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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453791/progranulin-functions-as-a-cathepsin-d-chaperone-to-stimulate-axonal-outgrowth-in-vivo
#1
Sander Beel, Matthieu Moisse, Markus Damme, Louis De Muynck, Wim Robberecht, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Paul Saftig, Philip Van Damme
Loss of function mutations in progranulin (GRN) cause frontotemporal dementia, but how GRN haploinsufficiency causes neuronal dysfunction remains unclear. We previously showed that GRN is neurotrophic in vitro. Here, we used an in vivo axonal outgrowth system and observed a delayed recovery in GRN-/- mice after facial nerve injury. This deficit was rescued by reintroduction of human GRN and relied on its C-terminus and on neuronal GRN production. Transcriptome analysis of the facial motor nucleus post injury identified cathepsin D (CTSD) as the most upregulated gene...
April 26, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449193/impact-of-metformin-on-patients-with-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-undergoing-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy
#2
Pei-Hung Chang, Kun-Yun Yeh, Cheng-Hsu Wang, Eric Yen-Chao Chen, Shih-Wei Yang, Wen-Chi Chou, Jason Chia-Hsun Hsieh
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of metformin on toxicities and survival in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed and compared the clinical characteristics, treatment tolerance, toxicities, and survival of 252 patients with stages III, IVA, and IVB head and neck cancer undergoing concurrent CRT with and without metformin treatment between 2007 and 2010...
April 27, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448589/morpho-physiological-analysis-of-tolerance-to-aluminum-toxicity-in-rice-varieties-of-north-east-india
#3
Jay Prakash Awasthi, Bedabrata Saha, Preetom Regon, Smita Sahoo, Umakanta Chowra, Amit Pradhan, Anupam Roy, Sanjib Kumar Panda
Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant metal in earth crust, whose chemical form is mainly dependent on soil pH. The most toxic form of Al with respect to plants is Al3+, which exists in soil pH <5. Acidic soil significantly limits crop production mainly due to Al3+ toxicity worldwide, impacting approximately 50% of the world's arable land (in North-Eastern India 80% soil are acidic). Al3+ toxicity in plants ensues root growth inhibition leading to less nutrient and water uptake impacting crop productivity as a whole...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448540/bruchid-egg-induced-transcript-dynamics-in-developing-seeds-of-black-gram-vigna-mungo
#4
Indrani K Baruah, Debashis Panda, Jagadale M V, Deba Jit Das, Sumita Acharjee, Priyabrata Sen, Bidyut Kumar Sarmah
Black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds are a rich source of digestible proteins, however, during storage these seeds are severely damaged by bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.), reducing seed quality and yield losses. Most of the cultivated genotypes of black gram are susceptible to bruchids, however, few tolerant genotypes have also been identified but the mechanism of tolerance is poorly understood. We employed Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) to identify specifically, but rarely expressed bruchid egg induced genes in black gram...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448319/tranexamic-acid-reduces-blood-loss-and-transfusion-requirements-in-primary-simultaneous-bilateral-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
Yuangang Wu, Timin Yang, Yi Zeng, Haibo Si, Canfeng Li, Bin Shen
: The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness and safety of intravenous application tranexamic acid (TXA) in primary simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We searched electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and the Google Scholar, for published studies involving the intravenous application TXA in primary simultaneous bilateral TKA. All randomized controlled trials were included. The focus of the meta-analysis was on the outcomes of total blood loss, drainage volume, transfusion requirements and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism...
April 26, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445869/silicone-oil-related-visual-loss
#6
Hamouda Hamdy Ghoraba, Adel Galal Zaky, Mohamed Amin Heikal, Emad Eldin Mohamed Elgemai, Haithem Mamoun Abd Al Fatah
BACKGROUND: Silicone oil (SO) is used as an intravitreal tamponade agent in vitreoretinal surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy or with large, multiple retinal tears. Usually, SO is left in the eye for at least 3 months. Although its use can lead to well-known complications, intraocular SO is generally well tolerated. Some studies have reported unexpected central vision loss after SO use or removal. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and analyze the reason for visual loss after the use or removal of intraocular SO in patients who underwent vitrectomy surgeries for RRD...
