by a large number of hormones...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294697/efficacy-of-low-level-laser-therapy-in-subjective-tinnitus-patients-with-temporomandibular-disorders
#16
Nermin Demirkol, Aslihan Usumez, Mehmet Demirkol, Fatih Sari, Cihan Akcaboy
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is an apparent sound, perceived in the ear with no stimulus. It has been described as a sound originating from the brain. It affects 17% of the general population. Etiological factors for tinnitus include temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ, TMD) and Costen's syndrome. The aim of treatment is to eliminate the tinnitus or at least decrease its apparent volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 46 patients referred to our department with bilateral subjective tinnitus with TMDs were selected for this study...
March 14, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291539/the-role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-its-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-stroke-patients
#17
REVIEW
Dariusz Kotlęga, Barbara Peda, Agnieszka Zembroń-Łacny, Monika Gołąb-Janowska, Przemysław Nowacki
Stroke is the main cause of motoric and neuropsychological disability in adults. Recent advances in research into the role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neuroplasticity, neuroprotection and neurogenesis might provide important information for the development of new poststroke-rehabilitation strategies. It plays a role as a mediator in motor learning and rehabilitation after stroke. Concentrations of BDNF are lower in acute ischemic-stroke patients compared to controls. Lower levels of BDNF are correlated with an increased risk of stroke, worse functional outcomes and higher mortality...
March 6, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284447/cognitive-disorders-in-children-s-hydrocephalus
#18
REVIEW
Dorota Zielińska, Anna Rajtar-Zembaty, Anna Starowicz-Filip
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hydrocephalus is defined as an increase of volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricular system of the brain. It develops as a result of cerebrospinal fluid flow disorder due to dysfunctions of absorption or, less frequently, as a result of the increase of its production. Hydrocephalus may lead to various cognitive dysfunctions in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to determine cognitive functioning in children with hydrocephalus, the authors reviewed available literature while investigating this subject...
February 24, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283319/oxytocin-the-sweet-hormone
#19
REVIEW
Gareth Leng, Nancy Sabatier
Mammalian neurons that produce oxytocin and vasopressin apparently evolved from an ancient cell type with both sensory and neurosecretory properties that probably linked reproductive functions to energy status and feeding behavior. Oxytocin in modern mammals is an autocrine/paracrine regulator of cell function, a systemic hormone, a neuromodulator released from axon terminals within the brain, and a 'neurohormone' that acts at receptors distant from its site of release. In the periphery oxytocin is involved in electrolyte homeostasis, gastric motility, glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, and osteogenesis, and within the brain it is involved in food reward, food choice, and satiety...
March 7, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282924/autophagy-and-microglia-novel-partners-in-neurodegeneration-and-aging
#20
REVIEW
Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala, Virginia Sierra-Torre, Amanda Sierra
Autophagy is emerging as a core regulator of Central Nervous System (CNS) aging and neurodegeneration. In the brain, it has mostly been studied in neurons, where the delivery of toxic molecules and organelles to the lysosome by autophagy is crucial for neuronal health and survival. However, we propose that the (dys)regulation of autophagy in microglia also affects innate immune functions such as phagocytosis and inflammation, which in turn contribute to the pathophysiology of aging and neurodegenerative diseases...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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