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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821771/thermal-acclimation-mitigates-cold-induced-paracellular-leak-from-the-drosophila-gut
#1
Heath A MacMillan, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Sima Jonusaite, Scott P Kelly, Andrew Donini
Chill susceptible insects suffer tissue damage and die at low temperatures. The mechanisms that cause chilling injury are not well understood but a growing body of evidence suggests that a cold-induced loss of ion and water homeostasis leads to hemolymph hyperkalemia that depolarizes cells, leading to cell death. The apparent root of this cascade is the net leak of osmolytes down their concentration gradients in the cold. Many insects, however, are capable of adjusting their thermal physiology, and cold-acclimated Drosophila can maintain homeostasis and avoid injury better than warm-acclimated flies...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821551/coordinated-regulation-of-the-eii-man-and-frurki-operons-of-streptococcus-mutans-by-global-and-fructose-specific-pathways
#2
Lin Zeng, Brinta Chakraborty, Tanaz Farivar, Robert A Burne
The glucose/mannose-PTS permease EII(Man) encoded by manLMN in the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans has a dominant influence on sugar-specific, CcpA-independent catabolite repression (CR). Mutations in manL affect energy metabolism and virulence-associated traits, including biofilm formation, acid tolerance and competence. Using promoter:reporter fusions, expression of the manLMN and the fruRKI operons, encoding a transcriptional regulator, a fructose-1-P kinase and a fructose-PTS permease EII(Fru), respectively, was monitored in response to carbohydrate source and in mutants lacking CcpA, FruR, and components of EII(Man) Expression of genes for EII(Man) and EII(Fru) was directly regulated by CcpA and CR, as evinced by in vivo and in vitro methods...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821360/development-and-implementation-of-an-early-mobility-program-for-mechanically-ventilated-pediatric-patients
#3
Kristina A Betters, Kiran B Hebbar, David Farthing, Brittany Griego, Tricia Easley, Hartley Turman, Lauren Perrino, Stephanie Sparacino, Mary L deAlmeida
PURPOSE: Early mobility (EM) is being used in adult ICUs in an effort to treat and prevent intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICU-AW) and Post-Intensive Care Syndrome (PICS). Data supports children suffer from ICU-AW and PICS as well. Our objective was to create and implement an EM protocol for pediatric patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: A multidisciplinary EM committee was formed to create and implement an EM protocol in a quarternary care PICU...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818375/lipid-remodelling-unravelling-the-response-to-cold-stress-in-arabidopsis-and-its-extremophile-relative-eutrema-salsugineum
#4
REVIEW
Cristina Barrero-Sicilia, Susana Silvestre, Richard P Haslam, Louise V Michaelson
Environmental constraints limit the geographic distribution of many economically important crops. Cold stress is an important abiotic stress that affects plant growth and development, resulting in loss of vigour and surface lesions. These symptoms are caused by, among other metabolic processes, the altered physical and chemical composition of cell membranes. As a major component of cell membranes lipids have been recognized as having a significant role in cold stress, both as a mechanical defence through leaf surface protection and plasma membrane remodelling, and as signal transduction molecules...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817231/effect-of-once-weekly-dulaglutide-on-hba1c-and-fasting-blood-glucose-in-patient-subpopulations-by-gender-duration-of-diabetes-and-baseline-hba1c
#5
Baptist Gallwitz, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Vivian Thieu, Luis-Emilio Garcia-Perez, Imre Pavo, Maria Yu, Kenneth E Robertson, Nan Zhang, Francesco Giorgino
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg in type 2 diabetes patients by subgroups of gender, duration of diabetes, and baseline HbA1c in the dulaglutide clinical development program (AWARD-1 to -6 and -8 clinical trials). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Change in HbA1c was analysed by gender, duration of diabetes (<5 years, ≥5 years and <10 years, ≥10 years), and baseline HbA1c (<8.5%, ≥8.5%) in pooled and individual studies. Changes from baseline in weight, hypoglycaemia, and gastrointestinal adverse events were evaluated for individual trials...
