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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031577/structural-biology-of-gabab-receptor
#1
REVIEW
Aurel Frangaj, Qing R Fan
Metabotropic GABAB receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates slow and prolonged inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. It functions as a constitutive heterodimer composed of the GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits. Each subunit contains three domains; the extracellular Venus flytrap module, seven-helix transmembrane region and cytoplasmic tail. In recent years, the three-dimensional structures of GABAB receptor extracellular and intracellular domains have been elucidated. These structures reveal the molecular basis of ligand recognition, receptor heterodimerization and receptor activation...
October 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021994/stereotaxic-adeno-associated-virus-injection-and-cannula-implantation-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-of-mice
#2
Patrícia A Correia, Sara Matias, Zachary F Mainen
Optogenetic methods are now widespread in neuroscience research. Here we present a detailed surgical procedure to inject adeno-associated viruses and implant optic fiber cannulas in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of living mice. Combined with transgenic mouse lines, this protocol allows specific targeting of serotonin-producing neurons in the brain. It includes fixing a mouse in a stereotaxic frame, performing a craniotomy, virus injection and fiber implantation. Animals can be later used in behavioral experiments, combined with optogenetic manipulations (Dugué et al...
September 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979238/n-acetylaspartate-metabolism-outside-the-brain-lipogenesis-histone-acetylation-and-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Juliane G Bogner-Strauss
N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is a highly abundant brain metabolite. Aberrant NAA concentrations have been detected in many pathological conditions and although the function of NAA has been extensively investigated in the brain it is still controversial. Only recently, a role of NAA has been reported outside the brain. In brown adipocytes, which show high expression of the NAA-producing and the NAA-cleaving enzyme, the metabolism of NAA has been implicated in lipid synthesis and histone acetylation. Increased expression of N-acetyltransferase 8-like (Nat8l, the gene encoding the NAA synthesizing enzyme) induces de novo lipogenesis and the brown adipocyte phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978666/aqp4e-based-orthogonal-arrays-regulate-rapid-cell-volume-changes-in-astrocytes
#4
Marjeta Lisjak, Maja Potokar, Boštjan Rituper, Jernej Jorgačevski, Robert Zorec
Water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) plays a key role in the regulation of water homeostasis in the brain. It is predominantly expressed in astrocytes at blood-brain and blood-liquor interfaces. Although several AQP4 isoforms have been identified in the mammalian brain, two, AQP4a (M1) and AQP4c (M23), have been confirmed to cluster into plasma membrane supramolecular structures, termed orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) and to enhance water transport through the plasma membrane. However, the role of the newly described water-conductive mammalian isoform AQP4e is unknown...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976233/a-review-of-drug-therapy-for-sporadic-fatal-insomnia
#5
Pardis Tabaee Damavandi, Martin T Dove, Richard W Pickersgill
BACKGROUND: Sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI) is a rapid progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by gradual to perpetual insomnia, followed by dysautonomia, coma and death. (1) The cause of sFI was recently mapped to a mutation in a protein, the prion, found in the human brain. It is the unfolding of the prion that leads to the generation of toxic oligomers that destroy brain tissue and function. Recent studies have confirmed that a methionine mutation at codon 129 of the human Prion is characteristic of sFI...
September 3, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968785/the-genetic-contributions-to-maturational-coupling-in-the-human-cerebrum-a-longitudinal-pediatric-twin-imaging-study
#6
J Eric Schmitt, Jay N Giedd, Armin Raznahan, Michael C Neale
Although prior studies have demonstrated that genetic factors play the dominant role in the patterning of the pediatric brain, it remains unclear how these patterns change over time. Using 1748 longitudinal anatomic MRI scans from 792 healthy twins and siblings, we quantified how genetically mediated inter-regional associations change over time via multivariate longitudinal structural equation modeling. These analyses found that genetic correlations for both lobar volumes and cortical thickness are dynamic, with relatively static effects on surface area...
