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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934432/clinical-pharmacokinetics-in-kidney-disease-fundamental-principles
#1
Tom N Lea-Henry, Jane E Carland, Sophie L Stocker, Jacob Sevastos, Darren M Roberts
Kidney disease is an increasingly common comorbidity that alters the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Prescribing to patients with kidney disease requires knowledge about the drug, the extent of the patient's altered physiology, and pharmacokinetic principles that influence the design of dosing regimens. There are multiple physiologic effects of impaired kidney function, and the extent to which they occur in an individual at any given time can be difficult to define. Although some guidelines are available for dosing in kidney disease, they may be on the basis of limited data or not widely applicable, and therefore, an understanding of pharmacokinetic principles and how to apply them is important to the practicing clinician...
June 22, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927516/hiv-in-practice-current-approaches-and-challenges-in-the-diagnosis-treatment-and-management-of-hiv-infection-in-australia
#2
D E Smith, I J Woolley, D B Russell, F Bisshop, V Furner
As treatment improves, people living with HIV (PLWHIV) can now expect to live longer, which means that the foci of HIV-related care for them and their medical practitioners continue to change. With an increasingly older cohort of patients with HIV infection, practitioners' key considerations are shifting from issues of acute treatment and patient survival to multiple comorbidities, toxicities associated with chronic therapy, and ongoing health maintenance. Within this context, this paper explores the current standard of practice for the management of HIV infection in Australia...
August 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909606/dietary-protein-and-nutritional-supplements-in-conventional-hemodialysis
#3
Alice Sabatino, Giovanni Piotti, Carmela Cosola, Ilaria Gandolfini, Jeroen P Kooman, Enrico Fiaccadori
Protein energy wasting (PEW) is a condition commonly occurring among patients with ESRD on hemodialysis. PEW is characterized by depletion of protein and energy stores and is caused by multiple factors related to chronic kidney disease, acute and chronic comorbidities and by renal replacement therapy itself. Anorexia is central in the pathogenesis of PEW; it is frequently observed in these patients whose protein and energy intakes are typically lower than guidelines recommendations. If untreated, PEW invariably leads to major complications, and may activate a vicious circle with further worsening of nutritional status...
June 17, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907358/anticoagulant-treatment-of-medical-patients-with-complex-clinical-conditions
#4
F Ruiz-Ruiz, F J Medrano, J M Santos-Lozano, P Rodríguez-Torres, A Navarro-Puerto, E J Calderón
There is scarce available information on the treatment or prophylaxis with anticoagulant drugs of outpatients with medical diseases and complex clinical conditions. There are no clinical practice guidelines and/or specific recommendations for this patient subgroup, which are frequently treated by internists. Complex clinical conditions are those in which, due to comorbidity, age, vital prognosis or multiple treatment with drugs, a clinical situation arises of disease-disease, disease-drug or drug-drug interactions that is not included within the scenarios that commonly generate the scientific evidence...
June 12, 2018: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894490/biopsychosocial-factors-associated-with-non-recovery-after-a-minor-transport-related-injury-a-systematic-review
#5
Stella Samoborec, Rasa Ruseckaite, Darshini Ayton, Sue Evans
BACKGROUND: Globally, road transport accidents contribute significantly to mortality and burden of disability. Up to 50 million people suffer a transport-related non-fatal injury each year, which often leads to long-term disability. A substantial number of people with minor injuries struggle to recover and little is known about the factors leading to poor or non-recovery. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic review of biopsychosocial factors related to poor or non-recovery after a minor transport-related injury...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886833/arterial-hypertension-and-multiple-myeloma-physiopathology-and-cardiovascular-risk-and-practical-indications-in-patients-receiving-carfilzomib
#6
Alberto Milan, Giulia Bruno, Ilaria Maffei, Andrea Iannaccone, Agnese Ravera, Domenica Schiavone, Franco Veglio
The introduction of carfilzomib in the treatment of relapsing and refractory multiple myeloma has allowed a significant increase in survival. The most frequent adverse effect of Carfilzomib treatment is arterial hypertension, even thought the exact physiopathological mechanism are still unclear. MM patients, on the other hand, often present significant cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Uncontrolled hypertension is frequently the cause of cardiovascular complications. It has been estimated that up to 50% of subjects in the general population are unaware of their hypertensive condition and only half of those who are aware of this risk factor present good control of blood pressure...
