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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079250/use-of-the-ketogenic-diet-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-safety-and-tolerability
#1
Lindsey Thompson, Erin Fecske, Mohammad Salim, Ara Hall
Drug-resistant epilepsy poses a challenge in neonatal patients, especially those in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), who have various secondary comorbidities. We present results of four children with a history of drug-resistant epilepsy for whom a ketogenic diet was initiated and used in the NICU. A nonfasting induction into ketosis over 1-2 weeks was utilized, with gradual increases in the ketogenic ratio every 2-3 days. Data were collected retrospectively from a database, which included medical history, daily progress notes, relevant laboratory data, and imaging and diagnostic information...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077981/dna-polymerase-kappa-protects-human-cells-against-mmc-induced-genotoxicity-through-error-free-translesion-dna-synthesis
#2
Yuki Kanemaru, Tetsuya Suzuki, Akira Sassa, Kyomu Matsumoto, Noritaka Adachi, Masamitsu Honma, Satoshi Numazawa, Takehiko Nohmi
BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and environment are critical factors for causing cancer in humans. The genotoxicity of environmental chemicals can be enhanced via the modulation of susceptible genes in host human cells. DNA polymerase kappa (Pol κ) is a specialized DNA polymerase that plays an important role in DNA damage tolerance through translesion DNA synthesis. To better understand the protective roles of Pol κ, we previously engineered two human cell lines either deficient in expression of Pol κ (KO) or expressing catalytically dead Pol κ (CD) in Nalm-6-MSH+ cells and examined cytotoxic sensitivity against various genotoxins...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077715/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#3
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077687/stronger-seasonal-adjustment-in-leaf-turgor-loss-point-in-lianas-than-trees-in-an-amazonian-forest
#4
Isabelle Maréchaux, Megan K Bartlett, Amaia Iribar, Lawren Sack, Jérôme Chave
Pan-tropically, liana density increases with decreasing rainfall and increasing seasonality. This pattern has led to the hypothesis that lianas display a growth advantage over trees under dry conditions. However, the physiological mechanisms underpinning this hypothesis remain elusive. A key trait influencing leaf and plant drought tolerance is the leaf water potential at turgor loss point (πtlp). πtlp adjusts under drier conditions and this contributes to improved leaf drought tolerance. For co-occurring Amazonian tree (n = 247) and liana (n = 57) individuals measured during the dry and the wet seasons, lianas showed a stronger osmotic adjustment than trees...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076858/non-coding-loss-of-function-variation-in-human-genomes
#5
Zachary Zappala, Stephen B Montgomery
Whole-genome and exome sequencing in human populations has revealed the tolerance of each gene for loss-of-function variation. By understanding this tolerance, it has become increasingly possible to identify genes that would make safe therapeutic targets and to identify rare genetic risk factors and phenotypes at the scale of individual genomes. To date, the vast majority of surveyed loss-of-function variants are in protein-coding regions of the genome mainly due to the focus on these regions by exome-based sequencing projects and their relative ease of interpretability...
2016: Human Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076481/correlation-between-pre-and-postoperative-levels-of-glp-1-glp-2-and-weight-loss-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-prospective-study
#6
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, Maria Rita Lazzarini Barreto, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Background: The role of gut hormones in glucose homeostasis and weight loss achievement and maintenance after bariatric surgery appears to be a key point in the understanding of the beneficial effects observed following these procedures. Aim: To determine whether there is a correlation between the pre and postoperative levels of both GLP-1 and GLP-2 and the excess weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Methods: An exploratory prospective study which enrolled 11 individuals who underwent RYGB and were followed-up for 12 months...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074747/liraglutide-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonist-for-chronic-weight-management
#7
Kendra R Manigault, Maria Miller Thurston
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight loss. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE from 2000 to 2016. The following key terms were used alone or in combination: glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, liraglutide, obesity, overweight, and weight loss. Additional supporting literature was identified utilizing the reference lists of the preceding articles. STUDY SELECTION: Analyzed studies were published in English and investigated use of liraglutide and its impact on weight loss...
