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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535592/stream-salinization-and-fungal-mediated-leaf-decomposition-a-microcosm-study
#1
Cristina Canhoto, Sara Simões, Ana Lúcia Gonçalves, Lúcia Guilhermino, Felix Bärlocher
Salinization is of major global concern due to its effect on stream biota, and ecosystem functions and services. In small streams, litter decomposition is a key ecosystem-level process driven by decomposers, mainly fungi (aquatic hyphomycetes), which link litter and invertebrates. Here we assessed the effects of an environmentally relevant range of salt additions (0, 2, 4, 8, 16gL(-1) NaCl) on (1) fungal growth and species-specific reproductive output and (2) fungal mediated-decomposition of Quercus robur leaves...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535155/elevated-apobec3b-expression-drives-a-kataegic-like-mutation-signature-and-replication-stress-related-therapeutic-vulnerabilities-in-p53-defective-cells
#2
Jenni Nikkilä, Rahul Kumar, James Campbell, Inger Brandsma, Helen N Pemberton, Fredrik Wallberg, Kinga Nagy, Ildikó Scheer, Beata G Vertessy, Artur A Serebrenik, Valentina Monni, Reuben S Harris, Stephen J Pettitt, Alan Ashworth, Christopher J Lord
BACKGROUND: Elevated APOBEC3B expression in tumours correlates with a kataegic pattern of localised hypermutation. We assessed the cellular phenotypes associated with high-level APOBEC3B expression and the influence of p53 status on these phenotypes using an isogenic system. METHODS: We used RNA interference of p53 in cells with inducible APOBEC3B and assessed DNA damage response (DDR) biomarkers. The mutational effects of APOBEC3B were assessed using whole-genome sequencing...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534956/effects-of-octreotide-on-hepatic-glycogenesis-in-rats-with-high-fat-diet%C3%A2-induced-obesity
#3
Xiao-Xia Wang, Ting Ye, Mao Li, Xian Li, Ou Qiang, Cheng-Wei Tang, Rui Liu
Reduced hepatic glycogenesis is one of the most important causes of metabolic abnormalities in non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, has been demonstrated to promote weight loss and improve metabolic disorders in mice with high fat diet (HFD)‑induced obesity. However, whether octreotide affects hepatic glycogenesis is unknown. The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of octreotide on hepatic glycogenesis in rats with HFD‑induced obesity. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats were fed a standard diet or a HFD for 24 weeks...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534253/evaluating-the-involvement-and-interaction-of-abscisic-acid-and-mirna156-in-the-induction-of-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-drought-stressed-plants
#4
REVIEW
Jorge González-Villagra, Leonid V Kurepin, Marjorie M Reyes-Díaz
ABA is involved in anthocyanin synthesis through the regulation of microRNA156, augmenting the level of expression of anthocyanin synthesis-related genes and, therefore, increasing anthocyanin level. Drought stress is the main cause of agricultural crop loss in the world. However, plants have developed mechanisms that allow them to tolerate drought stress conditions. At cellular level, drought stress induces changes in metabolite accumulation, including increases in anthocyanin levels due to upregulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway...
