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space research

Zhi-Cheng Lai, Jin-Yu Liang, Li-Da Chen, Zhu Wang, Si-Min Ruan, Xiao-Yan Xie, Ming-De Lu, Hang-Tong Hu, Wei Wang
AIMS: To determine if tumors located in the subcapsular space or in proximity to vessels would be a risk factor of local tumor progression (LTP2 ) in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases from 1998 to 2017 was performed to identify studies examining the risk factors of LTP after radiofrequency ablation (RFA3 ) in HCC. No language or other restrictions were imposed...
June 17, 2018: Life Sciences
Deybson Borba de Almeida, Gilberto Tadeu Reis da Silva, Genival Fernandes de Freitas, Maria Itayra Padilha, Igor Ferreira Borba de Almeida
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the constituting knowledge of militant nurses in trade associations. METHOD: Historical research, based on the oral history method, with a qualitative approach carried out with 11 nurses who are/were militants for professional issues since the 1980s in the state of Bahia. The data collected through semi-structured interviews were organized in the software n-vivo 10 and analyzed based on dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS: We identified pedagogical, administrative, public health, sociological, and trade union background knowledge as constituent of militant individuals...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Xiangling Tian, Hongyu Luo, Rongfei Wei, Chunhui Zhu, Qianyi Guo, Dandan Yang, Fengqiu Wang, Jianfeng Li, Jianrong Qiu
Pulsed lasers operating in the mid-infrared (3-25 µm) are increasingly becoming the light source of choice for a wide range of industrial and scientific applications such as spectroscopy, biomedical research, sensing, imaging, and communication. Up to now, one of the factors limiting the mid-infrared pulsed lasers is the lack of optical switch with a capability of pulse generation, especially for those with wideband response. Here, a semiconductor material of bismuth oxyselenide (Bi2 O2 Se) with a facile processibility, constituting an ultrabroadband saturable absorber for the mid-infrared (actually from the near-infrared to mid-infrared: 0...
June 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Wataru Tanaka, Masanori Arita
Current bottleneck of comprehensive non-target metabolite identification is insufficient spectral library. Many research groups have tried to build a theoretical product ion spectral library independent of measurement condition or settings, but mechanisms of metabolite fragmentation are not fully clarified. To achieve the mechanistic prediction of metabolite fragmentation which covers a wide range of metabolites, we will discuss utilization of physicochemical calculation. We introduce bonding patterns, which include two bound atoms and chemical groups adjacent to the bond...
2018: Mass Spectrometry
George Janes, Daniel von Wangenheim, Sophie Cowling, Ian Kerr, Leah Band, Andrew P French, Anthony Bishopp
Phosphorus is a crucial macronutrient for plants playing a critical role in many cellular signaling and energy cycling processes. In light of this, phosphorus acquisition efficiency is an important target trait for crop improvement, but it also provides an ecological adaptation for growth of plants in low nutrient environments. Increased root hair density has been shown to improve phosphorus uptake and plant health in a number of species. In several plant families, including Brassicaceae, root hair bearing cells are positioned on the epidermis according to their position in relation to cortex cells, with hair cells positioned in the cleft between two underlying cortex cells...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yihong Wang, Xuying Xu, Rubin Wang
Place cells are important elements in the spatial representation system of the brain. A considerable amount of experimental data and classical models are achieved in this area. However, an important question has not been addressed, which is how the three dimensional space is represented by the place cells. This question is preliminarily surveyed by energy coding method in this research. Energy coding method argues that neural information can be expressed by neural energy and it is convenient to model and compute for neural systems due to the global and linearly addable properties of neural energy...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Susie Donnelly, Brenda Reginatto, Oisin Kearns, Marie Mc Carthy, Bill Byrom, Willie Muehlhausen, Brian Caulfield
BACKGROUND: Despite an aging population, older adults are typically underrecruited in clinical trials, often because of the perceived burden associated with participation, particularly travel associated with clinic visits. Conducting a clinical trial remotely presents an opportunity to leverage mobile and wearable technologies to bring the research to the patient. However, the burden associated with shifting clinical research to a remote site requires exploration. While a remote trial may reduce patient burden, the extent to which this shifts burden on the other stakeholders needs to be investigated...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Lucy Lewis, Yvonne L Hauck, Janice Butt, Chloe Western, Helen Overing, Corrinne Poletti, Jessica Priest, Dawn Hudd, Brooke Thomson
BACKGROUND: There is limited research examining midwives' education, knowledge and practice around immersion in water for labour or birth. Our aim was to address this gap in evidence and build knowledge around this important topic. METHODS: This mixed method study was performed in two phases, between August and December 2016, in the birth centre of a tertiary public maternity hospital in Western Australia. Phase one utilised a cross sectional design to examine perceptions of education, knowledge and practice around immersion in water for labour or birth through a questionnaire...
June 19, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Norma Barrett, Lisa Hanna, Owen Vincent Fitzpatrick
First-time parents' groups are offered to new parents in Australia to support their transition to parenthood. Not all parents avail of the service, some cease attendance, and fathers are under-represented. In the present descriptive, qualitative study, we examined first-time mothers' perspectives on the barriers to parental participation in the groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of eight first-time mothers in a regional city in Victoria, Australia. Interviews revealed groups were perceived as sites strongly reinforcing traditional social norms of parenting...
