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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656335/role-of-microglia-under-cardiac-and-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-i-r-injury
#1
REVIEW
Poomarin Surinkaew, Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Both cerebral and cardiac ischemia causes loss of cerebral blood flow, which may lead to neuronal cell damage, neurocognitive impairment, learning and memory difficulties, neurological deficits, and brain death. Although reperfusion is required immediately to restore the blood supply to the brain, it could lead to several detrimental effects on the brain. Several studies demonstrate that microglia activity increases following cerebral and cardiac ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the effects of microglial activation in the brain following I/R remains unclear...
April 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628558/comparison-of-inhalational-vital-capacity-induction-with-sevoflurane-to-intravenous-induction-with-propofol-for-insertion-of-laryngeal-mask-airway-in-adults-a-randomized-study
#2
Vinaya Udaybhaskar, Amol Singam, Himanshu Dodeja, Karuna Taksande
Background: Since the development of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) by Dr. Brain, it is extensively used for airway management; satisfactory insertion of LMA requires administration of an induction agent and suppression of airway reflexes. Among intravenous agents, propofol has been the drug of choice in view of better safety profile, relaxation and depression of upper airway reflexes. Sevoflurane on the other hand, with pleasant odor, nonirritating to the airways and with bronchodilator property are best among the volatile induction agents...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626707/longitudinal-association-between-psychosocial-stress-and-retinal-microvasculature-in-children-and-adolescents
#3
Carola J C Van Aart, Tim S Nawrot, Isabelle Sioen, Patrick De Boever, Mahmoud Zaqout, Stefaan De Henauw, Nathalie Michels
BACKGROUND: Retinal microvessels provides a window to assess the microcirculation of heart and brain, and might reflect cardio- or cerebrovascular disease risk. Limited information exist on the relation between psychosocial stress and the microcirculation, even though psychosocial stress might trigger vascular diseases. This study investigates whether childhood psychosocial stress is a predictor of retinal microvasculature. METHODS: We followed-up 182 Belgian children, aged 5...
March 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625923/wilson-s-disease-a-2017-update
#4
Aurélia Poujois, France Woimant
Wilson's disease (WD) is characterised by a deleterious accumulation of copper in the liver and brain. It is one of those rare genetic disorders that benefits from effective and lifelong treatments that have dramatically transformed the prognosis of the disease. In Europe, its clinical prevalence is estimated at between 1.2 and 2/100,000 but the genetic prevalence is higher, at around 1/7000. Incomplete penetrance of the gene or the presence of modifier genes may account for the difference between the calculated genetic prevalence and the number of patients diagnosed with WD...
April 3, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620691/do-antipsychotics-thin-the-brain-it-is-a-rather-gray-matter
#5
Ronald W Pies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609003/fluoride-induces-apoptosis-via-inhibiting-sirt1-activity-to-activate-mitochondrial-p53-pathway-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#6
Wei Tu, Qian Zhang, Yin Liu, Lianyong Han, Qin Wang, Panpan Chen, Shun Zhang, Aiguo Wang, Xue Zhou
There has been a great concern about the neurotoxicity of fluoride since it can pass through the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain. It has been suggested that apoptosis plays a vital role in neurotoxicity of fluoride. However, whether p53-mediated apoptotic pathway is involved is still unclear. Our results showed that apoptosis was induced after treatment with 40 and 60 mg/L of NaF for 24 h in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure to 60 mg/L of NaF for 24 h significantly upregulated the levels of p53 and apoptosis-related proteins including PUMA, cytochrome c (cyto c), cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, whereas downregulated Bcl-2 in SH-SY5Y cells...
March 30, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577885/primary-microglia-isolation-from-mixed-cell-cultures-of-neonatal-mouse-brain-tissue
#7
Jérôme Roy
BACKGROUND: Microglia are the main resident immunological cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that are functionally equivalent to macrophages. However, due to the cellular heterogeneity of the brain, it is technically challenging to obtain highly specific, healthy microglia with the desired phenotype in sufficient yield for in vivo experiments. NEW METHOD: This study presents a new and easy method for the isolation of microglia cells from mouse pups (P1-P3)...
March 22, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571967/functional-mechanism-of-asp5736-a-selective-serotonin-5-ht-5a-receptor-antagonist-with-potential-utility-for-the-treatment-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#8
Mayako Yamazaki, Noriyuki Yamamoto, Junko Yarimizu, Mayuko Okabe, Ai Moriyama, Masako Furutani, Monica M Marcus, Torgny H Svensson, Katsuya Harada
The 5-HT5A receptor is arguably the least understood 5-HT receptor. Despite widespread expression in human and rodent brains it lacks specific ligands. Our previous results suggest that 5-HT5A receptor antagonists may be effective against cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. In this study, using behavioral, immunohistochemical, electrophysiological and microdialysis techniques, we examined the mechanism by which ASP5736, a novel and selective 5-HT5A receptor antagonist, exerts a positive effect in animal models of cognitive impairment...