May 22, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533817/mosaicism-for-structural-non-centromeric-autosomal-rearrangements-in-disease-defined-carriers-sex-differences-in-the-rearrangements-profile-and-maternal-age-distributions
#5
REVIEW
Natalia V Kovaleva, Philip D Cotter
BACKGROUND: Mosaicism for an autosomal structural rearrangement (Rea) associated with clinical manifestation of chromosomal imbalance is rare. Consequently, there is a lack of basic epidemiological characterization of this kind of mosaicism, such as population rate, cytogenetic profile of Reas involved, maternal age distribution, and sex (male to female) ratio among Rea carriers. The objectives of the present study were: (i) determination of the Rea profile in clinically affected individuals, (ii) comparative analysis of the cytogenetic profile and involvement of single chromosomes to rearrangements in affected and previously reported asymptomatic carriers, (iii) analysis of the male/female ratio in carriers of various types of Rea, and, (iv) examination of parental ages distributions according to carriers' sex...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533785/qtl-mapping-for-yield-and-resistance-against-mediterranean-corn-borer-in-maize
#6
José C Jiménez-Galindo, Bernardo Ordás, Ana Butrón, Luis F Samayoa, Rosa A Malvar
Introduction: The Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), Sesamia nonagrioides, is a major pest of maize, Zea mays, in Mediterranean countries, inflicting significant kernel yield losses. For that reason, it necessary to know the genetic mechanisms that regulate the agronomic and resistance traits. A quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping study for yield, resistance against MCB attack, and other relevant agronomic traits was performed using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross A637 × A509 that is expected to segregate for yield, and ear, and stalk resistance to MCB...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533474/weekly-low-dose-versus-three-weekly-high-dose-cisplatin-for-concurrent-chemoradiation-in-locoregionally-advanced-non-nasopharyngeal-head-and-neck-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-aggregate-data
#7
Petr Szturz, Kristien Wouters, Naomi Kiyota, Makoto Tahara, Kumar Prabhash, Vanita Noronha, Ana Castro, Lisa Licitra, David Adelstein, Jan B Vermorken
BACKGROUND: Three-weekly high-dose cisplatin (100 mg/m(2)) is considered the standard systemic regimen given concurrently with postoperative or definitive radiotherapy in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN). However, due to unsatisfactory patient tolerance, various weekly low-dose schedules have been increasingly used in clinical practice. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy, safety, and compliance between these two approaches...
May 22, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532251/the-effect-of-hyperemesis-gravidarum-on-the75g-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-screening-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Y Madendag, E Sahin, I Col Madendag, M Eraslan Sahin, A T Tayyar, F Ozdemir, G Acmaz, V Senol
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the effect of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) on the75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted via an evaluation of the hospital database medical records of 700 pregnant women. Of these, 60 were included in the study group as a result of hospitalization due to HG, 41 were excluded, and the remaining 599 formed a control group. The body mass index (BMI), urine ketone levels, and ages of all participants were separately recorded, both in the initial examination and during the 75 g OGTT...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531392/a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-and-proof-of-concept-trial-in-delayed%C3%A2-gastric-emptying-when-metoclopramide-fails-we-should-revisit%C3%A2-nasointestinal-feeding-versus-dual-prokinetic-treatment-achieving-goal-nutrition-in-critical-illness-and-delayed-gastric
#9
Stephen J Taylor, Kaylee Allan, Helen McWilliam, Alex Manara, Jules Brown, Rosemary Greenwood, Deirdre Toher
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) commonly limits the use of enteral nutrition (EN) and may increase ventilator-associated pneumonia. Nasointestinal feeding has not been tested against dual prokinetic treatment (Metoclopramide and Erythromycin) in DGE refractory to metoclopramide. This trial tests the feasibility of recruiting this 'treatment-failed' population and the proof of concept that nasointestinal (NI) feeding can increase the amount of feed tolerated (% goal) when compared to nasogastric (NG) feeding plus metoclopramide and erythromycin treatment...