April 27, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443101/characterization-of-soybean-genetically-modified-for-drought-tolerance-in-field-conditions
#7
Renata Fuganti-Pagliarini, Leonardo C Ferreira, Fabiana A Rodrigues, Hugo B C Molinari, Silvana R R Marin, Mayla D C Molinari, Juliana Marcolino-Gomes, Liliane M Mertz-Henning, José R B Farias, Maria C N de Oliveira, Norman Neumaier, Norihito Kanamori, Yasunari Fujita, Junya Mizoi, Kazuo Nakashima, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Alexandre L Nepomuceno
Drought is one of the most stressful environmental factor causing yield and economic losses in many soybean-producing regions. In the last decades, transcription factors (TFs) are being used to develop genetically modified plants more tolerant to abiotic stresses. Dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) and ABA-responsive element-binding (AREB) TFs were introduced in soybean showing improved drought tolerance, under controlled conditions. However, these results may not be representative of the way in which plants behave over the entire season in the real field situation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442993/alcohol-induced-neuroadaptation-is-orchestrated-by-the-histone-acetyltransferase-cbp
#8
Alfredo Ghezzi, Xiaolei Li, Linda K Lew, Thilini P Wijesekera, Nigel S Atkinson
Homeostatic neural adaptations to alcohol underlie the production of alcohol tolerance and the associated symptoms of withdrawal. These adaptations have been shown to persist for relatively long periods of time and are believed to be of central importance in promoting the addictive state. In Drosophila, a single exposure to alcohol results in long-lasting alcohol tolerance and symptoms of withdrawal following alcohol clearance. These persistent adaptations involve mechanisms such as long-lasting changes in gene expression and perhaps epigenetic restructuring of chromosomal regions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442414/inhibition-of-allogeneic-cytotoxic-t-cell-cd8-proliferation-via-polymer-induced-treg-cd4-cells
#9
Ning Kang, Wendy M Toyofuku, Xining Yang, Mark D Scott
T cell-mediated immune rejection remains a barrier to successful transplantation. Polymer-based bioengineering of cells may provide an effective means of preventing allorecognition and the proliferation of cytotoxic (CD8(+)) T lymphocytes (CTL). Using MHC-disparate murine splenocytes modified with succinimidyl valerate activated methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) [SVA-mPEG] polymers, the effects of leukocyte immunocamouflage on CD8(+) and CD4(+) alloproliferation and T regulatory (Treg) cell induction were assessed in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) model...
April 22, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440045/coadministration-of-lorcaserin-and-phentermine-for-weight-management-a-12-week-randomized-pilot-safety-study
#10
Steven R Smith, W Timothy Garvey, Frank L Greenway, Sharon Zhou, Randi Fain, Robert Pilson, Ken Fujioka, Louis J Aronne
OBJECTIVE: To assess the short-term tolerability of lorcaserin alone or with two dose regimens of phentermine. METHODS: This was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, pilot safety study of N = 238 nondiabetic patients with obesity or overweight with ≥1 comorbidity randomized to lorcaserin 10 mg twice daily (BID; LOR BID) alone or with phentermine 15 mg once daily (QD; LOR BID+PHEN QD) or 15 mg twice daily (LOR BID+PHEN BID). Patients reporting ≥ 1 of 9 potentially serotonergic adverse events (AEs), mean weight loss (WL), and ≥5% WL are reported...
May 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439701/the-influence-of-different-sets-of-surgical-instrumentation-in-oxford-uka-on-bearing-size-and-component-position
#11
Tilman Walker, Pascal Heinemann, Thomas Bruckner, Marcus R Streit, Stefan Kinkel, Tobias Gotterbarm
INTRODUCTION: The Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (OUKA) has been proven to be an effective treatment for anteromedial osteoarthritis of the knee joint. New instrumentation has been introduced to improve the reproducibility of implant positioning and to minimize bone loss during tibial resection (Oxford Microplasty; Zimmer Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana, USA). METHODS: To assess the effect of the new instrumentation, we retrospectively evaluated the postoperative radiographs and surgical records of 300 OUKAs in three consecutive cohorts of patients...
April 24, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439640/the-elusive-role-of-b-lymphocytes-and-islet-autoantibodies-in-human-type-1-diabetes
#12
EDITORIAL
Stef J Bloem, Bart O Roep
The role of B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in humans is not entirely evident. These cells are presumed to be important, but this assumption is largely based on animal models of autoimmune diabetes, where compelling evidence for the contribution of both B lymphocytes and insulin-specific autoantibodies to this disease is in place. For humans, this is much less the case; the exact way in which B lymphocytes and/or autoantibodies may contribute to type 1 diabetes is not yet known but the possibilities include a pathogenic function ('fire'), or they may represent a surrogate of loss of immune tolerance to beta cells ('smoke') or, indeed, they could be a marker of an attempt at immune regulation ('ice water')...
