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malnutrition guidelines

Owain Thomas, Hampus Rein, Karin Strandberg, Ulf Schött
BACKGROUND: The risk of spinal haematoma in patients receiving epidural catheters is estimated using routine coagulation tests, but guidelines are inconsistent in their recommendations on what to do when results indicate slight hypocoagulation. Postoperative patients are prone to thrombosis, and thromboelastometry has previously shown hypercoagulation in this setting. We aimed to better understand perioperative haemostasis by comparing results from routine and advanced tests, hypothesizing that patients undergoing major upper gastrointestinal surgery would be deficient in vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors because of malnutrition, or hypocoagulative because of accumulation of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)...
2016: Perioperative Medicine
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
(no author information available yet)
Food for thought: the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care have launched a clinical guideline to help NHS staff identify patients who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. It recommends that all hospital inpatients on admission and outpatients at their first clinic appointments are screened, and spells out when nutrition support should be considered. The guideline also suggests that all healthcare professionals who are directly involved in patient care should receive education and training, relevant to their post, on the importance of providing adequate nutrition, and that each acute hospital trust should employ at least one specialist nutrition support nurse and establish a nutrition steering committee...
April 1, 2006: Nursing Management (Harrow)
Jarosław Szefel, Wiesław J Kruszewski, Mariusz Szajewski, Maciej Ciesielski, Ewa Sobczak, Maksymilian Czerepko, Wiesława Łysiak-Szydłowska
INTRODUCTION: Currently there are no established guidelines regarding the use of long-chain triglycerides (LCT) vs. medium-chain triglycerides medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)/long-chain triglycerides (LCT) in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Severe malnutrition of patients with refractory cachexia (RC) often causes their disqualification from invasive methods of treatment thus decreasing their quality of life and survival time. AIM: To compare the changes in nutritional state of patients with RC receiving PN with LCT and LCT/MCT lipid emulsions and to assess the influence of enteral nutrition on their survival time...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Kirkby D Tickell, Donna M Denno
OBJECTIVE: To understand how the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidelines on the inpatient care of children with complicated severe acute malnutrition may be strengthened to improve outcomes. METHODS: In December 2015, we searched Google scholar and WHO's website for WHO recommendations on severe acute malnutrition management and evaluated the history and cited evidence behind these recommendations. We systematically searched WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, clinicaltrials...
September 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Abey Bekele, Balamurugan Janakiraman
Physical therapy intervention along with nutritional rehabilitation has recently become an inevitable combo after recent evidences suggesting a strong interaction between malnutrition and neuro-muscular disabilities which contribute to a significant burden in global settings. Recent studies confirm that appropriate physical assessment of neuro-musculo skeletal system, developmental assessment or cognitive tools along with nutritional assessments followed by exercise rehabilitation will yield positive results in children with malnutrition...
August 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
T Cederholm, R Barazzoni, P Austin, P Ballmer, G Biolo, S C Bischoff, C Compher, I Correia, T Higashiguchi, M Holst, G L Jensen, A Malone, M Muscaritoli, I Nyulasi, M Pirlich, E Rothenberg, K Schindler, S M Schneider, M A E de van der Schueren, C Sieber, L Valentini, J C Yu, A Van Gossum, P Singer
BACKGROUND: A lack of agreement on definitions and terminology used for nutrition-related concepts and procedures limits the development of clinical nutrition practice and research. OBJECTIVE: This initiative aimed to reach a consensus for terminology for core nutritional concepts and procedures. METHODS: The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) appointed a consensus group of clinical scientists to perform a modified Delphi process that encompassed e-mail communication, face-to-face meetings, in-group ballots and an electronic ESPEN membership Delphi round...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jann Arends, Patrick Bachmann, Vickie Baracos, Nicole Barthelemy, Hartmut Bertz, Federico Bozzetti, Ken Fearon, Elisabeth Hütterer, Elizabeth Isenring, Stein Kaasa, Zeljko Krznaric, Barry Laird, Maria Larsson, Alessandro Laviano, Stefan Mühlebach, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Line Oldervoll, Paula Ravasco, Tora Solheim, Florian Strasser, Marian de van der Schueren, Jean-Charles Preiser
Cancers are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the number of new cases is expected to rise significantly over the next decades. At the same time, all types of cancer treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and pharmacological therapies are improving in sophistication, precision and in the power to target specific characteristics of individual cancers. Thus, while many cancers may still not be cured they may be converted to chronic diseases. All of these treatments, however, are impeded or precluded by the frequent development of malnutrition and metabolic derangements in cancer patients, induced by the tumor or by its treatment...
