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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040781/further-insights-into-the-components-of-resistance-to-ophiostoma-novo-ulmi-in-ulmus-minor-hydraulic-conductance-stomatal-sensitivity-and-bark-dehydration
#1
Pilar Pita, Jesús Rodríguez-Calcerrada, David Medel, Luis Gil
Dutch elm disease (DED) is a vascular disease that has killed over 1 billion elm trees. The pathogen spreads throughout the xylem network triggering vessel blockage, which results in water stress, tissue dehydration and extensive leaf wilting in susceptible genotypes. We investigated the differences between four Ulmus minor Mill. clones of contrasting susceptibility to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier regarding morphological, anatomical and physiological traits affecting water transport, in order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying DED susceptibility...
October 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040752/expansion-of-the-dehydrin-gene-family-in-the-pinaceae-is-associated-with-considerable-structural-diversity-and-drought-responsive-expression
#2
Juliana Stival Sena, Isabelle Giguère, Philippe Rigault, Jean Bousquet, John Mackay
Temperatures are expected to increase over the next century in all terrestrial biomes and particularly in boreal forests, where drought-induced mortality has been predicted to rise. Genomics research is helping to develop hypotheses regarding the molecular basis of drought tolerance and recent work proposed that the osmo-protecting dehydrin proteins have undergone a clade-specific expansion in the Pinaceae, a major group of conifer trees. The objectives of this study were to identify all of the putative members of the gene family, trace their evolutionary origin, examine their structural diversity and test for drought-responsive expression...
October 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036594/impaired-defense-reactions-in-apple-replant-disease-affected-roots-of-malus-domestica-m26
#3
Stefan Weiß, Benye Liu, Dennis Reckwell, Ludger Beerhues, Traud Winkelmann
A soil- and site-dependent complex of diverse microbial populations causes apple replant disease (ARD), which leads to economic losses for tree nurseries and apple producers due to reduced plant growth and diminished fruit yields. Soil fumigation has been widely used to mitigate ARD, but the application of these chemicals is restricted in the European Union. Hence, other counteractions have to be developed. Genomics-based breeding may be used to select ARD-tolerant genotypes; however, molecular responses of ARD are not well understood...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035752/regulation-of-oxidative-stress-and-mineral-nutrient-status-by-selenium-in-arsenic-treated-crop-plant-oryza-sativa
#4
R Singh, A K Upadhyay, D P Singh
The present study was conducted to examine the impact of selenium (Se) on mineral nutrient status and oxidative stress in crop plant Oryza sativa treated with arsenic (As). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) study revealed the morphological deformities in leaf veins along with granular deposition on the leaf surface. The EDS analysis exhibited loss of elements (S, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Cu) in As(III) treatment in rice roots as compared to untreated root...
October 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035695/expression-of-macrophage-genes-within-skeletal-muscle-correlates-inversely-with-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance-in-humans
#5
Dongmei Liu, Flor Elisa Morales, Heidi B IglayReger, Mary K Treutelaar, Amy E Rothberg, Monica J Hubal, Evan P Nadler, Jacques Robidoux, Hisham Barakat, Jeffrey F Horowitz, Eric P Hoffman, Charles F Burant, Paul M Gordon
Background Local inflammation in obese adipose tissue has been shown to contribute to insulin resistance, however, the role of macrophage infiltration within skeletal muscle is still debateable. This study aimed to evaluate the association of skeletal muscle macrophage gene expression with adiposity levels and insulin sensitivity in obese patients. Methods Twenty-two non-diabetic obese patients and 23 healthy lean controls were included. Obese patients underwent a 3-month weight loss intervention. Macrophage gene expression in skeletal muscle (quantitative RT-PCR), body composition (DXA) and insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment and oral glucose tolerance test) were compared between groups and their associations were analyzed...
October 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035143/the-contribution-of-glyphosate-to-agriculture-and-potential-impact-of-restrictions-on-use-at-the-global-level
#6
Graham Brookes, Farzad Taheripour, Wallace E Tyner
This study assesses the potential economic and environmental impacts that would arise if restrictions on glyphosate use resulted in the world no longer planting genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GM HT) crops. 'First round' impacts are the loss of farm level and aggregate impacts associated with the widespread use of GM HT crops (tolerant to glyphosate). There would be an annual loss of global farm income gains of $6.76 billion and lower levels of global soybean, corn and canola production equal to 18...