August 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815919/graphene-oxide-as-a-carbocatalyst-for-diels-alder-reaction-in-aqueous-media
#6
Yarabhally R Girish, Subrata Pandit, Subhendu Pandit, Mrinmoy De
The [4+2] Cycloaddition reaction, known as Diels-Alder reaction, has a great importance in synthetic organic chemistry and frequently used in synthesis of natural products containing six-membered ring. Herein, we have reported an efficient protocol for Diels-Alder reaction between 9-hydroxymethylanthracene and N-substituted maleimides using two dimensional graphene oxide (GO) as a heterogeneous carbocatalyst in an aqueous medium at room temperature. High yield, wide substrate scope, low temperature, exceptional functional group tolerance, atom-economical, and water as a green solvent are the noteworthy features of this protocol...
August 16, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811359/exercise-training-prevents-skeletal-muscle-plasma-membrane-cholesterol-accumulation-cortical-actin-filament-loss-and-insulin-resistance-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-western-style-high-fat-diet
#7
Ashley G Ambery, Lixuan Tackett, Brent A Penque, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf
Insulin action and glucose disposal are enhanced by exercise, yet the mechanisms involved remain imperfectly understood. While the causes of skeletal muscle insulin resistance also remain poorly understood, new evidence suggest excess plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol may contribute by damaging the cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) structure essential for GLUT4 glucose transporter redistribution to the PM upon insulin stimulation. Here, we investigated whether PM cholesterol toxicity was mitigated by exercise...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808688/adaptive-mistranslation-accelerates-the-evolution-of-fluconazole-resistance-and-induces-major-genomic-and-gene-expression-alterations-in-candida-albicans
#8
Tobias Weil, Rodrigo Santamaría, Wanseon Lee, Johan Rung, Noemi Tocci, Darren Abbey, Ana R Bezerra, Laura Carreto, Gabriela R Moura, Mónica Bayés, Ivo G Gut, Attila Csikasz-Nagy, Duccio Cavalieri, Judith Berman, Manuel A S Santos
Regulated erroneous protein translation (adaptive mistranslation) increases proteome diversity and produces advantageous phenotypic variability in the human pathogen Candida albicans. It also increases fitness in the presence of fluconazole, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. To address this question, we evolved hypermistranslating and wild-type strains in the absence and presence of fluconazole and compared their fluconazole tolerance and resistance trajectories during evolution. The data show that mistranslation increases tolerance and accelerates the acquisition of resistance to fluconazole...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808079/the-impact-of-iugr-on-pancreatic-islet-development-and-%C3%AE-cell-function
#9
Brit H Boehmer, Sean W Limesand, Paul J Rozance
Placental insufficiency is a primary cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) throughout life, which indicates that insults from placental insufficiency impair β-cell development during the perinatal period because β-cells have a central role in the regulation of glucose tolerance. The severely IUGR fetal pancreas is characterized by smaller islets, less β-cells, and lower insulin secretion. Because of the important associations among impaired islet growth, β-cell dysfunction, impaired fetal growth, and the propensity for T2DM, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of IUGR and programing events in the fetal endocrine pancreas...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807376/robust-adaptive-fault-tolerant-control-for-leader-follower-flocking-of-uncertain-multi-agent-systems-with-actuator-failure
#10
Sahar Yazdani, Mohammad Haeri
In this work, we study the flocking problem of multi-agent systems with uncertain dynamics subject to actuator failure and external disturbances. By considering some standard assumptions, we propose a robust adaptive fault tolerant protocol for compensating of the actuator bias fault, the partial loss of actuator effectiveness fault, the model uncertainties, and external disturbances. Under the designed protocol, velocity convergence of agents to that of virtual leader is guaranteed while the connectivity preservation of network and collision avoidance among agents are ensured as well...