August 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966597/intelligence-and-brain-efficiency-investigating-the-association-between-working-memory-performance-glutamate-and-gaba
#7
Anouk Marsman, René C W Mandl, Dennis W J Klomp, Wiepke Cahn, René S Kahn, Peter R Luijten, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol
Intelligence is a measure of general cognitive functioning capturing a wide variety of different cognitive functions. It has been hypothesized that the brain works to minimize the resources allocated toward higher cognitive functioning. Thus, for the intelligent brain, it may be that not simply more is better, but rather, more efficient is better. Energy metabolism supports both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission processes. Indeed, in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, the primary energetic costs are associated with neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932982/cerebral-fat-embolism-recognition-complications-and-prognosis
#8
Daniel Agustín Godoy, Mario Di Napoli, Alejandro A Rabinstein
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a rare syndrome caused by embolization of fat particles into multiple organs including the brain. It typically manifests with petechial rash, deteriorating mental status, and progressive respiratory insufficiency, usually occurring within 24-48 h of trauma with long-bone fractures or an orthopedic surgery. The diagnosis of FES is based on clinical and imaging findings, but requires exclusion of alternative diagnoses. Although there is no specific treatment for FES, prompt recognition is important because it can avoid unnecessary interventions and clarify prognosis...
September 20, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923480/impact-of-morphine-on-the-expression-of-insulin-receptor-and-protein-levels-of-insulin-igfs-in-rat-neural-stem-cells
#9
Sadegh Salarinasab, AliReza Nourazarian, Masoud Nikanfar, Nima Abdyazdani, Masoumeh Kazemi, Navid Feizy, Reza Rahbarghazi
Alzheimer's disease is correlated with neuronal degeneration and loss of neuronal precursors in different parts of the brain. It has been found disturbance in the homeostasis neural stem cells (NSCs) can cause neurodegeneration. Morphine, an analgesic agent, can disrupt the dynamic and normal state of NSCs. However, more investigations are required to clearly address underlying mechanisms. The current experiment aimed to investigate the effects of morphine on the cell distribution of insulin factor and receptor and insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) in NSCs...
September 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913708/emergency-neurological-life-support-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#10
J Claude Hemphill, Arthur Lam
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subset of stroke due to spontaneous bleeding within the parenchyma of the brain. It is potentially lethal, and survival depends on ensuring an adequate airway, proper diagnosis, and early management of several specific issues such as blood pressure, coagulopathy reversal, and surgical hematoma evacuation for appropriate patients. ICH was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) protocol because intervention within the first hours may improve outcome, and it is critical to have site-specific protocols to drive care quickly and efficiently...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912642/nox-inhibitors-a-promising-avenue-for-ischemic-stroke
#11
REVIEW
Jong Youl Kim, Joohyun Park, Jong Eun Lee, Midori A Yenari
NADPH-oxidase (NOX) mediated superoxide originally found on leukocytes, but now recognized in several types of cells in the brain. It has been shown to play an important role in the progression of stroke and related cerebrovascular disease. NOX is a multisubunit complex consisting of 2 membrane-associated and 4 cytosolic subunits. NOX activation occurs when cytosolic subunits translocate to the membrane, leading to transport electrons to oxygen, thus producing superoxide. Superoxide produced by NOX is thought to function in long-term potentiation and intercellular signaling, but excessive production is damaging and has been implicated to play an important role in the progression of ischemic brain...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912640/spike-frequency-adaptation-in-neurons-of-the-central-nervous-system
#12
REVIEW
Go Eun Ha, Eunji Cheong
Neuronal firing patterns and frequencies determine the nature of encoded information of the neurons. Here we discuss the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels such as BKCa and SKCa channels have long been known to be important mediators of spike adaptation via generation of a large afterhyperpolarization when neurons are hyper-activated. However, it has been shown that a strong hyperpolarization via these KCa channels would cease action potential generation rather than reducing the frequency of spike generation...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898302/-belief-system-regarding-cannabis-its-use-and-consequences-users-versus-non-users-in-colombian-university-students
#13
Gonzalo Galván, Álvaro Sánchez-Carballo, Ileana Gómez-Morales, Oscar Humánez-Julio, Manuel Guerrero-Martelo, Francisco Vásquez De la Hoz
Descriptive and comparative study of cross-sectional that had as objective to evaluate and compare the beliefs about cannabis, its use and potential consequences between two groups of Colombian university students, matched by gender and age. The frst group consisted of ordinary consumers of cannabis (n=35) the second group consisted of students that have never tried cannabis (n=35). The results showed that the group of consumers presents a moderate risk of abuse and only the 20% fulflled dependence criteria...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894304/quantification-of-brain-cholinergic-denervation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-using-pet-imaging-with-18-f-feobv
