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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221072/in-service-crosstalk-monitoring-tracing-and-lightpath-re-optimization-for-space-division-multiplexing-optical-networks
#1
Ruijie Luo, Nan Hua, Yufang Yu, Yongtai Jin, Xiaoping Zheng, Bingkun Zhou
In recent years, to enlarge the single-mode fibers (SMFs) transmission capacity, researchers focused on the dimension of space, which is a new degree of freedom that is being considered for optical fiber communication beyond WDM. Space-division multiplexing (SDM), including mode-division multiplexing (MDM) using multimode fibers (MMFs) or few-mode fibers (FMFs), and core multiplexing using multicore fibers (MCFs), has attracted much recent attention. In an SDM system, high-density spatial channels are tightly packed into a single fiber, thus making crosstalk among cores or modes a critical challenge due to fiber imperfections, bending, and twisting...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218899/precision-medicine-from-diplotypes-to-disparities-towards-improved-health-and-therapies
#2
Dana C Crawford, Alexander A Morgan, Joshua C Denny, Bruce J Aronow, Steven E Brenner
Precision medicine research efforts both in basic science discovery and clinical implementation are well underway and promise to provide individualized preventions and treatments, improving overall health care delivery. To achieve these goals, advances in data capture and analysis are needed spanning different types of 'omic and clinical data. The efforts to enhance precise treatments for all may accentuate healthcare disparities unless specific challenges are identified and addressed. This session of the 2018 Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing presents the latest developments in this transdisciplinary research space of genomics, medicine, and population health...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218877/automated-disease-cohort-selection-using-word-embeddings-from-electronic-health-records
#3
Benjamin S Glicksberg, Riccardo Miotto, Kipp W Johnson, Khader Shameer, Li Li, Rong Chen, Joel T Dudley
Accurate and robust cohort definition is critical to biomedical discovery using Electronic Health Records (EHR). Similar to prospective study designs, high quality EHR-based research requires rigorous selection criteria to designate case/control status particular to each disease. Electronic phenotyping algorithms, which are manually built and validated per disease, have been successful in filling this need. However, these approaches are time-consuming, leading to only a relatively small amount of algorithms for diseases developed...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218869/chemical-reaction-vector-embeddings-towards-predicting-drug-metabolism-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#4
Emily K Mallory, Ambika Acharya, Stefano E Rensi, Peter J Turnbaugh, Roselie A Bright, Russ B Altman
Bacteria in the human gut have the ability to activate, inactivate, and reactivate drugs with both intended and unintended effects. For example, the drug digoxin is reduced to the inactive metabolite dihydrodigoxin by the gut Actinobacterium E. lenta, and patients colonized with high levels of drug metabolizing strains may have limited response to the drug. Understanding the complete space of drugs that are metabolized by the human gut microbiome is critical for predicting bacteria-drug relationships and their effects on individual patient response...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218036/the-macrophage-a-disputed-fortress-in-the-battle-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
REVIEW
Christophe J Queval, Roland Brosch, Roxane Simeone
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has plagued humans for thousands of years. TB still remains a major public health problem in our era, causing more than 4,400 deaths worldwide every day and killing more people than HIV. After inhaling Mtb-contaminated aerosols, TB primo-infection starts in the terminal lung airways, where Mtb is taken up by alveolar macrophages. Although macrophages are known as professional killers for pathogens, Mtb has adopted remarkable strategies to circumvent host defenses, building suitable conditions to survive and proliferate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216739/lymphatic-drainage-efficiency-a-new-parameter-of-lymphatic-function
#6
Georgia Keramida, Emma Wroe, Nicola Winterman, Mark Aplin, A Michael Peters
Background Following convection from blood capillaries, plasma proteins are transported to loco-regional lymph nodes in two stages: first, uptake into peripheral lymphatics, and second, transport to nodes. Purpose To introduce a new parameter of lymphatic function that quantifies stage 2 - lymphatic drainage efficiency (LDE). Material and Methods Percentage injected activity (IIQ) in ilio-inguinal nodes 150 min following subcutaneous foot web-space injection of Tc-99 m-nanocolloid was measured in 102 patients undergoing lymphoscintigraphy using a method in which a standard is placed by image guidance over the nodes...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215908/chronom%C3%A3-trage-et-perception-temporelle
#7
Simon Grondin
This article provides an overview of some contemporary research avenues in the field of timing and time perception. After a brief description of different categories of temporal experiences, the article describes how research on psychological time falls within a psychophysical perspective. Next, some factors changing sensitivity to time or perceived duration are reported. Four main sources affecting this sensitivity are identified : the modality in which the intervals to be estimated are marked, the length of the markers, the number of intervals presented, and whether people are counting explicitly or not when estimating time...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215711/triage-tools-for-detecting-cervical-spine-injury-in-pediatric-trauma-patients
#8
REVIEW
Annelie Slaar, M M Fockens, Junfeng Wang, Mario Maas, David J Wilson, J Carel Goslings, Niels Wl Schep, Rick R van Rijn
BACKGROUND: Pediatric cervical spine injury (CSI) after blunt trauma is rare. Nonetheless, missing these injuries can have severe consequences. To prevent the overuse of radiographic imaging, two clinical decision tools have been developed: The National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria and the Canadian C-spine Rule (CCR). Both tools are proven to be accurate in deciding whether or not diagnostic imaging is needed in adults presenting for blunt trauma screening at the emergency department...