March 20, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567966/intravenous-administration-of-anti-inflammatory-mesenchymal-stem-cell-spheroids-reduces-chronic-alcohol-intake-and-abolishes-binge-drinking
#9
Fernando Ezquer, Paola Morales, María Elena Quintanilla, Daniela Santapau, Carolyne Lespay-Rebolledo, Marcelo Ezquer, Mario Herrera-Marschitz, Yedy Israel
Chronic alcohol intake leads to neuroinflammation and astrocyte dysfunction, proposed to perpetuate alcohol consumption and to promote conditioned relapse-like binge drinking. In the present study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured in 3D-conditions to generate MSC-spheroids, which greatly increased MSCs anti-inflammatory ability and reduced cell volume by 90% versus conventionally 2D-cultured MSCs, enabling their intravenous administration and access to the brain. It is shown, in an animal model of chronic ethanol intake and relapse-drinking, that both the intravenous and intra-cerebroventricular administration of a single dose of MSC-spheroids inhibited chronic ethanol intake and relapse-like drinking by 80-90%, displaying significant effects over 3-5 weeks...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564576/improved-prediction-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-through-machine-learning-with-combined-use-of-molecular-property-based-descriptors-and-fingerprints
#10
Yaxia Yuan, Fang Zheng, Chang-Guo Zhan
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of a compound determines whether the compound can effectively enter the brain. It is an essential property which must be accounted for in drug discovery with a target in the brain. Several computational methods have been used to predict the BBB permeability. In particular, support vector machine (SVM), which is a kernel-based machine learning method, has been used popularly in this field. For SVM training and prediction, the compounds are characterized by molecular descriptors...
March 21, 2018: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559968/-in-vitro-efficacy-of-ebselen-and-bay-11-7082-against-naegleria-fowleri
#11
Anjan Debnath, Andrew T Nelson, Angélica Silva-Olivares, Mineko Shibayama, Dionicio Siegel, James H McKerrow
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri , popularly known as the "brain-eating ameba." The drugs of choice in treating PAM are the antifungal amphotericin B and an antileishmanial miltefosine, but these are not FDA-approved for this indication and use of amphotericin B is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, very few patients treated with the combination therapy have survived PAM. Therefore, development of efficient drugs is a critical unmet need to avert future deaths of children...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557702/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-secreted-by-the-cerebral-endothelium-a-new-actor-of-brain-function
#12
Christine Marie, Martin Pedard, Aurore Quirié, Anne Tessier, Philippe Garnier, Perle Totoson, Céline Demougeot
Low cerebral levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which plays a critical role in many brain functions, have been implicated in neurodegenerative, neurological and psychiatric diseases. Thus, increasing BDNF levels in the brain is considered an attractive possibility for the prevention/treatment of various brain diseases. To date, BDNF-based therapies have largely focused on neurons. However, given the cross-talk between endothelial cells and neurons and recent evidence that BDNF expressed by the cerebral endothelium largely accounts for BDNF levels present in the brain, it is likely that BDNF-based therapies would be most effective if they also targeted the cerebral endothelium...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544140/multineuron-spike-train-analysis-with-r-convolution-linear-combination-kernel
#13
Taro Tezuka
A spike train kernel provides an effective way of decoding information represented by a spike train. Some spike train kernels have been extended to multineuron spike trains, which are simultaneously recorded spike trains obtained from multiple neurons. However, most of these multineuron extensions were carried out in a kernel-specific manner. In this paper, a general framework is proposed for extending any single-neuron spike train kernel to multineuron spike trains, based on the R-convolution kernel. Special subclasses of the proposed R-convolution linear combination kernel are explored...
March 6, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535374/aav-mediated-nt-3-overexpression-protects-cochleae-against-noise-induced-synaptopathy
#14
Hengchao Chen, Yazhi Xing, Li Xia, Zhengnong Chen, Shankai Yin, Jian Wang
The synapse between inner hair cells (IHCs) and type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) has been identified as a sensitive structure to noise-induced damage in the mammalian cochlea. Since this synapse provides the major information pathway from the cochlea to the auditory brain, it is important to maintain its integrity. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) has been known to play an important role in the development and the functional maintenance of this synapse. Application of exogenous NT-3, or overexpression of this gene in a transgenic animal model, have shown the value to protect this synapse from noise-induced damage...