June 19, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
L R Rivkin, Spencer C H Barrett, Marc T J Johnson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The strength of plant-herbivore interactions varies in space and time, but the factors that explain this variation are poorly understood. Several lines of research suggest that variation in plant reproductive systems and latitude may explain resistance against herbivores, but how these factors jointly affect plant-herbivore interactions has not been investigated in detail. We examined the effects of latitude, sexual system, and plant gender on herbivory in Sagittaria latifolia, an aquatic plant in which populations are typically monoecious (separate female and male flowers) or dioecious (separate female and male plants)...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Gary Napier, Duncan Lee, Chris Robertson, Andrew Lawson
Population-level disease risk across a set of non-overlapping areal units varies in space and time, and a large research literature has developed methodology for identifying clusters of areal units exhibiting elevated risks. However, almost no research has extended the clustering paradigm to identify groups of areal units exhibiting similar temporal disease trends. We present a novel Bayesian hierarchical mixture model for achieving this goal, with inference based on a Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo ((MC)$^3$) algorithm...
June 18, 2018: Biostatistics
Wadood Haq, Johannes Dietter, Sylvia Bolz, Eberhart Zrenner
OBJECTIVE: A feasibility study for a transmitter based subretinal prosthesis, generating visual responses in blind mouse retina is presented. APPROACH: Degenerated rd1 mouse retina were stimulated in subretinal configuration by local glutamate (Glu) or NMDA application via micropipettes (~1.5 μm) and thereby the outer retinal activity was recorded by calcium-imaging or the ganglion cell (GC) activity was recorded by the multi-electrode array system. The network mediated activation of GC via bipolar cells was approved by the administration of Glu receptor blockers...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
T D Turmezei, G M Treece, A H Gee, R Houlden, K E S Poole
Imaging of joints with 2D radiography has not been able to detect therapeutic success in research trials while 3D imaging, used regularly in the clinic, has not been approved for this purpose. We present a new 3D approach to this challenge called joint space mapping (JSM) that measures joint space width in 3D from standard clinical computed tomography (CT) data, demonstrating its analysis steps, technical validation, and reproducibility. Using high resolution peripheral quantitative CT as gold standard, we show a marginal over-estimation in accuracy of +0...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jamie Guillory, Kristine F Wiant, Matthew Farrelly, Leah Fiacco, Ishrat Alam, Leah Hoffman, Erik Crankshaw, Janine Delahanty, Tesfa N Alexander
BACKGROUND: Tobacco public education campaigns focus increasingly on hard-to-reach populations at higher risk for smoking, prompting campaign creators and evaluators to develop strategies to reach hard-to-reach populations in virtual and physical spaces where they spend time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe two novel recruitment strategies (in-person intercept interviews in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender [LGBT] social venues and targeted social media ads) and compares characteristics of participants recruited via these strategies for the US Food and Drug Administration's This Free Life campaign evaluation targeting LGBT young adults who smoke cigarettes occasionally...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
H Bruun, S G Lystbaek, E Stenager, L Huniche, R Pedersen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this article is to give more insight into what ethical challenges clinicians in mental healthcare experience and discuss with a Clinical Ethics Committee in psychiatry in the Region of Southern Denmark. Ethical considerations are an important part of the daily decision-making processes and thereby for the quality of care in mental healthcare. However, such ethical challenges have been given little systematic attention - both in research and in practices. METHODS: A qualitative content analysis of 55 written case-reports from the Clinical Ethics Committee...
June 19, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Kaare Meier
Background Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain refractory to conventional treatment. SCS treatment consists of one or more leads implanted in the epidural space of the spinal canal, connected to an implantable pulse generator (IPG). Each lead carries a number of contacts capable of delivering a weak electrical current to the spinal cord, evoking a feeling of peripheral paresthesia. With correct indication and if implanted by an experienced implanter, success rates generally are in the range of about 50-75%...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Jakob Møller Hansen, Jan Fahrenkrug, Jesper Petersen, Troels Wienecke, Karsten Skovgaard Olsen, Messoud Ashina
Background and purpose The origin of migraine pain is still elusive, but increasingly researchers focus on the neuropeptides in the perivascular space of cranial vessels as important mediators of nociceptive input during migraine attacks. The parasympathetic neurotransmitters, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be released from parasympathetic fibres and activate sensory nerve fibres during migraine attacks. Triptans are effective and well tolerated in acute migraine management but the exact mechanism of action is still debated...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Pauline Marsh, Helen Courtney-Pratt, Marina Campbell
A supported community gardening program became appealing and therapeutically beneficial to people living with the impacts of dementia and their carers, despite not targeting either cohort specifically. This paper discusses how this program provides insights into the landscape of dementia inclusivity. The gardens involved were spaces that allowed positive risk-taking opportunities, respectful intersubjectivity and active citizenship. Our research findings indicate that a meaningful response to the rising incidence of dementia may be to build upon social and geographical attributes of community gardens...
June 15, 2018: Health & Place
Marco Del Giudice, Bernard J Crespi
Trade-offs between advantageous but conflicting properties (e.g., speed vs. accuracy) are ubiquitous in cognition, but the relevant literature is conceptually fragmented, scattered across disciplines, and has not been organized in a coherent framework. This paper takes an initial step toward a general theory of cognitive trade-offs by examining four key properties of goal-directed systems: performance, efficiency, robustness, and flexibility. These properties define a number of basic functional trade-offs that can be used to map the abstract "design space" of natural and artificial cognitive systems...
June 14, 2018: Cognition
Liset de la Fuente Rosales, Sebastien Incerti, Ziad Francis, Mario A Bernal
The use of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations remains a powerful tool to study the biological effects induced by ionizing radiation on living beings. Several MC codes are commonly used in research fields such as nanodosimetry, radiotherapy, radiation protection, and space radiation. This work presents an enhancement of an existing model [1] for radiobiological purposes, to account for the indirect DNA damage induced by ionizing particles. The Geant4-DNA simulation toolkit was used to simulate the physical, pre-chemical, and chemical stages of early DNA damage induced by protons and α-particles...
June 13, 2018: Physica Medica: PM
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