December 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073006/bcl9l-dysfunction-impairs-caspase-2-expression-permitting-aneuploidy-tolerance-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
Carlos López-García, Laurent Sansregret, Enric Domingo, Nicholas McGranahan, Sebastijan Hobor, Nicolai Juul Birkbak, Stuart Horswell, Eva Grönroos, Francesco Favero, Andrew J Rowan, Nicholas Matthews, Sharmin Begum, Benjamin Phillimore, Rebecca Burrell, Dahmane Oukrif, Bradley Spencer-Dene, Michal Kovac, Gordon Stamp, Aengus Stewart, Havard Danielsen, Marco Novelli, Ian Tomlinson, Charles Swanton
Chromosomal instability (CIN) contributes to cancer evolution, intratumor heterogeneity, and drug resistance. CIN is driven by chromosome segregation errors and a tolerance phenotype that permits the propagation of aneuploid genomes. Through genomic analysis of colorectal cancers and cell lines, we find frequent loss of heterozygosity and mutations in BCL9L in aneuploid tumors. BCL9L deficiency promoted tolerance of chromosome missegregation events, propagation of aneuploidy, and genetic heterogeneity in xenograft models likely through modulation of Wnt signaling...
January 9, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072753/engraftment-site-and-effectiveness-of-the-pan-caspase-inhibitor-f573-to-improve-engraftment-in-mouse-and-human-islet-transplantation-in-mice
#9
Andrew R Pepper, Antonio Bruni, Rena Pawlick, John Wink, Yasmin Rafiei, Boris Gala-Lopez, Mariusz Bral, Nasser Abualhassan, Tatsuya Kin, A M James Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Islet transplantation is an effective therapy in type 1 diabetes and recalcitrant hypoglycemia. However, there is an ongoing need to circumvent islet loss posttransplant. We explore herein the potential of the pan-caspase inhibitor F573, to mitigate early apoptosis-mediated islet death within portal and extrahepatic portal sites in mice. METHODS: Mouse or human islets were cultured in standard media ±100 μM F573 and subsequently assessed for viability and apoptosis via TUNEL staining and caspase-3 activation...
January 9, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071990/natural-course-of-euthyroidism-and-clues-for-early-diagnosis-of-thyroid-dysfunctions-tehran-thyroid-study-tts
#10
Atieh Amouzegar, Zahra Ghaemmaghami, Maani Beygi, Safoora Gharibzadeh, Ladan Mehran, Maryam Tohidi, Fereidoun Azizi
OBJECTIVE: Considering the limited data available on the natural course of euthyroidism, this study was designed to evaluate the progression in time from euthyroidism to subclinical or overt hypo - or hyperthyroidism. METHODS: This study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Thyroid cohort study (TTS), in which 5783 individuals aged 40.4 ± 0.2 years were followed for 6 years. The overall loss to follow-up rate was 8.3%. After applying exclusion criteria, data of 4204 euthyroid subjects remained for analysis of a six-year natural course analysis...
January 10, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067421/dietary-integration-with-oregano-origanum-vulgare-l-essential-oil-improves-growth-rate-and-oxidative-status-in-outdoor-reared-but-not-indoor-reared-pigs
#11
C Forte, D Ranucci, D Beghelli, R Branciari, G Acuti, L Todini, C Cavallucci, M Trabalza-Marinucci
The effects of a diet supplemented with oregano essential oil on performance, oxidative status, pork quality traits and sensorial properties were evaluated. In two studies, 72 pigs in indoor or outdoor conditions were assigned to either a control diet or an identical diet supplemented with 0.2% oregano essential oil. Pigs reared outdoor showed lower live weight, average daily gain and average gain:feed ratio compared to indoor pigs. The oregano supplementation improved the growth performance of the outdoor- but not the indoor-reared animals...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066876/the-terrestrial-green-macroalga-prasiola-calophylla-trebouxiophyceae-chlorophyta-ecophysiological-performance-under-water-limiting-conditions
#12
Andreas Holzinger, Klaus Herburger, Kathrin Blaas, Louise A Lewis, Ulf Karsten
The phylogenetic placement of Prasiola calophylla, from an anthropogenic habitat previously shown to contain a novel UV sunscreen compound, was confirmed by analysis of its rbcL gene. This alga has the capacity to tolerate strong water-limiting conditions. The photosynthetic performance and ultrastructural changes under desiccation and osmotic stress were investigated. Freshly harvested thalli showed an effective quantum yield of PSII [Y(II)] of 0.52 ± 0.06 that decreased to ∼60% of the initial value at 3000 mM sorbitol, and 4000 mM sorbitol led to a complete loss of Y(II)...