October 16, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035101/biofilm-formation-antimicrobial-resistance-and-sanitizer-tolerance-of-salmonella-enterica-strains-isolated-from-beef-trim
#7
Rong Wang, John W Schmidt, Dayna M Harhay, Joseph M Bosilevac, David A King, Terrance M Arthur
In the beef industry, product contamination by Salmonella enterica is a serious public health concern, which may result in human infection and cause significant financial loss due to product recalls. Currently, the precise mechanism and pathogen source responsible for Salmonella contamination in commercial establishments are not well understood. We characterized 89 S. enterica strains isolated from beef trim with respect to their biofilm-forming ability, antimicrobial resistance, and biofilm cell survival/recovery growth after sanitizer exposure...
October 16, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034798/intramuscular-electrical-stimulation-for-muscle-activation-of-tibialis-anterior-after-surgical-repair-a-case-report
#8
Sharon Hollis, Philip McClure
Study Design Case report. Background Loss of voluntary activation of musculature can result in muscle weakness. External neuromuscular stimulation can be utilized to improve voluntary activation but is often poorly tolerated because of pain associated with required stimulus level. Intramuscular electrical stimulation requires much lower voltage and may be better tolerated and therefore more effective at restoring voluntary muscle activation. Case Description A 71-year-old male sustained a rupture of the distal attachment of the tibialis anterior tendon...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034347/using-a-weaning-immunosuppression-protocol-in-liver-transplantation-recipients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-compromise-between-the-risk-of-recurrence-and-the-risk-of-rejection
#9
REVIEW
Roberta Angelico, Alessandro Parente, Tommaso Maria Manzia
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence rate after liver transplantation (LT) is still up to 15-20%, despite a careful selection of candidates and optimization of the management within the waiting list. To reduce tumour recurrence, the currently adopted post-transplant strategies are based on the administration of a tailored immunosuppression (IS) regimen. Drug-induced depression of the immune system is essential in preventing graft rejection, however has a well-established association with oncogenesis. The immune system has a key role as a defending mechanism against cancer development, preventing vascular invasion and metastasis...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034064/personalized-therapy-against-preeclampsia-by-replenishing-placental-protein-13-pp13-targeted-to-patients-with-impaired-pp13-molecule-or-function
#10
REVIEW
Hamutal Meiri, George Osol, Irene Cetin, Sveinbjörn Gizurarson, Berthold Huppertz
Hypertensive disorders affect about one third of all people aged 20 and above, and are treated with anti-hypertensive drugs. Preeclampsia (PE) is one form of such disorders that only develops during pregnancy. It affects ten million pregnant women globally and additionally causes fetal loss and major newborn disabilities. The syndrome's origin is multifactorial, and anti-hypertensive drugs are ineffective in treating it. Biomarkers are helpful for predict its development. Generic drugs, such as low dose aspirin, were proven effective in preventing preterm PE...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032742/enhanced-cyanide-biodegradation-by-immobilized-crude-extract-of-rhodococcus-ukmp-5m
#11
Maegala Nallapan Maniyam, Abdul Latif Ibrahim, Anthony E G Cass
The crude extract of Rhodococcus UKMP-5M demonstrated excellent cyanide-degrading ability as reported previously. In the present study, the capability of the crude extract of the locally isolated bacterium was further enhanced by adopting the technology of immobilization. Among the matrices screened to encapsulate the crude extract, gellan gum emerged as the most suitable immobilization material exhibiting cyanide-degrading activity of 0.475(a) ± 0.003 mM/min/mg protein which exceeded the activity of cyanide-degrading enzyme by 61% and 361% in comparison to alginate carrier and non-immobilized crude extract, respectively...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030481/antisense-transcription-represses-arabidopsis-seed-dormancy-qtl-dog1-to-regulate-drought-tolerance
#12
Ruslan Yatusevich, Halina Fedak, Arkadiusz Ciesielski, Katarzyna Krzyczmonik, Anna Kulik, Grazyna Dobrowolska, Szymon Swiezewski
Plants have developed multiple strategies to sense the external environment and to adapt growth accordingly. Delay of germination 1 (DOG1) is a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for seed dormancy strength in Arabidopsis thaliana that is reported to be expressed exclusively in seeds. DOG1 is extensively regulated, with an antisense transcript (asDOG1) suppressing its expression in seeds. Here, we show that asDOG1 shows high levels in mature plants where it suppresses DOG1 expression under standard growth conditions...