August 11, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807294/recombinase-polymerase-amplification-rpa-combined-with-lateral-flow-lf-strip-for-detection-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-the-environment
#11
Y D Wu, M J Xu, Q Q Wang, C X Zhou, M Wang, X Q Zhu, D H Zhou
Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded vertebrates, resulting in a great threat to human health and significant economic loss to the livestock industry. Ingestion of infectious oocysts of T. gondii from the environment is the major source of transmission. Detection of T. gondii oocysts by existing methods is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. The objective of the present study was to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of T...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805934/fragility-of-epidermis-acne-and-post-procedure-lesional-skin
#12
G Fabbrocini, A B Rossi, M-D Thouvenin, C Peraud, V Mengeaud, A Bacquey, M Saint Aroman
'Fragile skin', or skin with lower resistance to aggressors, can be broadly classified into four causal categories: constitutional (age-dependent or associated with specific vulnerable locations on the body, e.g. eyelids), pathological (related to disease), circumstantial (related to environmental or internal factors, e.g. stress) and iatrogenic (caused by medical interventions or treatments). In this supplement, we focus on the fourth category, the iatrogenic origin of fragile skin and the role that dermo-cosmetics can have in restoring the natural protective function of the skin following treatments for skin diseases and medical interventions...
September 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805919/cows-exposed-to-heat-stress-during-fetal-life-exhibit-improved-thermal-tolerance
#13
B M S Ahmed, U Younas, T O Asar, S Dikmen, P J Hansen, G E Dahl
Maternal heat stress during late gestation affects calf function during postnatal life. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether calves that experience heat stress in utero have altered thermoregulatory responses to acute heat stress later in life. Specifically, the hypothesis was that heat stress in utero would improve the response to acute heat stress at maturity. Females were born to dams exposed to heat stress or cooled during late gestation preceding their birth. All animals were raised postnatally under identical management...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803710/intrathecal-2-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-decreases-neurological-disease-progression-in-niemann-pick-disease-type-c1-a-non-randomised-open-label-phase-1-2-trial
#14
Daniel S Ory, Elizabeth A Ottinger, Nicole Yanjanin Farhat, Kelly A King, Xuntian Jiang, Lisa Weissfeld, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Cristin D Davidson, Simona Bianconi, Lee Ann Keener, Ravichandran Rao, Ariane Soldatos, Rohini Sidhu, Kimberly A Walters, Xin Xu, Audrey Thurm, Beth Solomon, William J Pavan, Bernardus N Machielse, Mark Kao, Steven A Silber, John C McKew, Carmen C Brewer, Charles H Vite, Steven U Walkley, Christopher P Austin, Forbes D Porter
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. In preclinical testing, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins (HPβCD) significantly delayed cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, slowed progression of neurological manifestations, and increased lifespan in mouse and cat models of NPC1. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of lumbar intrathecal HPβCD. METHODS: In this open-label, dose-escalation phase 1-2a study, we gave monthly intrathecal HPβCD to participants with NPC1 with neurological manifestation at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA...
August 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803396/early-regression-of-carotid-intima-media-thickness-after-bariatric-surgery-and-its-relation-to-serum-leptin-reduction
#15
G Lambert, Marcelo Miranda de Oliveira Lima, A C Felici, J C Pareja, A C J Vasques, F S Novaes, S Rodovalho, F F P Hirsch, J R Matos-Souza, Élinton A Chaim, B Geloneze
PURPOSE: Bariatric surgery (BS) promotes carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) regression as early as 6 months post-surgery. To verify whether C-IMT regression occurs even earlier, we aimed at the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) on C-IMT 1-2 months and 12 months post-surgery. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Prospective trial. BS was performed on 109 patients either with (RYGBP = 42; BDP = 40) or without type 2 diabetes (RYGBP = 27)...
