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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651262/relationship-of-radiographic-osteoarthritis-severity-with%C3%A2-treatment-outcomes-after-imaging-guided-knee%C3%A2-injections-a-prospective-outcomes-study
#1
Ivan Miletic, Christoph Agten, Reto Sutter, Christian Pfirrmann, Cynthia Peterson
Introduction To be able to predict which patients are more likely to have a positive treatment outcome, the purpose of this study is 1: To compare outcomes after intra-articular corticosteroid knee injections with the Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) 5 and 3 grading systems for knee osteoarthritis, the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) grading system and actual joint space measurements; and 2: To compare the reliability of these grading systems. Materials and Methods Knee radiographs of 117 patients who received intra-articular corticosteroid injections were independently evaluated by two radiologists blinded to the outcome...
June 26, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650175/bioactive-peptide-natural-products-as-lead-structures-for-medicinal-use
#2
Tam Dang, Roderich D Süssmuth
The need for new drugs for the treatment of various diseases is enormous. From the previous century until the present, numerous peptide and peptide-derived natural products have been isolated from bacteria and fungi. Hence, microorganisms play a pivotal role as sources for novel drugs with an emphasis on anti-infective agents. Various disciplines from biology, chemistry, and medicine are involved in early stages of the search for peptide natural products including taxonomy, microbiology, bioanalytics, bioinformatics, and medicinal chemistry...
June 26, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649638/a-cubesat-centrifuge-for-long-duration-milligravity-research
#3
REVIEW
Erik Asphaug, Jekan Thangavelautham, Andrew Klesh, Aman Chandra, Ravi Nallapu, Laksh Raura, Mercedes Herreras-Martinez, Stephen Schwartz
We advocate a low-cost strategy for long-duration research into the 'milligravity' environment of asteroids, comets and small moons, where surface gravity is a vector field typically less than 1/1000 the gravity of Earth. Unlike the microgravity environment of space, there is a directionality that gives rise, over time, to strangely familiar geologic textures and landforms. In addition to advancing planetary science, and furthering technologies for hazardous asteroid mitigation and in situ resource utilization, simplified access to long-duration milligravity offers significant potential for advancing human spaceflight, biomedicine and manufacturing...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649630/towards-human-exploration-of-space-the-theseus-review-series-on-muscle-and-bone-research-priorities
#4
Thomas Lang, Jack J W A Van Loon, Susan Bloomfield, Laurence Vico, Angele Chopard, Joern Rittweger, Antonios Kyparos, Dieter Blottner, Ilkka Vuori, Rupert Gerzer, Peter R Cavanagh
Without effective countermeasures, the musculoskeletal system is altered by the microgravity environment of long-duration spaceflight, resulting in atrophy of bone and muscle tissue, as well as in deficits in the function of cartilage, tendons, and vertebral disks. While inflight countermeasures implemented on the International Space Station have evidenced reduction of bone and muscle loss on low-Earth orbit missions of several months in length, important knowledge gaps must be addressed in order to develop effective strategies for managing human musculoskeletal health on exploration class missions well beyond Earth orbit...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649627/from-the-bench-to-exploration-medicine-nasa-life-sciences-translational-research-for-human-exploration-and-habitation-missions
#5
Joshua S Alwood, April E Ronca, Richard C Mains, Mark J Shelhamer, Jeffrey D Smith, Thomas J Goodwin
NASA's Space Biology and Human Research Program entities have recently spearheaded communications both internally and externally to coordinate the agency's translational research efforts. In this paper, we strongly advocate for translational research at NASA, provide recent examples of NASA sponsored early-stage translational research, and discuss options for a path forward. Our overall objective is to help in stimulating a collaborative research across multiple disciplines and entities that, working together, will more effectively and more rapidly achieve NASA's goals for human spaceflight...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649624/spaceflight-induced-neuroplasticity-in-humans-as-measured-by-mri-what-do-we-know-so-far
#6
Angelique Van Ombergen, Steven Laureys, Stefan Sunaert, Elena Tomilovskaya, Paul M Parizel, Floris L Wuyts
Space travel poses an enormous challenge on the human body; microgravity, ionizing radiation, absence of circadian rhythm, confinement and isolation are just some of the features associated with it. Obviously, all of the latter can have an impact on human physiology and even induce detrimental changes. Some organ systems have been studied thoroughly under space conditions, however, not much is known on the functional and morphological effects of spaceflight on the human central nervous system. Previous studies have already shown that central nervous system changes occur during and after spaceflight in the form of neurovestibular problems, alterations in cognitive function and sensory perception, cephalic fluid shifts and psychological disturbances...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649442/next-generation-mammalian-genetics-toward-organism-level-systems-biology
#7
REVIEW