April 24, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438927/the-role-of-psl-genes-in-antibiotic-tolerance-of-adherent-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#13
Keiji Murakami, Tsuneko Ono, Darija Viducic, Yoko Somiya, Reiko Kariyama, Kenji Hori, Takashi Amoh, Katsuhiko Hirota, Hiromi Kumon, Matthew R Parsek, Yoichiro Miyake
Bacteria attached to a surface are generally more tolerant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts, even without the formation of a biofilm. The mechanism of antibiotic tolerance in biofilm communities is multifactorial, and the genetic backgound underlying this antibiotic tolerance has not yet been fully elucidated. Using transposon mutagenesis, we isolated a mutant with reduced tolerance to biapenem (relative to the wild-type) from adherent cells. Sequencing analysis revealed a mutation in the pslL gene, which is a part of the polysaccharide biosynthesis operon...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437989/low-loss-compact-and-fabrication-tolerant-si-wire-90%C3%A2-waveguide-bend-using-clothoid-and-normal-curves-for-large-scale-photonic-integrated-circuits
#14
Takeshi Fujisawa, Shuntaro Makino, Takanori Sato, Kunimasa Saitoh
Ultimately low-loss 90° waveguide bend composed of clothoid and normal curves is proposed for dense optical interconnect photonic integrated circuits. By using clothoid curves at the input and output of 90° waveguide bend, straight and bent waveguides are smoothly connected without increasing the footprint. We found that there is an optimum ratio of clothoid curves in the bend and the bending loss can be significantly reduced compared with normal bend. 90% reduction of the bending loss for the bending radius of 4 μm is experimentally demonstrated with excellent agreement between theory and experiment...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437931/circular-core-single-mode-polymer-optical-waveguide-fabricated-using-the-mosquito-method-with-low-loss-at-1310-1550-nm
#15
Kazuki Yasuhara, Feng Yu, Takaaki Ishigure
We fabricate low-loss single-mode (SM) polymer optical waveguides using a photomask-free simple technique named the Mosquito method. The insertion losses of a 5-cm long SM polymer waveguide fabricated are 2.52 dB and 4.03 dB at 1310- and 1550-nm wavelengths, respectively. The coupling loss between a single-mode fiber and the waveguide is as low as 0.5 dB including the Fresnel reflection. The 0.5-dB misalignment tolerance in the radial direction is ± 2.0 μm at 1550 nm. The Mosquito method is promising for fabricating SM polymer optical waveguides compatible with silicon photonics chips...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437585/chronic-intestinal-electrical-stimulation-improves-glucose-intolerance-and-insulin-resistance-in-diet-induced-obesity-rats
#16
Shiying Li, Weijian Zhu, Sujuan Zhang, Jiande Dz Chen
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a contributing factor to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to study the therapeutic potential of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) for obesity and associated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats. METHODS: DIO rats were divided into two groups to receive sham or IES for 8 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests were performed. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit tests were performed...
April 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437232/epidemiological-physiological-and-molecular-characteristics-of-a-brazilian-collection-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Vanessa Cordeiro Dias, Juliana Alves Resende, André Netto Bastos, Lucas Quinet De Andrade Bastos, Victor Quinet De Andrade Bastos, Ricardo Villela Bastos, Cláudio Galuppo Diniz, Vânia Lúcia Da Silva
Nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are widespread in the environment and are increasingly associated with nosocomial infections, often associated with multidrug-resistance phenotypes. This study aimed to evaluate epidemiological, physiological, and molecular characteristics of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. In total, 63 nonreplicated strains (44 A. baumannii and 19 P. aeruginosa) were isolated from hospitalized patients. Antimicrobial resistance patterns, biocide tolerance, oxidative stress, hemolytic activity, and biofilm formation were assessed...
February 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437176/echinocandins-in-ocular-therapeutics
#18
Akash Patil, Soumyajit Majumdar
Fungal infections of the eye, especially fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis, are major causes of concern and if left untreated could lead to vision loss. Currently, natamycin (polyene antifungal) is the only commercially available topical agent used for the treatment of ocular fungal infections. The other antifungals, belonging to the polyene and azole classes, are used off-label in treating ocular infections and are administered topically, orally, intraocularly, or systemically. Even though their use through the different routes of administration has shown favorable outcomes, challenges such as poor ocular penetration, low bioavailability, ocular toxicity, and systemic side effects limit their utility...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434973/long-term-oral-kinetin-does-not-protect-against-%C3%AE-synuclein-induced-neurodegeneration-in-rodent-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Adam L Orr, Florentine U Rutaganira, Daniel de Roulet, Eric J Huang, Nicholas T Hertz, Kevan M Shokat, Ken Nakamura
Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) cause Parkinson's disease (PD), likely by disrupting PINK1's kinase activity. Although the mechanism(s) underlying how this loss of activity causes degeneration remains unclear, increasing PINK1 activity may therapeutically benefit some forms of PD. However, we must first learn whether restoring PINK1 function prevents degeneration in patients harboring PINK1 mutations, or whether boosting PINK1 function can offer protection in more common causes of PD...
April 20, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434881/muramyl-dipeptide-based-postbiotics-mitigate-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance-via-irf4
#20
Joseph F Cavallari, Morgan D Fullerton, Brittany M Duggan, Kevin P Foley, Emmanuel Denou, Brennan K Smith, Eric M Desjardins, Brandyn D Henriksbo, Kalvin J Kim, Brian R Tuinema, Jennifer C Stearns, David Prescott, Philip Rosenstiel, Brian K Coombes, Gregory R Steinberg, Jonathan D Schertzer
Intestinal dysbiosis contributes to obesity and insulin resistance, but intervening with antibiotics, prebiotics, or probiotics can be limited by specificity or sustained changes in microbial composition. Postbiotics include bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides, which have been shown to promote insulin resistance during metabolic endotoxemia. We found that bacterial cell wall-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is an insulin-sensitizing postbiotic that requires NOD2. Injecting MDP lowered adipose inflammation and reduced glucose intolerance in obese mice without causing weight loss or altering the composition of the microbiome...
April 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
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