June 10, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804298/cardiac-diseases-among-liver-transplant-candidates
#7
REVIEW
Marina Gitman, Megan Albertz, Ramona Nicolau-Raducu, Stephen Aniskevich, Sher-Lu Pai
Improvements in early survival after liver transplant (LT) have allowed for the selection of LT candidates with multiple comorbidities. Cardiovascular disease is a major contributor to post-LT complications. We performed a literature search to identify the causes of cardiac disease in the LT population and to describe techniques for diagnosis and perioperative management. Since no definite guidelines for preoperative assessment (except for pulmonary heart disease) are currently available, we recommend an algorithm for preoperative cardiac work-up...
May 27, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785393/monitoring-methotrexate-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-with-psoriasis-utility-of-transient-elastography
#8
REVIEW
Harriet S Cheng, Marius Rademaker
Increasingly, existing evidence indicates that methotrexate-associated liver injury is related to comorbid risk factors such as diabetes, alcoholism, and obesity, rather than to methotrexate itself. Despite this fact, significant effort continues to be expended in the monitoring of low-dose methotrexate in patients with psoriasis. The gold standard investigation has been liver biopsy, but this is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As methotrexate-induced liver injury is uncommon, the risk/benefit ratio of liver biopsy has been questioned...
2018: Psoriasis: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771333/multiple-comorbid-conditions-sleep-quality-and-duration-and-academic-performance-in-urban-children-with-asthma
#9
Katharine C Reynolds, Julie Boergers, Sheryl J Kopel, Daphne Koinis-Mitchell
Objective: Common comorbid medical conditions including allergic rhinitis (AR), obesity, and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) have been linked with asthma exacerbations; however, these conditions also impact sleep and academic functioning. The current study sought to examine unique and combined associations of these common comorbidities on sleep and academic performance among urban minority children with persistent asthma. We expected additional comorbid diagnoses would be associated with poorer sleep and academic functioning...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755695/hypertension-in-malignancy-an-underappreciated-problem
#10
REVIEW
Jolanta Małyszko, Maciej Małyszko, Leszek Kozlowski, Klaudia Kozlowska, Jacek Małyszko
Hypertension is one of the most common comorbidities in cancer patients with malignancy, in particular, in the elderly. On the other hand, hypertension is a long-term consequence of antineoplastic treatment, including both chemotherapy and targeted agents. Several chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs may be responsible for development or worsening of the hypertension. The most common side effect of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) treatment is hypertension. However, pathogenesis of hypertension in patients receiving this therapy appears to be associated with multiple pathways and is not yet fully understood...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722910/glycemic-management-in-the-bariatric-surgery-population-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Meredith L Howard, Taylor D Steuber, Sarah A Nisly
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic often complicated by multiple comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery is an increasingly common and effective weight-loss strategy for obese patients that may result in resolution of metabolic-related disease states, such as T2DM. Although bariatric surgery has many positive outcomes for patients, dietary and pathophysiologic changes can create difficult-to-control blood glucose, especially in the immediate perioperative setting. Depending on oral antidiabetic agent and insulin needs preoperatively, many patients require cessation of oral agents and reduction or cessation of insulin...
June 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718028/current-guidelines-for-psoriasis-treatment-a-work-in-progress
#12
Nicole M Golbari, Martina L Porter, Alexa B Kimball
Psoriasis is a complex chronic autoimmune skin disease with multiple comorbidities that can have a considerable impact on quality of life (QoL). As therapeutic options evolve, physicians should look to treatment guidelines and consensus statements to keep their practice and management of psoriasis patients current with worldwide standards. This article reviews the most up-to-date general guidelines available for the management of psoriasis.
March 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704768/management-of-treatment-related-toxicities-in-advanced-medullary-thyroid-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Marcia S Brose, Keith C Bible, Laura Q M Chow, Jill Gilbert, Carolyn Grande, Francis Worden, Robert Haddad
Progress in the treatment of advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) has resulted from the approval of 2 drugs within the past 5 years, vandetanib and cabozantinib. These multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) possess overlapping specificities for multiple kinase targets implicated in the progression of MTC. Both drugs are associated with toxicities, including hypertension, hemorrhage/perforation, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal events, several dermatologic events, and hypothyroidism. In addition, vandetanib is uniquely associated with QTc prolongation through interaction with myocardial potassium channels, and cabozantinib is uniquely associated with hand-foot skin reaction...
