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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548702/p16-loss-and-e2f-cell-cycle-deregulation-in-infant-posterior-fossa-ependymoma
#1
Seth C Lummus, Andrew M Donson, Katherine Gowan, Kenneth L Jones, Rajeev Vibhakar, Nicholas K Foreman, B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
BACKGROUND: Posterior fossa (PF) ependymomas (EPNs) in infants less than 1 year of age (iEPN-PF) have a poorer clinical outcome than EPNs in older children. While radiation therapy is the standard of care for the latter, it is withheld in infants to avoid neurotoxicity to immature brain. It is unknown whether the adverse outcome in iEPN-PFs is due to treatment differences or aggressive biology. We examined this question using molecular profiling. METHODS: Six anaplastic iEPN-PFs were subjected to transcriptomic analysis and FISH for p16 loss and gains of 1q, and compared with anaplastic PF EPNs from older children...
May 26, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544029/learned-control-over-spinal-nociception-in-patients-with-chronic-back-pain
#2
S Krafft, H-D Göhmann, J Sommer, A Straube, R Ruscheweyh
BACKGROUND: Descending pain inhibition suppresses spinal nociception, reducing nociceptive input to the brain. It is modulated by cognitive and emotional processes. In subjects with chronic pain, it is impaired, possibly contributing to pain persistence. A previously developed feedback method trains subjects to activate their descending inhibition. Participants are trained to use cognitive-emotional strategies to reduce their spinal nociception, as quantified by the nociceptive flexor reflex (RIII reflex), under visual feedback about their RIII reflex size...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539584/hunger-enhances-consistent-economic-choices-in-non-human-primates
#3
Hiroshi Yamada
Hunger and thirst are fundamental biological processes that drive consumption behavior in humans and non-human animals. While the existing literature in neuroscience suggests that these satiety states change how consumable rewards are represented in the brain, it remains unclear as to how they change animal choice behavior and the underlying economic preferences. Here, I used combined techniques from experimental economics, psychology, and neuroscience to measure food preferences of marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), a recently developed primate model for neuroscience...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528704/from-neuro-pigments-to-neural-efficiency-the-relationship-between-retinal-carotenoids-and-behavioral-and-neuroelectric-indices-of-cognitive-control-in-childhood
#4
Anne M Walk, Naiman A Khan, Sasha M Barnett, Lauren B Raine, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Christopher J Moulton, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Billy R Hammond, Charles H Hillman
Lutein and zeaxanthin are plant pigments known to preferentially accumulate in neural tissue. Macular Pigment Optical Density (MPOD), a non-invasive measure of retinal carotenoids and surrogate measure of brain carotenoid concentration, has been associated with disease prevention and cognitive health. Superior MPOD status in later adulthood has been shown to provide neuroprotective effects on cognition. Given that childhood signifies a critical period for carotenoid accumulation in brain, it is likely that the beneficial impact would be evident during development, though this relationship has not been directly investigated...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515545/traumatic-brain-injury-and-neuropsychiatric-complications
#5
REVIEW
Saeed Ahmed, Hema Venigalla, Hema Madhuri Mekala, Sara Dar, Mudasar Hassan, Shahana Ayub
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating injury results in damage to the brain. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in young people with a higher prevalence in men. TBI is the leading cause of disability and mortality between the ages 1 and 45. TBI can be caused either by the direct result of trauma or due to a complication of the primary injury. The most common etiological factors for TBI are falls, road traffic accidents, violent physical assaults, and injuries associated with athletic activities...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480646/amplitude-modulation-based-electrical-stimulation-for-encoding-multipixel-spatiotemporal-visual-information-in-retinal-neural-activities
#6
Sang Baek Ryu, Jeong Woo Choi, Kun No Ahn, Yong Sook Goo, Kyung Hwan Kim
Retinal implants have been developed as a promising way to restore partial vision for the blind. The observation and analysis of neural activities can offer valuable insights for successful prosthetic electrical stimulation. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activities have been investigated to provide knowledge on the requirements for electrical stimulation, such as threshold current and the effect of stimulation waveforms. To develop a detailed 'stimulation strategy' for faithful delivery of spatiotemporal visual information to the brain, it is essential to examine both the temporal and spatial characteristics of RGC responses, whereas previous studies were mainly focused on one or the other...