December 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214479/cities-of-the-future-bionic-systems-of-new-urban-environment
#9
Alicja Edyta Krzemińska, Anna Danuta Zaręba, Anna Dzikowska, Katarzyna Rozalia Jarosz
The concepts of the cities we know nowadays, and which we are accustomed to, change at a very rapid pace. The philosophy of their design is also changing. It will base on new standards, entering a completely different, futuristic dimension. This stage is related to changes in the perception of space, location and lack of belonging to definite, national or cultural structures. Cities of the future are cities primarily intelligent, zero-energetic, zero-waste, environmentally sustainable, self-sufficient in terms of both organic food production and symbiosis between the environment and industry...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213303/climbing-the-mountain-experimental-design-for-the-efficient-optimization-of-stem-cell-bioprocessing
#10
REVIEW
Derek Toms, Rob Deardon, Mark Ungrin
"To consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination. He can perhaps say what the experiment died of." - R.A. Fisher While this idea is relevant across research scales, its importance becomes critical when dealing with the inherently large, complex and expensive process of preparing material for cell-based therapies (CBTs). Effective and economically viable CBTs will depend on the establishment of optimized protocols for the production of the necessary cell types...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213234/cognitive-mapping-based-on-conjunctive-representations-of-space-and-movement
#11
Taiping Zeng, Bailu Si
It is a challenge to build robust simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) system in dynamical large-scale environments. Inspired by recent findings in the entorhinal-hippocampal neuronal circuits, we propose a cognitive mapping model that includes continuous attractor networks of head-direction cells and conjunctive grid cells to integrate velocity information by conjunctive encodings of space and movement. Visual inputs from the local view cells in the model provide feedback cues to correct drifting errors of the attractors caused by the noisy velocity inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212926/syrian-hamster-as-an-animal-model-for-the-study-of-human-influenza-virus-infection
#12
Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Noriko Nakajima, Yurie Ichiko, Yuko Sakai-Tagawa, Takeshi Noda, Hideki Hasegawa, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Ferrets and mice are frequently used as animal models for influenza research. However, ferrets are demanding in terms of housing space and handling, whereas mice are not naturally susceptible to infection with human influenza A or B viruses. Therefore, prior adaptation of human viruses is required for their use in mice. In addition, there are no mouse-adapted variants of the recent H3N2 viruses, because these viruses do not replicate well in mice. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to influenza viruses with a view to using them as an alternative animal model to mice...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212749/treating-hummingbirds-as-feathered-bees-a-case-of-ethological-cross-pollination
#13
REVIEW
D J Pritchard, M C Tello Ramos, F Muth, S D Healy
Hummingbirds feed from hundreds of flowers every day. The properties of these flowers provide these birds with a wealth of information about colour, space and time to guide how they forage. To understand how hummingbirds might use this information, researchers have adapted established laboratory paradigms for use in the field. In recent years, however, experimental inspiration has come less from other birds, and more from looking at other nectar-feeders, particularly honeybees and bumblebees, which have been models for foraging behaviour and cognition for over a century...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211744/authorship-and-citation-manipulation-in-academic-research
#14
Eric A Fong, Allen W Wilhite
Some scholars add authors to their research papers or grant proposals even when those individuals contribute nothing to the research effort. Some journal editors coerce authors to add citations that are not pertinent to their work and some authors pad their reference lists with superfluous citations. How prevalent are these types of manipulation, why do scholars stoop to such practices, and who among us is most susceptible to such ethical lapses? This study builds a framework around how intense competition for limited journal space and research funding can encourage manipulation and then uses that framework to develop hypotheses about who manipulates and why they do so...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211184/participatory-environmental-diagnosis-and-of-health-risks-from-the-surrounding-communities-the-petrochemical-complex-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#15