#14
M Aghourian, C Legault-Denis, J-P Soucy, P Rosa-Neto, S Gauthier, A Kostikov, P Gravel, M-A Bédard
(18)F-fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol (FEOBV) is a new PET radiotracer that binds to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. In both animals and healthy humans, FEOBV was found sensitive and reliable to characterize presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals in the brain. It has been used here for we believe the first time in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) to quantify brain cholinergic losses. The sample included 12 participants evenly divided in healthy subjects and patients with AD, all assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) cognitive scales...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875233/glutamate-dependent-translational-control-of-glutamine-synthetase-in-bergmann-glia-cells
#15
Reynaldo Tiburcio-Félix, Miguel Escalante-López, Bruno López-Bayghen, Daniel Martínez, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Samuel Zinker, Dinorah Hernández-Melchor, Esther López-Bayghen, Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter of the vertebrate brain. It exerts its actions through the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors expressed both in neurons and in glial cells. Recent evidence has shown that glutamate uptake systems, particularly enriched in glia cells, trigger biochemical cascades in a similar fashion as receptors. A tight regulation of glutamate extracellular levels prevents neuronal overstimulation and cell death, and it is critically involved in glutamate turnover...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865022/drebrin-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Yuta Ishizuka, Kenji Hanamura
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by severe progressive memory and cognitive impairment. The brain of AD patients has an abundance of two abnormal structures, amyloid plaques (senile plaques) and neurofibrillary tangles. In addition, drebrin loss is another hallmark of AD brains, which is a common feature in the brain of both AD patients and AD mouse models. Strong evidence from human genetics and transgenic mouse models has indicated that amyloid β (Aβ) is part of the etiology and pathogenesis of AD...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862769/histamine-and-migraine
#17
Hsiangkuo Yuan, Stephen D Silberstein
BACKGROUND: Histamine is an ancient "tissue amine" preceding multicellular organisms. In the central nervous system (CNS), its fibers originate solely from the tuberomammillary nucleus and travel throughout the brain. It is mainly responsible for wakefulness, energy homeostasis, and memory consolidation. Recently, several studies suggest a potential role of histamine in migraine pathogenesis and management. METHODS: Narrative review of current literature regarding histamine and migraine...
September 1, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834867/cortical-blindness-and-not-optic-neuritis-as-a-cause-of-vision-loss-in-a-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-ss-patient-with-the-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-challenges-of-ascribing-demyelinating-syndromes-to-ss-a-case-report
#18
Aliya Lalji, Izlem Izbudak, Julius Birnbaum
RATIONALE: The conception that multiple sclerosis may be challenging to distinguish from demyelinating manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) was introduced more than 30 years ago. However, it is now recognized that the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) may occur more frequently in SS as opposed to multiple sclerosis. Characteristic NMOSD features can include severe attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis which is frequently longitudinally-extensive (spanning at least three vertebral segments on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), and an association with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805558/oxytocin-modulates-expression-of-neuron-and-glial-markers-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#19
T Havránek, Z Lešťanová, B Mravec, V Štrbák, J Bakoš, Z Bačová
Neuropeptides including oxytocin belong to the group of factors that may play a role in the control of neuronal cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential contribution of oxytocin to neuronal differentiation by measuring gene and protein expression of specific neuron and glial markers in the brain. Neonatal and adult oxytocin administration was used to reveal developmental and/or acute effects of oxytocin in Wistar rats. Gene and protein expression of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in the hippocampus was increased in 21-day and 2-month old rats in response to neonatal oxytocin administration...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794972/fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-falff-in-post-stroke-depression
#20
Natalia Egorova, Michele Veldsman, Toby Cumming, Amy Brodtmann
Depression is a common outcome following stroke, associated with reduced quality of life and poorer recovery. Despite attempts to associate depression symptoms with specific lesion sites, the neural basis of post-stroke depression remains poorly understood. Resting state fMRI has provided new insights into the neural underpinnings of post-stroke depression, but has been limited to connectivity analyses exploring interregional correlations in the time-course of activity. Other aspects of resting state BOLD signal remain unexamined...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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