August 12, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803005/safety-and-feasibility-of-therapeutic-platelet-depletion-with-spectra-optia-in-a-pregnant-woman
#16
Roman Małachowski, Olga Grzybowska-Izydorczyk, Nelly Besson, Anna Szmigielska-Kapłon, Mateusz Nowicki, Agnieszka Wierzbowska
INTRODUCTION: Thrombocytapheresis is an alternative treatment beneficial in rare circumstances, when cytoreductive agents are contraindicated, drug therapy gave no response or the expected response would be too slow. Here we present a case of a pregnant woman who underwent 5 thrombocytaphereses using Spectra Optia device to reduce circulating platelets (PLT) count and prepare for Cesarian section. PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS AND PERFORMED TREATMENT: A 39-year-old woman with diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was treated with interferon because of too high PLT count...
July 27, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802415/augmentation-of-intramedullary-nailing-in-unstable-intertrochanteric-fractures-using-cerclage-wire-and-lag-screws-a-comparative-study
#17
Sunil Govind Kulkarni, Sushrut Sudhir Babhulkar, Sujay Milind Kulkarni, Govind Shivram Kulkarni, Madhura Sujay Kulkarni, Raviraj Patil
BACKGROUND: Unstable intertrochanteric fractures present a challenge to orthopaedic surgeons, with varied geometry of the fractures and a wide choice of implants and techniques. The patients are usually osteoporotic, with multiple co-morbidities and poor tolerance for complications and re-operations. Lateral wall reconstruction and stability of the trochanteric fragments are considered important in providing a better outcome of these difficult injuries. We present a technique of lateral wall and trochanteric reconstruction using Cerclage wires and lag screws in the greater trochanter in addition to intramedullary nailing, and the radiological and functional outcome of this technique of augmentation...
August 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802408/down-regulation-of-malate-synthase-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37ra-leads-to-reduced-stress-tolerance-persistence-and-survival-in-macrophages
#18
Kumar Sachin Singh, Rishabh Sharma, Deepa Keshari, Nirbhay Singh, Sudheer Kumar Singh
Malate synthase is a condensing enzyme responsible for conversion of glyoxylate to malate in the presence of acetyl-CoA. This reaction helps in bypassing the TCA cycle reactions involving carbon loss and leads to diverting some of the carbon skeletons to gluconeogenic events while rest can continue to provide TCA cycle intermediates. Malate synthase (GlcB) is encoded by MRA_1848 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb-Ra). We developed a knockdown (KD) Mtb-Ra strain by down-regulating GlcB. The survival studies suggested increased susceptibility to oxidative and nitrosative stress as well as to rifampicin...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802018/characterization-of-two-catalase-peroxidase-encoding-genes-in-fusarium-verticillioides-reveals-differential-responses-to-in-vitro-versus-in-planta-oxidative-challenges
#19
Shan Gao, Scott E Gold, Anthony E Glenn
Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are a superfamily of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-degrading enzymes believed to be horizontally acquired by ancient Ascomycota from bacteria. Subsequent gene duplication resulted in two KatG paralogs in ascomycetes: the widely distributed intracellular KatG1 group, and the phytopathogen-dominated extracellular KatG2 group. To functionally characterize FvCP01 (KatG1) and FvCP02 (KatG2) in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, single and double gene deletion mutants were examined in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801959/outcomes-of-patients-with-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-with-native-and-transplanted-kidneys-treated-with-eculizumab-a-pooled-post-hoc-analysis
#20
Christophe M Legendre, Josep M Campistol, Thorsten Feldkamp, Giuseppe Remuzzi, John F Kincaid, Åsa Lommelé, Jimmy Wang, Laurent E Weekers, Neil S Sheerin
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) often leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and kidney transplantation; graft loss rates are high due to disease recurrence. A post hoc analysis of four prospective clinical trials in aHUS was performed to evaluate eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, in patients with native or transplanted kidneys. The trials included 26-week treatment and extension periods. Dialysis, transplant, and graft loss were evaluated. Study endpoints included complete thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) response, TMA event-free status, hematologic and renal parameters, and adverse events...
August 12, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
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