June 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479339/lineage-tracing-of-dlx1a-2a-and-dlx5a-6a-expressing-cells-in-the-developing-zebrafish-brain
#7
Cynthia M Solek, Shengrui Feng, Sofia Perin, Hellen Weinschutz Mendes, Marc Ekker
Lineage tracing of specific populations of progenitor cells provides crucial information about developmental programs. Four members of the Dlx homeobox gene family, Dlx1,2, 5 and 6, are involved in the specification of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons in the vertebrate forebrain. Orthologous genes in mammals and teleost show similarities in expression patterns and transcriptional regulation mechanisms. We have used lineage tracing to permanently label dlx-expressing cells in the zebrafish and have characterized the progeny of these cells in the larva and in the juvenile and adult brain...
May 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461125/modulation-of-neurogenesis-via-neurotrophic-factors-in-acupuncture-treatments-for-neurological-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Hwa Kyoung Shin, Sae-Won Lee, Byung Tae Choi
Acupuncture is one of the main healing arts in Oriental medicine. It has long been used in East Asian countries, including Korea and China, and is thought to be an effective alternative treatment for various neurological diseases. The therapeutic effects of acupuncture come from inserting a needle at specific acupoints on the body surface, with subsequent delivery of stimulation via manual rotation or electric pulses (electroacupuncture, EA). In various neurological disease models, peripheral nerve stimulation using acupuncture or EA may have protective effects on neural tissues by increasing expression of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor, in the central nervous system, especially the brain...
April 29, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445807/rewiring-brain-circuits-to-block-cataplexy-in-murine-models-of-narcolepsy
#9
REVIEW
Meng Liu, Carlos Blanco-Centurion, Priyattam J Shiromani
Narcolepsy was first identified almost 130 years ago, but it was only 15 years ago that it was identified as a neurodegenerative disease linked to a loss of orexin neurons in the brain. It is unclear what causes the orexin neurons to die, but our strategy has been to place the gene for orexin into surrogate neurons in the validated mouse models of narcolepsy, and test whether it can block narcolepsy symptoms, such as cataplexy. In both the orexin knockout and the orexin-ataxin-3 mouse models of narcolepsy we have found that cataplexy can be blocked if the surrogate neurons are part of the circuit responsible for cataplexy...
April 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445613/neuronal-distribution-of-tyramine-and-the-tyramine-receptor-amtar1-in-the-honeybee-brain
#10
Markus Thamm, Christina Scholl, Tina Reim, Kornelia Grübel, Karin Möller, Wolfgang Rössler, Ricarda Scheiner
Tyramine is an important neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone in insects. In honeybees, it is assumed to have functions in modulating sensory responsiveness and controlling motor behavior. Tyramine can bind to two characterized receptors in honeybees, both of which are coupled to intracellular cAMP pathways. How tyramine acts on neuronal, cellular and circuit levels is unclear. We investigated the spatial brain expression of the tyramine receptor AmTAR1 using a specific antibody. This antibody detects a membrane protein of the expected molecular weight in western blot analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432201/mg53-biological-function-and-potential-as-a-therapeutic-target
#11
Yan Zhang, Hong-Kun Wu, Fengxiang Lv, Rui-Ping Xiao
MG53 (also known as TRIM72) is a cardiac and skeletal muscle-specific TRIM-family protein that exhibits multiple biological functions. First, MG53 participates in plasma membrane repair of the heart, skeletal muscle and other tissues. Second, MG53 is essentially involved in the cardioprotection of cardiac ischemic, pre-conditioning and post-conditioning, by activating the PI3K-Akt-GSK3β and ERK1/2 survival signaling pathways. Moreover, systemic delivery of recombinant MG53 protein ameliorates the impact of a range of injury insults on heart, skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, skin and brain...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424147/treatment-of-leukoencephalopathy-with-calcifications-and-cysts-with-bevacizumab
#12
Alex J Fay, Allison A King, Joshua S Shimony, Yanick J Crow, Jan E Brunstrom-Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts is a rare, autosomal recessive cerebral microangiopathy that causes progressive white matter disease, calcifications, and cysts within the brain. It is typically associated with slowly progressive psychomotor regression, seizures, and movement disorders. Although leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts affects only the central nervous system, it demonstrates remarkable neuropathologic and radiologic overlap with Coats plus, a disorder of small vessels of the brain, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and bone...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421538/roles-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-isoforms-in-neurogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Cheong-Meng Chong, Nana Ai, Minjing Ke, Yuan Tan, Zhijian Huang, Yong Li, Jia-Hong Lu, Wei Ge, Huanxing Su
Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas, acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central nervous system (CNS). It has been widely explored as a mediator of neuroinflammation, neuronal damages, and neurodegeneration at its pathological levels. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that NO plays key roles in mediating adult neurogenesis, the process of neural stem cells (NSCs) to generate newborn neurons for replacing damaged neurons or maintaining the function of the brain. NO synthase (NOS) is a major enzyme catalyzing the generation of NO in the brain...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421141/excess-of-aminopeptidase-a-in-the-brain-elevates-blood-pressure-via-the-angiotensin-ii-type-1-and-bradykinin-b2-receptors-without-dipsogenic-effect
#14
Takuto Nakamura, Masanobu Yamazato, Akio Ishida, Yusuke Ohya
Aminopeptidase A (APA) cleaves angiotensin (Ang) II, kallidin, and other related peptides. In the brain, it activates the renin angiotensin system and causes hypertension. Limited data are available on the dipsogenic effect of APA and pressor effect of degraded peptides of APA such as bradykinin. Wistar-Kyoto rats received intracerebroventricular (icv) APA in a conscious, unrestrained state after pretreatment with (i) vehicle, (ii) 80 μg of telmisartan, an Ang II type-1 (AT1) receptor blocker, (iii) 800 nmol of amastatin, an aminopeptidase inhibitor, and (iv) 1 nmol of HOE-140, a bradykinin B2 receptor blocker...