August 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531113/retrospective-evaluation-of-metformin-and-or-metformin-plus-a-new-polysaccharide-complex-in-treating-severe-hyperinsulinism-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-children-and-adolescents-with-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Stefano Stagi, Franco Ricci, Martina Bianconi, Maria Amina Sammarco, Giovanna Municchi, Sonia Toni, Lorenzo Lenzi, Alberto Verrotti, Maurizio de Martino
Background: Pharmacological treatment of obesity and glucose-insulin metabolism disorders in children may be more difficult than in adults. Thus, we evaluate the effects of metformin in comparison with metformin plus a polysaccharide complex (Policaptil Gel Retard(®), PGR) on body weight and metabolic parameters in obese children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Patients and methods: We retrospectively collected 129 children and adolescents (67 girls, 62 boys; median age 12.6 years) treated for a minimum of two years with metformin and low glycemic index (LGI) diet...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529918/advances-in-dyslipidemia-management-for-prevention-of-atherosclerosis-pcsk9-monoclonal-antibody-therapy-and-beyond
#11
REVIEW
Nathan D Wong, Paul D Rosenblit, Robert S Greenfield
In 2003, select families with familial hypercholesterolemia were first identified to have gain-of-function mutations for proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) followed, in 2006, by the identification of those with lifelong low levels of LDL-C and lowered atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk who had loss-of-function PCSK9 mutations. These discoveries led to the rapid development of PSCK9-targeted monoclonal antibody (PCSK9 mAb) therapies and, in 2015, 2 'fully-humanized' PCSK9 mAbs (alirocumab and evolocumab) were marketed in the United States, Europe, and other countries...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529560/ruanjian-sanjie-decoction-exhibits-antitumor-activity-by-inducing-cell-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer
#12
Xiumei Zhao, Jing Zhao, Renjie Hu, Qiang Yao, Guixian Zhang, Hongsheng Shen, Ernesto Yagüe, Yunhui Hu
Traditional Chinese medicine, based on theories developed and practiced for >2,000 years, is one of the most common complementary and alternative types of medicine currently used in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Ruanjian Sanjie (RJSJ) decoction, is composed of four herbs, including Ban xia (Pinellia ternata), Xia ku cao (Prunella vulgaris), Shan ci gu (Cremastra appendiculata) and Hai zao (Sargassum pallidum), and has traditionally been used for softening hard lumps and resolving hard tissue masses...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529323/an-immunogenic-phenotype-in-paternal-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-at-embryo-implantation-elicits-later-fetal-loss-in-mice
#13
Lachlan M Moldenhauer, Kerrilyn R Diener, John D Hayball, Sarah A Robertson
Central to pregnancy success is a state of T cell tolerance to paternal antigens, which is initiated at conception. The role and regulation of specific phenotypes of CD8(+) T cells in mediating pregnancy tolerance is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the impact on pregnancy outcome of altering the cytokine environment during maternal CD8(+) T cell priming in early pregnancy. Transgenic Act-mOVA male mice were mated to C57BL/6 (B6) females to generate fetuses expressing ovalbumin (OVA) as a model paternal antigen...
May 22, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528521/myeloid-populations-in-systemic-autoimmune-diseases
#14
REVIEW
María Morell, Nieves Varela, Concepción Marañón
Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) encompass a wide spectrum of clinical signs as a reflection of their complex physiopathology. A variety of mechanisms related with the innate immune system are in the origin of the loss of self-tolerance in these diseases, and for most of them, the myeloid leukocytes are key actors. Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils are first-line immune effectors located in the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. They are crucial in the organization of the local and systemic responses to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and determine the intensity, orientation, and duration of the local immune response through the expression of chemokines, costimulatory or protolerogenic factors...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526855/gut-homeostasis-and-regulatory-t-cell-induction-depend-on-molecular-chaperone-gp96-in-cd11c-cells
#15
Yunpeng Hua, Yi Yang, Shaoli Sun, Stephen Iwanowycz, Caroline Westwater, Boris Reizis, Zihai Li, Bei Liu