Etsuo A Susaki, Hideki Ukai, Hiroki R Ueda
Organism-level systems biology in mammals aims to identify, analyze, control, and design molecular and cellular networks executing various biological functions in mammals. In particular, system-level identification and analysis of molecular and cellular networks can be accelerated by next-generation mammalian genetics. Mammalian genetics without crossing, where all production and phenotyping studies of genome-edited animals are completed within a single generation drastically reduce the time, space, and effort of conducting the systems research...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648605/a-semi-supervised-approach-using-label-propagation-to-support-citation-screening
#8
Georgios Kontonatsios, Austin J Brockmeier, Piotr Przybyła, John McNaught, Tingting Mu, John Y Goulermas, Sophia Ananiadou
Citation screening, an integral process within systematic reviews that identifies citations relevant to the underlying research question, is a time-consuming and resource-intensive task. During the screening task, analysts manually assign a label to each citation, to designate whether a citation is eligible for inclusion in the review. Recently, several studies have explored the use of active learning in text classification to reduce the human workload involved in the screening task. However, existing approaches require a significant amount of manually labelled citations for the text classification to achieve a robust performance...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648571/the-neuro-cognitive-representations-of-symbols-the-case-of-concrete-words
#9
Valentina Borghesani, Manuela Piazza
We live our lives surrounded by symbols (e.g., road signs, logos, but especially words and numbers), and throughout our life we use them to evoke, communicate and reflect upon ideas and things that are not currently present to our senses. Symbols are represented in our brains at different levels of complexity: at the first and most simple level, as physical entities, in the corresponding primary and secondary sensory cortices. The crucial property of symbols, however, is that, despite the simplicity of their surface forms, they have the power of evoking higher order multifaceted representations that are implemented in distributed neural networks spanning a large portion of the cortex...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647916/impact-of-site-selection-and-study-conduct-on-outcomes-in-global-clinical-trials
#10
REVIEW
Chaudhry M S Sarwar, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Javed Butler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are over 25 million patients living with heart failure globally. Overall, and especially post-discharge, clinical outcomes have remained poor in heart failure despite multiple trials, with both successes and failures over the last two decades. Matching therapies to the right patient population, identifying high-quality sites, and ensuring optimal trial design and execution represent important considerations in the development of novel therapeutics in this space...
June 24, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647618/genetic-and-ecological-processes-promoting-early-diversification-in-the-lowland-mesoamerican-bat-sturnira-parvidens-chiroptera-phyllostomidae
#11
Giovani Hernández-Canchola, Livia León-Paniagua
With 22 species, Sturnira is the most speciose genus of frugivorous Neotropical bats. Sturnira parvidens inhabits lowland tropical areas from Mexico to Central America. The elevation of this taxon to species level was recent, and discrepancies with respect to its geographic limits and phylogenetic position continue to exist. In order to identify genetic and ecological processes likely involved in the diversification and current distribution of S. parvidens, we evaluated relationships, researched phylogeographic and demographic history, and tested the divergence/conservatism of the climatic niche of this bat...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647404/patient-centered-outcomes-and-treatment-preferences-regarding-sexual-problems-a-qualitative-study-among-midlife-women
#12
Holly N Thomas, Megan Hamm, Rachel Hess, Sonya Borrero, Rebecca C Thurston
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction is common in midlife women and can have a significant negative impact on quality of life. Although treatments exist, there is little research on which sexual function outcomes and treatments midlife women prefer. AIM: To better understand the sexual function outcomes that were most important to sexually active women 45 to 60 years old and the types of treatments they would prefer from individual interviews and focus groups. METHODS: Twenty individual interviews and three focus groups (N = 39) were led by a trained facilitator, audio recorded, and transcribed...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647091/phenotypic-screening-the-fast-track-to-novel-antibody-discovery
#13
REVIEW
Ralph R Minter, Alan M Sandercock, Steven J Rust
The majority of antibody therapeutics have been isolated from target-led drug discovery, where many years of target research preceded drug program initiation. However, as the search for validated targets becomes more challenging and target space becomes increasingly competitive, alternative strategies, such as phenotypic drug discovery, are gaining favour. This review highlights successful examples of antibody phenotypic screens that have led to clinical drug candidates. We also review the requirements for performing an effective antibody phenotypic screen, including antibody enrichment and target identification strategies...