2017: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420580/comparative-pharmacodynamic-analysis-of-imidazoline-compounds-using-rat-model-of-ocular-mydriasis-with-a-test-of-quantitative-structure-activity-relationships
#15
Joanna Raczak-Gutknecht, Antoni Nasal, Teresa Frąckowiak, Anita Kornicka, Franciszek Sączewski, Renata Wawrzyniak, Łukasz Kubik, Roman Kaliszan
Imidazol(in)e derivatives, having the chemical structure similar to clonidine, exert diverse pharmacological activities connected with their interactions with alpha2-adrenergic receptors, e.g. hypotension, bradycardia, sedation as well as antinociceptive, anxiolytic, antiarrhythmic, muscle relaxant and mydriatic effects. The mechanism of pupillary dilation observed after systemic administration of imidazol(in)es to rats, mice and cats depends on the stimulation of postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptors within the brain...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411304/numbers-and-brains
#16
C R Gallistel
The representation of discrete and continuous quantities appears to be ancient and pervasive in animal brains. Because numbers are the natural carriers of these representations, we may discover that in brains, it's numbers all the way down.
April 14, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397252/is-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-a-developmental-disorder
#17
Thomas Arendt, Jens Stieler, Uwe Ueberham
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of higher age that specifically occurs in human. Its clinical phase, characterized by a decline in physiological, psychological and social functioning, is preceded by a long clinically silent phase of at least several decades that might perhaps even start very early in life. Overall, key functional abilities decline in AD patients in reverse order of the development of these abilities during childhood and adolescence. Early symptoms of AD, thus, typically affect mental functions that have been acquired only during very recent hominid evolution and as such are specific to human...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386213/exosomes-in-the-diseased-brain-first-insights-from-in-vivo-studies
#18
REVIEW
Efrat Levy
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoscale size vesicles secreted by cells and are important mediators of intercellular communication and genetic exchange. Exosomes, EVs generated in endosomal multivesicular bodies, have been the focus of numerous publications as they have emerged as clinically valuable markers of disease states. Exosomes have been mostly studied from conditioned culture media and body fluids, with the difficulty of isolating exosomes from tissues having delayed their study in vivo. The implementation of a method designed to isolate exosomes from tissues, however, has yielded the first insights into characteristics of exosomes in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362983/association-between-c807t-c-t-polymorphism-of-platelet-glycoprotein-gene-and-sensitivity-to-ischemic-stroke-a-meta-analysis
#19
C Luo, L H Fan, H Zhang, J Zhao, L Li, L Zhang, H X Zhang, M M Ma
Ischemic stroke can lead to loss of neurologic functions. It occurs due to obstruction in blood supply to the brain. It has been proposed that C807T(C/T) polymorphism within the platelet glycoprotein gene may be associated with density and function of glycoprotein Ia/IIa receptors and contributes to the pathogenesis of thrombotic disease. We assessed the association between C807T(C/T) and risk of ischemic stroke. Databases such as PubMed, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, Wanfang Data (Chinese), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Chinese) were used to search for relevant studies...
March 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351256/wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment
#20
Alexander Donnelly
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a potentially debilitating and fatal condition that is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the brain. It can be treated effectively or prevented completely; however, the condition is often undiagnosed and inadequately managed. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is commonly considered to be specific to individuals who misuse alcohol; however, there are many other predisposing factors and causes associated with the condition. This article aims to raise awareness of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, to enable nurses in all practice settings to recognise the signs, symptoms and risk factors associated with the condition and be informed about available treatments...
March 29, 2017: Nursing Standard
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