March 13, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534727/safety-studies-with-the-oral-rabies-virus-vaccine-strain-spbn-gasgas-in-the-small-indian-mongoose-herpestes-auropunctatus
#15
Steffen Ortmann, Ad Vos, Antje Kretzschmar, Nomusa Walther, Christiane Kaiser, Conrad Freuling, Ivana Lojkic, Thomas Müller
BACKGROUND: Oral vaccination of the small Indian mongoose against rabies has been suggested as a potential tool to eliminate mongoose-mediated rabies on several Caribbean islands. A recently developed oral rabies virus vaccine strain, SPBN GASGAS, has already been shown to be efficacious in this reservoir species. Since, all available oral rabies vaccines are based on replication-competent viruses and vaccine baits are distributed unsupervised in the environment, enhanced safety standards for such vaccine types are required...
March 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531859/synthesis-radiolabelling-and-evaluation-of-11-c-pb212-as-a-radioligand-for-imaging-sigma-1-receptors-using-pet
#16
Francesco Spinelli, Ahmed Haider, Annamaria Toscano, Maria Laura Pati, Claudia Keller, Francesco Berardi, Nicola Antonio Colabufo, Carmen Abate, Simon M Ametamey
The Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been described as a pluripotent modulator of distinct physiological functions and its involvement in various central and peripheral pathological disorders has been demonstrated. However, further investigations are required to understand the complex role of the Sig-1R as a molecular chaperon. A specific PET radioligand would provide a powerful tool in Sig-1R related studies. As part of our efforts to develop a Sig-1R PET radioligand that shows antagonistic properties, we investigated the suitability of 1-(4-(6-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)butyl)-4-methylpiperidine (designated PB212) for imaging Sig-1R...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524639/intrinsic-neural-linkage-between-primary-visual-area-and-default-mode-network-in-human-brain-evidence-from-visual-mental-imagery
#17
Zheng Zhang, Delong Zhang, Zengjian Wang, Junchao Li, Yuting Lin, Song Chang, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu
Previous studies have reported the essence of the sensory-based properties of human brain function, in which mental imagery is of great importance. In this study, we explored the association between the activities of two special regions, i.e., the primary visual area (PVA), which is the classically dominant sensory region, and the default mode network (DMN), which is the classical supra-sensory region, with a focus on their linkage in visual mental imagery. For this purpose, we collected fMRI data from 30 healthy participants (15 males; 22...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519127/in-vivo-real-time-monitoring-system-using-probe-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry-pesi-ms-ms-for-metabolites-in-mouse-brain
#18
Kei Zaitsu, Yumi Hayashi, Tasuku Murata, Kazumi Yokota, Tomomi Ohara, Maiko Kusano, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Akira Ishii, Koretsugu Ogata, Hiroshi Tanihata
Recent improvements in ambient ionization techniques combined with mass spectrometry has enabled to achieve real-time monitoring of analytes of interest, even for biogenic molecules in living animals. Here, we demonstrate a newly-developed system for in vivo real-time monitoring of metabolites in a living mouse brain. It consists of a semi-automated manipulation system and a unique probe electrospray ionization unit, which uses an extremely thin solid needle (tip dia.: 700 nm) for direct sampling and ionization, coupled to a conventional tandem mass spectrometer...
March 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515417/microsurgical-treatment-of-intraventricular-cavernoma-with-prior-planning-neuroendoscopy
#19
Flavio Nigri, Jucilana Dos Santos Viana, Pedro Henrique da Costa Ferreira Pinto, Elington Lannes Simões, Carlos Roberto Telles Ribeiro
Microsurgery remains the gold standard treatment for intraventricular lesions, but it is not without limitations. The cerebral ventricles approach is considered a challenge for neurosurgeons because of their deep location and their intimate association with critical areas of the brain. It has been shown that direct endoscopic view is superior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying intraventricular structures and lesions. Also, during neuroendoscopy, there is no cerebrospinal fluid leak causing brain collapse as seen in microsurgery...
January 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503611/estimating-the-integrated-information-measure-phi-from-high-density-electroencephalography-during-states-of-consciousness-in-humans
#20
Hyoungkyu Kim, Anthony G Hudetz, Joseph Lee, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
The integrated information theory (IIT) proposes a quantitative measure, denoted as Φ, of the amount of integrated information in a physical system, which is postulated to have an identity relationship with consciousness. IIT predicts that the value of Φ estimated from brain activities represents the level of consciousness across phylogeny and functional states. Practical limitations, such as the explosive computational demands required to estimate Φ for real systems, have hindered its application to the brain and raised questions about the utility of IIT in general...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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