March 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646680/the-experiences-of-supporting-learning-in-pairs-of-nursing-students-in-clinical-practice
#14
Hanna Holst, Lise-Lotte Ozolins, David Brunt, Ulrica Hörberg
The purpose of this study is to describe how supervisors experience supporting nursing students' learning in pairs on a Developing and Learning Care Unit in Sweden. The present study has been carried out with a Reflective Lifeworld Research (RLR) approach founded on phenomenology. A total of 25 lifeworld interviews were conducted with supervisors who had supervised pairs of students. The findings reveal how supervisors support students' learning in pairs through a reflective approach creating learning space in the encounter with patients, students and supervisors...
June 9, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646509/resistance-to-group-clinical-supervision-a-semistructured-interview-study-of-non-participating-mental-health-nursing-staff-members
#15
Niels Buus, Cynthia Delgado, Michael Traynor, Henrik Gonge
This present study is a report of an interview study exploring personal views on participating in group clinical supervision among mental health nursing staff members who do not participate in supervision. There is a paucity of empirical research on resistance to supervision, which has traditionally been theorized as a supervisee's maladaptive coping with anxiety in the supervision process. The aim of the present study was to examine resistance to group clinical supervision by interviewing nurses who did not participate in supervision...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646406/podocytes-and-the-quest-for-precision-medicines-for-kidney-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Peter Mundel
In this review, I describe a 30-year journey in the quest for precision medicines for patients with kidney diseases. In 1987, when I started my reseach career, most scientists studying glomerular disease biology were focused on mesangial cells. The crucial role of the podocyte in many kidney diseases characterized by proteinuria, including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and diabetic nephropathy, had not yet been recognized. We were not aware of genetic causes or drivers of kidney diseases nor of molecular markers and cell culture systems for mechanistic studies of podocyte biology...
June 23, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646272/rhesus-cochlear-and-vestibular-functions-are-preserved-after-inner-ear-injection-of-saline-volume-sufficient-for-gene-therapy-delivery
#17
Chenkai Dai, Mohamed Lehar, Daniel Q Sun, Lani Swarthout Rvt, John P Carey, Tim MacLachlan, Doug Brough, Hinrich Staecker, Alexandra M Della Santina, Timothy E Hullar, Charles C Della Santina
Sensorineural losses of hearing and vestibular sensation due to hair cell dysfunction are among the most common disabilities. Recent preclinical research demonstrates that treatment of the inner ear with a variety of compounds, including gene therapy agents, may elicit regeneration and/or repair of hair cells in animals exposed to ototoxic medications or other insults to the inner ear. Delivery of gene therapy may also offer a means for treatment of hereditary hearing loss. However, injection of a fluid volume sufficient to deliver an adequate dose of a pharmacologic agent could, in theory, cause inner ear trauma that compromises functional outcome...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645723/doublet-tracer-tests-to-determine-the-contaminant-flushing-properties-of-a-municipal-solid-waste-landfill
#18
N D Woodman, T C Rees-White, R P Beaven, A M Stringfellow, J A Barker
This paper describes a programme of research investigating horizontal fluid flow and solute transport through saturated municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The purpose is to inform engineering strategies for future contaminant flushing. Solute transport between injection/abstraction well pairs (doublets) is investigated using three tracers over five separate tests at well separations between 5m and 20m. Two inorganic tracers (lithium and bromide) were used, plus the fluorescent dye tracer, rhodamine-WT. There was no evidence for persistent preferential horizons or pathways at the inter-well scale...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645027/validity-of-the-growth-model-of-the-computerized-visual-perception-assessment-tool-for-chinese-characters-structures
#19
Huey-Min Wu, Cheng-Hsaun Li, Bor-Chen Kuo, Yu-Mao Yang, Chin-Kai Lin, Wei-Hsiang Wan
Morphological awareness is the foundation for the important developmental skills involved with vocabulary, as well as understanding the meaning of words, orthographic knowledge, reading, and writing. Visual perception of space and radicals in two-dimensional positions of Chinese characters' morphology is very important in identifying Chinese characters. The important predictive variables of special and visual perception in Chinese characters identification were investigated in the growth model in this research...
June 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643444/how-media-exposure-relates-to-laypersons-understanding-of-psychopathy
#20
Michael E Keesler, David DeMatteo
While conceptualization of psychopathy has evolved, so too has the public's relationship with psychology changed. Concurrently, portrayal of psychopaths has made several shifts, both through nonfiction sources and in popular film and television. Psychopathic villains of the mid-20th century have made space for a growing cast of protagonist psychopaths. This study examined whether a relationship existed between exposure to fictional psychopaths and how lay individuals conceptualize psychopathy. Specifically, this study explored conceptualization differences based on exposure to antagonist versus protagonist fictional psychopaths...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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