January 9, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064188/upset-the-drosophila-homologue-of-set3-is-required-for-viability-and-the-proper-balance-of-active-and-repressive-chromatin-marks
#13
Kyle A McElroy, Youngsook Lucy Jung, Barry M Zee, Charlotte I Wang, Peter J Park, Mitzi I Kuroda
Chromatin plays a critical role in faithful implementation of gene expression programs. Different post-translational modifications of histone proteins reflect the underlying state of gene activity, and many chromatin proteins write, erase, bind, or are repelled by these histone marks. One such protein is UpSET, the Drosophila homolog of yeast Set3 and mammalian KMT2E (MLL5). Here we show that UpSET is necessary for the proper balance between active and repressed states. Using CRISPR/Cas-9 editing, we generated S2 cells which are mutant for upset We found that loss of UpSET is tolerated in S2 cells, but that heterochromatin is misregulated, as evidenced by a strong decrease in H3K9me2 levels assessed by bulk histone post-translational modification quantification...
January 6, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062695/the-clonal-invariant-nkt-cell-repertoire-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes-is-characterized-by-a-loss-of-clones-expressing-high-affinity-tcrs
#14
Anna S Tocheva, Salah Mansour, Tristan G H Holt, Samuel Jones, Andrew Chancellor, Joseph P Sanderson, Efrem Eren, Tim J Elliott, Richard I G Holt, Stephan D Gadola
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in healthy people express iNKT-TCRs with widely varying affinities for CD1d, suggesting different roles for high- and low-affinity iNKT clones in immune regulation. However, the functional implications of this heterogeneity have not yet been determined. Functionally aberrant iNKT responses have been previously demonstrated in different autoimmune diseases, including human type 1 diabetes, but their relationship to changes in the iNKT clonal repertoire have not been addressed. In this study, we directly compared the clonal iNKT repertoire of people with recent onset type 1 diabetes and age- and gender-matched healthy controls with regard to iNKT-TCR affinity and cytokine production...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059289/mode-selective-coupling-between-few-mode-fibers-and-buried-channel-waveguides
#15
Yunfei Wu, Kin Seng Chiang
With intensive computation, we analyze in detail butt-coupling between few-mode fibers and buried channel waveguides and discuss, in particular, the conditions to achieve mode-selective coupling for the first 6 spatial modes. In the case of coupling a buried rectangular-core waveguide to a step-index or a parabolic-index circular-core fiber, a modal crosstalk smaller than -20 dB for all the 6 spatial modes can be achieved, when the shape of the waveguide core is sufficiently close to a square (within ± 0.7% variation in its aspect ratio) and the waveguide and the fiber have close mode volumes...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058546/is-chemical-pyloroplasty-necessary-for-minimally-invasive-esophagectomy
#16
Camille L Stewart, Lauren Wilson, Aidan Hamm, Christan Bartsch, Megan Boniface, Ana Gleisner, John D Mitchell, Michael J Weyant, Robert Meguid, Csaba Gajdos, Barish H Edil, Martin McCarter
BACKGROUND: Many centers use botulinum toxin for chemical pyloroplasty in minimally invasive esophagectomies as prophylaxis against delayed gastric emptying. No previous studies have compared botulinum toxin injection with no pyloric intervention for patients treated with a combined laparoscopic and thoracoscopic approach. The authors hypothesized that chemical pyloroplasty does not improve outcomes for these patients. METHODS: The study investigated patients undergoing minimally invasive esophagectomies from September 2009 to June 2015...