The intestinal immunity and tolerance are orchestrated by both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Intestinal professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) recognize and respond to the gut microbiota through multiple pattern-recognition receptors, including TLRs and NLRs. How gut pAPCs maintain mucosal homeostasis remains incompletely understood. Heat shock protein gp96, also known as grp94, is an essential immune chaperone for TLRs. However, the role of gp96 in regulating CD11c(+) APCs in the gut immunity and tolerance is unknown...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526846/nk-cell-derived-il-10-is-critical-for-dc-nk-cell-dialogue-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface
#16
Sandra M Blois, Nancy Freitag, Irene Tirado-González, Shi-Bin Cheng, Markus M Heimesaat, Stefan Bereswill, Matthias Rose, Melanie L Conrad, Gabriela Barrientos, Surendra Sharma
DC-NK cell interactions are thought to influence the development of maternal tolerance and de novo angiogenesis during early gestation. However, it is unclear which mechanism ensures the cooperative dialogue between DC and NK cells at the feto-maternal interface. In this article, we show that uterine NK cells are the key source of IL-10 that is required to regulate DC phenotype and pregnancy success. Upon in vivo expansion of DC during early gestation, NK cells expressed increased levels of IL-10. Exogenous administration of IL-10 was sufficient to overcome early pregnancy failure in dams treated to achieve simultaneous DC expansion and NK cell depletion...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526633/facial-skin-rejuvenation-by-autologous-dermal-microfat-transfer-in-photoaged-patients-clinical-evaluation-and-skin-surface-digital-profilometry-analysis
#17
Angelo Trivisonno, Alfredo Rossi, Massimo Monti, Donato Di Nunno, Christophe Desouches, Claudio Cannistra, Gabriele Toietta
Cumulative long-term exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation promotes premature skin aging characterized by wrinkle formation and reduced skin elasticity. In this study, we assessed whether microfat transfer could improve dermal and subcutaneous tissue thickness loss associated with photoaging. Twenty-one patients affected by facial photoaging (photodamage grade II-IV; age range 35-62 years; 19 females, 2 males; all of Caucasian origin) were treated using minimally invasive autologous dermal white fat transfer harvested with a recently designed microcannula...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526137/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-autoimmunity-and-lupus-nephritis
#18
S K Devarapu, G Lorenz, O P Kulkarni, H-J Anders, S R Mulay
Autoimmunity involves immune responses directed against self, which are a result of defective self/foreign distinction of the immune system, leading to proliferation of self-reactive lymphocytes, and is characterized by systemic, as well as tissue-specific, inflammation. Numerous mechanisms operate to ensure the immune tolerance to self-antigens. However, monogenetic defects or genetic variants that weaken immune tolerance render susceptibility to the loss of immune tolerance, which is further triggered by environmental factors...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526067/the-chimeric-monoclonal-antibody-mhcsz-123-against-human-von-willebrand-factor-a3-domain-inhibits-high-shear-arterial-thrombosis-in-a-rhesus-monkey-model
#19
Shundong Ji, Miao Jiang, Bin Yan, Fei Shen, Yang He, Aini Wan, Lijun Xia, Changgeng Ruan, Yiming Zhao
BACKGROUND: SZ-123, a murine monoclonal antibody that targets the human von Willebrand factor (VWF) A3 domain and blocks the binding of collagen, is a powerful antithrombotic. In a Rhesus monkey model of thrombosis, SZ-123 had no side effects, such as bleeding or thrombocytopenia. METHODS: The mouse/human chimeric version of SZ-123, MHCSZ-123, was developed and maintained inhibitory capacities in vitro and ex vivo after injection into monkeys. CHO-S cells were selected for stable expression of MHCSZ-123...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523955/collaborative-cross-mouse-population-for-studying-the-alveolar-bone-changes-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance-comorbidity-after-high-fat-diet-consumption
#20
Aysar Nashef, Hanifa J Abu-Toamih Atamni, Yuval Buchnik, Hatice Hasturk, Alpdogan Kantarci, Danielle Stephens, Ervin I Wiess, Yael Houri-Haddad, Fuad A Iraqi
BACKGROUND: High-fat diet (HFD), body weight (BW) gain and impaired glucose tolerance development were associated with alveolar bone loss in susceptible individuals. This report explores the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse population for studying the impact of genetic background on the comorbidity of alveolar bone change and glucose tolerance following HFD consumption. METHODS: 78 mice from 19 different CC lines were maintained on rodents chow diet (CH) for 8 weeks, and subsequently, transferred to HFD (42% Fat) for an additional 12 weeks...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
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