May 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686116/practice-guideline-recommendations-summary-disease-modifying-therapies-for-adults-with-multiple-sclerosis-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology
#14
Alexander Rae-Grant, Gregory S Day, Ruth Ann Marrie, Alejandro Rabinstein, Bruce A C Cree, Gary S Gronseth, Michael Haboubi, June Halper, Jonathan P Hosey, David E Jones, Robert Lisak, Daniel Pelletier, Sonja Potrebic, Cynthia Sitcov, Rick Sommers, Julie Stachowiak, Thomas S D Getchius, Shannon A Merillat, Tamara Pringsheim
OBJECTIVE: To develop recommendations for disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel developed DMT recommendations, integrating findings from a systematic review; followed an Institute of Medicine-compliant process to ensure transparency and patient engagement; and developed modified Delphi consensus-based recommendations concerning starting, switching, and stopping DMTs pertinent to people with relapsing-remitting MS, secondary progressive MS, primary progressive MS, and clinically isolated syndromes of demyelination...
April 24, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682764/how-confident-are-physicians-in-deprescribing-for-the-elderly-and-what-barriers-prevent-deprescribing
#15
L Djatche, S Lee, D Singer, S E Hegarty, M Lombardi, V Maio
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Deprescribing is the process of discontinuing or reducing the dosage of medications that are no longer appropriate or aligned with goals of care, which is paramount in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy. The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of primary care physicians on deprescribing for elderly patients and potential barriers to deprescribing that physicians experience in the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680184/rhinitis-and-sinusitis-in-the-geriatric-population
#16
REVIEW
David W Hsu, Jeffrey D Suh
Rhinitis and sinusitis are common medical conditions that affect the geriatric population and have a significant impact on their quality of life. Because few studies examine differences in the clinical management between the geriatric and general adult population, therapies should be based on current guidelines. Special considerations should be made when treating these patients in regards to multiple comorbidities and the potential for drug interactions from polypharmacy. Further research on the pathogenesis of sinusitis in the geriatric population may provide specific differences in the clinical management in this population...
April 18, 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644468/-pharmacological-treatment-of-osteoarthritis-related-pain
#17
REVIEW
T A Nees, M Schiltenwolf
Joint pain due to osteoarthritis (OA) is often severe and disabling and affects a large proportion of the aging population impairing daily living and quality of life. Numerous pharmacological treatment approaches are available. Including major OA guidelines this review presents the current evidence of pharmacological therapies in OA-related pain and covers topical, oral and intraarticular treatment approaches. In patients with mild OA topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be recommended...
April 11, 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642691/high-risk-pci-how-to-define-it-today
#18
Vincenzo DE Marzo, Domenico D'Amario, Mattia Galli, Rocco Vergallo, Italo Porto
Before the percutaneous spread, the mortality rate of patients with coronary heart disease not suitable for cardiac surgery was markedly high. This limit has been progressively exceeded with the advent of minimally invasive approaches, which, although was initially intended exclusively for low risk patients, was then employed in complex patients often too compromised to undergo cardiac surgery. Given to the rising of high-risk population, due to an increase of patients with multiple chronic conditions linked to the best care offered, we are witnessing an expansion of the high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) population...
April 11, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642547/antiplatelet-therapy-in-coronary-artery-disease-a-daunting-dilemma
#19
REVIEW
Surya Chaturvedula, Daniel Diver, Aseem Vashist
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is the contemporary standard of care. Such treatment is followed by dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) comprising of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor. The efficacy of this therapy has been well established but the optimal duration of DAPT remains elusive, and has thus far attracted a prodigious deal of scientific attention. The decision regarding DAPT duration can be clinically challenging in the modern era with the evolution of newer stents, more potent antiplatelet agents, and novel anticoagulant drugs in addition to an older patient population with multiple comorbidities...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629403/effectiveness-of-umeclidinium-vilanterol-for-protocolized-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbation-in-hospitalized-patients-a-sequential-period-analysis
#20
Todd W Chapin, Michael A Mann, Gary L Brown, Traci L Leitheiser, Becky Anderson, David D Leedahl
Background: Bronchodilator therapy is a foundation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation treatment. Although international guidelines recommend short-acting formulations given multiple times per day, long-acting formulations have not been adequately evaluated. The objective of our study was to determine the effectiveness of umeclidinium-vilanterol (UME/VIL), long-acting beta2-agonist/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LABA/LAMA) as a once-daily alternative for treating COPD exacerbations in hospitalized patients...
January 24, 2018: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
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