January 5, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057361/efficacy-and-safety-of-guselkumab-an-anti-interleukin-23-monoclonal-antibody-compared-with-adalimumab-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-with-randomized-withdrawal-and-retreatment-results-from-the-phase-iii-double-blind-placebo
#17
Kristian Reich, April W Armstrong, Peter Foley, Michael Song, Yasmine Wasfi, Bruce Randazzo, Shu Li, Y-K Shen, Kenneth B Gordon
BACKGROUND: Phase II data suggested that guselkumab, an anti-interleukin-23 monoclonal antibody, was efficacious in psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess efficacy and safety of guselkumab in moderate to severe psoriasis versus placebo and adalimumab, including interrupted treatment and switching adalimumab nonresponders to guselkumab. METHODS: Patients were randomized to guselkumab 100 mg (weeks 0 and 4, then every 8 weeks; n = 496); placebo→guselkumab (weeks 0, 4, and 12 then guselkumab at weeks 16 and 20; n = 248); or adalimumab (80 mg week 0, then 40 mg week 1, and every 2 weeks through week 23; n = 248)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057082/cognitive-performance-during-passive-heat-exposure-in-japanese-males-and-tropical-asian-males-from-southeast-asian-living-in-japan
#18
Titis Wijayanto, Sayo Toramoto, Yasuhiko Maeda, Su-Young Son, Sonomi Umezaki, Yutaka Tochihara
BACKGROUND: Heat acclimatization studies have reported that tropical natives have better physiological function to tolerate heat exposure compared to those from temperate natives, in which may result in a better ability to show a better resistance to performance losses during heat stress. In this study, we investigate whether the degree of heat acclimatization affects cognitive abilities during heat exposure by comparing heat acclimatization level of subjects from Southeast Asia and temperate natives from Japan...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056951/capromorelin-oral-solution-entyce%C3%A2-increases-food-consumption-and-body-weight-when-administered-for-4-consecutive-days-to-healthy-adult-beagle-dogs-in-a-randomized-masked-placebo-controlled-study
#19
Bill Zollers, Linda Rhodes, Ernst Heinen
BACKGROUND: Dogs can suffer from inappetence caused by a variety of medical conditions. This may present as anorexia (complete loss of appetite), hyporexia (decreased appetite) or dysrexia (change in food preferences). A drug with a new mechanism of action, capromorelin, has potential to stimulate appetite in dogs. Capromorelin is a ghrelin receptor agonist, which mimics the action of endogenous ghrelin. It is a member of the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) class of drugs. Capromorelin oral solution (ENTYCE®) was tested in healthy adult male and female Beagle dogs (n = 6 males and 6 females per group) for its effect on food consumption and body weight...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054299/gastric-plication-improves-glycemia-partly-by-restoring-the-altered-expression-of-aquaglyceroporins-in-adipose-tissue-and-the-liver-in-obese-rats
#20
Leire Méndez-Giménez, Sara Becerril, Rafael Moncada, Víctor Valentí, Secundino Fernández, Beatriz Ramírez, Victoria Catalán, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Graça Soveral, María M Malagón, Carlos Diéguez, Amaia Rodríguez, Gema Frühbeck
BACKGROUND: Gastric plication is a minimally invasive bariatric surgical procedure, where the greater curvature is plicated inside the gastric lumen. Our aims were to analyze the effectiveness of gastric plication on the resolution of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and fatty liver in an experimental model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and to evaluate changes in glycerol metabolism, a key substrate for adiposity and gluconeogenesis, in adipose tissue and the liver. METHODS: Male Wistar DIO rats (n = 58) were subjected to surgical (sham operation and gastric plication) or dietary interventions [fed a normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) or pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by gastric-plicated animals]...
January 4, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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