August 6, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Domenico Corica, Claudio Romano
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased steadily worldwide, both in adult and in children; approximately 25% of IBD patients are diagnosed before the age of 18. The natural history of IBD is usually more severe in children than in adults, and can be associated with linear growth impairment, delayed puberty onset, reduced bone mass index, malnutrition, and the need for surgery. Biological therapies, especially blocking tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), have radically modified the treatment strategies and disease course of IBD in children...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
A Noce, M F Vidiri, G Marrone, E Moriconi, A Bocedi, A Capria, V Rovella, G Ricci, A De Lorenzo, N Di Daniele
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming increasingly widespread in the world. Slowing its progression means to prevent uremic complications and improve quality of life of patients. Currently, a low-protein diet (LPD) is one of the tools most used in renal conservative therapy but a possible risk connected to LPD is protein-energy wasting. The aim of this study is evaluate the possible correlation between LPD and malnutrition onset. We enrolled 41 CKD patients, stages IIIb/IV according to K-DIGO guidelines, who followed for 6 weeks a diet with controlled protein intake (recommended dietary allowance 0...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Irene Jansen, Matthias Prager, Luzia Valentini, Carsten Büning
Malnutrition is a frequent feature in Crohn's disease (CD), affects patient outcome and must be recognised. For chronic inflammatory diseases, recent guidelines recommend the development of combined malnutrition and inflammation risk scores. We aimed to design and evaluate a new screening tool that combines both malnutrition and inflammation parameters that might help predict clinical outcome. In a prospective cohort study, we examined fifty-five patients with CD in remission (Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) <200) at 0 and 6 months...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Susana Jiménez-Redondo, Beatriz Beltrán de Miguel, Javier Gómez-Pavón, Carmen Cuadrado Vives
INTRODUCTION: There are few studies assessing overall diet and food patterns of the oldest population. OBJECTIVES: To examine food groups consumption (grams and servings) and their compliance with the dietary guidelines in community-dwelling very old Spanish adults. The relationship with the risk of malnutrition was also studied. METHODS: Within the cross-sectional health study of elderly people of Villanueva de la Cañada (Madrid, Spain), in 98 non-institutionalized elders aged ≥ 80 years (66% women) food consumption was calculated from a 24-hour dietary recall and nutritional risk was assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)...
2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
The objective of this article is to explain the process of the development of and to assess the Mexican food-based dietary and physical activity guidelines (FBDGs). The FBDGs were developed by an intersectoral and interdisciplinary committee of 11 national experts with input from 11 external advisors. The sectors represented were research and academic institutions, the Ministry of Health, and a nongovernmental organization. The evidence-based process included the following: literature reviews of local, national, and international evidence; review of dietary patterns of the Mexican population; key national and international recommendations; and review of FBDGs and visual icons from other countries...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Mona Sajeev, Jennifer Cohen, Claire E Wakefield, Joanna E Fardell, Richard J Cohn
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of nutrition support in preventing malnutrition in pediatric oncology, the decision to initiate and choose which nutrition support method is most appropriate can be difficult for parents and healthcare professionals. Decision aids are decision-focused patient information materials. They can improve knowledge, reduce decisional conflict, improve patients' risk perception, and increase patient participation in the decision-making process. They have never been evaluated for pediatric oncology nutrition decisions...
August 8, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Shehani A Wimalawansa, Sunil J Wimalawansa
BACKGROUND: Environmentally induced, occupational diseases are increasing worldwide, especially in rural agricultural communities. Poverty-associated malnutrition, environmental hazards and pollution, and lack of access to clean water, safe sanitation, and modern healthcare facilities are often associated with these chronic illnesses. METHOD: The authors systematically reviewed occupational public health issues that have been related to the environment. General interpretations of results were included as per the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Miao Liu, Zhen Zhu, Fang Lyu
Tumor patients are high-risk group of malnutrition, and the characteristics of pathophysiology of digestive tract tumor can aggravate the malnutrition, so the perioperative nutritional support should be planed and implemented for these patients. However, the understanding of nutritional support is still insufficient. Reducing preoperative fasting time, reasonable preoperative nutritional support, early postoperative enteral nutrition and multiple forms in combination are the optimal strategy of the perioperative nutritional treatment and management...
July 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Jun Chen, Chaogang Fan
Nutritional support is an important means to treat the patients with chronic critical illness for commonly associated malnutrition. Refeeding syndrome is a serious complication during the process, mainly manifested as severe electrolyte with hypophosphataemia being the most common. Refeeding syndrome is not uncommon but it is often ignored. In our future clinical work, we need to recognize this chinical situation and use preventative and treatment measures. According to NICE clinical nutrition guideline, we discussed the risk factors, treatment methods and preventive measures of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness...
July 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Alison Yaxley, Maria Crotty, Michelle Miller
Malnutrition is common in older adults and often goes unrecognised and untreated. Australian evidence-based guidelines for the management of malnutrition indicate that only the Mini Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-sf) and Rapid Screen are recommended for use as malnutrition screening tools in the rehabilitation setting. The aim of this secondary analysis was to assess the validity and reliability of two malnutrition screening tools, validated in other adult sub-groups, in a rehabilitation population aged ≥60 years...
2015: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Simone Gärtner, Janine Krüger, Ali A Aghdassi, Antje Steveling, Peter Simon, Markus M Lerch, Julia Mayerle
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both genders. More than 80% of patients suffer from significant weight loss at diagnosis and over time develop severe cachexia. Early nutritional support is therefore essential. SUMMARY: This review evaluates the different nutritional therapies, such as enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition and special nutritional supplements, on nutritional status, quality of life and survival...
May 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
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