October 13, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030440/multiple-roles-of-two-efflux-pumps-in-a-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading-pseudomonas-putida-strain-b6-2-dsm-28064
#13
Xuemei Yao, Fei Tao, Kunzhi Zhang, Hongzhi Tang, Ping Xu
Microbial bioremediation is a promising approach for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants. Many degraders of PAHs possess efflux pump genes in their genomes; however, their specific roles in the degradation of PAHs have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, two efflux pumps, TtgABC and SrpABC, were systematically investigated to determine their functions in a PAH-degrading Pseudomonas putida strain B6-2 (DSM 28064). The disruption of genes ttgABC or srpABC resulted in a defect in organic solvent tolerance...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028032/proof-of-principle-implementation-of-a-quantum-random-number-generator-with-independent-devices-and-a-dimension-witness
#14
Xue-Bi An, Yun-Guang Han, Zhen-Qiang Yin, Wei Huang, Wei Chen, Shuang Wang, Guang-Can Guo, Zheng-Fu Han
The random number is a paramount issue in modern science. How to estimate the genuine randomness of the data generated by a given device is a central problem. Lunghi et al. proposed a self-testing quantum random number generator from a prepare-and-measure scenario with independent devices. Based on this Letter, Han et al. proposed a more efficient method (Han16 protocol for short) to estimate the genuine randomness. Here we report a proof-of-principle realization of the Han16 protocol with a HSPS. The experimental results demonstrate that the Han16 protocol almost doubles the generation rate of the quantum random number with regard to the previous protocol...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028013/plasmonic-topological-insulators-for-topological-nanophotonics
#15
Weifeng Zhang, Xianfeng Chen, Fangwei Ye
Photonic topological insulators are optical structures supporting robust propagation of light at their edges that are topologically protected from scattering. Here we propose the concept of plasmonic topological insulators (PTI) that not only topologically protect light at the lattice edges but also enable their confinement and guidance at the deep-subwavelength scale. The suggested PTI are composed of an evanescently coupled array of metallic nanowires that are modulated periodically along the light propagation direction...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026140/embroidered-copper-microwire-current-collector-for-improved-cycling-performance-of-silicon-anodes-in-lithium-ion-batteries
#16
Ben Breitung, Noemí Aguiló-Aguayo, Thomas Bechtold, Horst Hahn, Jürgen Janek, Torsten Brezesinski
Si holds great promise as an alloying anode material for Li-ion batteries with improved energy density because of its high theoretical specific capacity and favorable operation voltage range. However, the large volume expansion of Si during electrochemical reaction with Li and the associated adverse effects strongly limit its prospect for application. Here, we report on the use of three-dimensional instead of flat current collectors for high-capacity Si anodes in an attempt to mitigate the loss of electrical contact of active electrode regions as a result of structural disintegration with cycling...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023506/exopolysaccharides-regulate-calcium-flow-in-cariogenic-biofilms
#17
Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Muth M Varenganayil, Alan W Decho, Tuomas Waltimo, Olivier Braissant
Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022922/rankl-mediated-harmonious-dialogue-between-fetus-and-mother-guarantees-smooth-gestation-by-inducing-decidual-m2-macrophage-polarization
#18
Yu-Han Meng, Wen-Jie Zhou, Li-Ping Jin, Li-Bing Liu, Kai-Kai Chang, Jie Mei, Hui Li, Jian Wang, Da-Jin Li, Ming-Qing Li
Decidual macrophages (dMϕ) contribute to maternal-fetal tolerance. However, the mechanism of dMϕ differentiation during pregnancy is still largely unknown. Here, we report that receptor activator for nuclear factor-κ B ligand (RANKL), secreted by human embryonic trophoblasts and maternal decidual stromal cells (DSCs), polarizes dMϕ toward a M2 phenotype. This polarization is mediated through activation of Akt/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) signaling, which is associated with the upregulation of histone H3 lysine-27 demethylase Jmjd3 and IRF4 in dMϕ...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022746/achieving-the-composite-endpoint-of-hba1c-body-weight-and-systolic-blood-pressure-reduction-with-canagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Katherine Merton, Michael J Davies, Ujjwala Vijapurkar, Doreen Inman, Gary Meininger
OBJECTIVE: In addition to achieving glycemic control, weight loss and blood pressure (BP) reduction are important components of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management, as many patients with T2DM are overweight/obese and/or have hypertension. Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, has demonstrated improvements in HbA1c, body weight (BW), and systolic BP across a broad range of patients with T2DM. This analysis evaluated achievement of composite endpoints of HbA1c, BW, and systolic BP targets with canagliflozin versus placebo...
October 12, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021972/evaluating-factors-for-prophylactic-feeding-tube-placement-in-gastroesophageal-cancer-patients-undergoing-chemoradiotherapy
#20
Vivek Verma, Pamela K Allen, Steven H Lin
PURPOSE: Though better studied in head/neck cancers, there are currently no studies on timing of feeding tube (FT) placement in patients with gastroesophageal cancer. This study sought to discern characteristics of patients who used versus did not use a prophylactic FT (pFT), and also analyzed factors associated with placement of FTs during chemoradiotherapy (CRT). METHODS/MATERIALS: From 1998 to 2013, 1,329 patients underwent neoadjuvant CRT, of which 323 received an FT...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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