Marcela de Abreu Moniz, Vera Maria Sabóia, Cleber Nascimento do Carmo, Sandra de Souza Hacon
The aim of this study was to diagnose the priority socio environmental problems and the health risks from the surrounding communities the Petrochemical Complex of Rio de Janeiro. Characterized by a participatory approach, the action research has led to the application of interviews, focal groups, meetings and workshop with social actors of Porto das Caixas and Sambaetiba districts, located in Itaboraí city/RJ from November 2013 to December 2014. A structural analysis of the problems prioritized by the communities (water supply, sewage treatment and risk of transmissible diseases; risk of air pollution and respiratory diseases; absence of public security and risk of violence) sketched out the cause-effect-intervention relationship, on the basis of the Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health...
November 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211178/a-wave-that-comes-rushing-in-and-dunks-you-representations-and-destinies-of-the-crisis-in-adolescent-users-of-a-capsi
#16
Melissa de Oliveira Pereira, Marilene de Castilho Sá, Lilian Miranda
This article focuses on the inter-subjective aspects involved in the care of psychosocial crises of adolescents, their representations and developments. A qualitative research was developed from a psycho-sociological perspective by constructing life story narratives of adolescents treated at a Psychosocial Care Center for Children and Adolescents (CAPSi). It was based on the theoretical contributions of René Kaës on group and cultural aspects of the crisis, as well as its relation to adolescence. Life narratives, constructed through in-depth interviews with adolescents, close relatives, and CAPSi caretakers depict crisis as a "surprise", as violence and estrangement, an episode that must be forgotten, denied, silenced, and medicalized...
November 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210286/morality-in-clinical-space-treatment-of-youngsters-with-functional-somatic-symptoms-in-a-western-clinical-context
#17
Sara Seerup Laursen, Birgitte Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Egon Stenager, Helle Johannessen
This paper explores the moral implications of treatment of young people with functional somatic symptoms. Based on an ethnographic field study at a Danish pain clinic for youngsters (age 8 to 18), the paper seeks to unearth the cultural, moral values that clinical practice steers by and upholds, and the implications this has for the assessment and management of ill body-selves. Through an exposition of the general practice of the clinic and an investigation of two specific cases of youngsters, it is found that the assessment of symptoms and selves and the goals of treatment are informed by cultural ideals of 'the good self' and 'the good life' in which agency and work ethic - both pertaining to the notion of individual responsibility - figure as prevalent virtues...
December 6, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209058/learning-the-value-of-information-and-reward-over-time-when-solving-exploration-exploitation-problems
#18
Irene Cogliati Dezza, Angela J Yu, Axel Cleeremans, William Alexander
To flexibly adapt to the demands of their environment, animals are constantly exposed to the conflict resulting from having to choose between predictably rewarding familiar options (exploitation) and risky novel options, the value of which essentially consists of obtaining new information about the space of possible rewards (exploration). Despite extensive research, the mechanisms that subtend the manner in which animals solve this exploitation-exploration dilemma are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate human decision-making in a gambling task in which the informational value of each trial and the reward potential were separately manipulated...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207929/a-nationwide-danish-survey-on-the-use-of-green-spaces-by-people-with-mobility-disabilities
#19
Ulrika K Stigsdotter, Sus Sola Corazon, Ola Ekholm
BACKGROUND: There is increasing awareness of the importance and health benefits of living near green spaces. Research usually focuses on the general population's use of green spaces and there has been little focus on the use of green spaces by specific groups, such as people with mobility disabilities. This represents a significant knowledge gap with regard to facilitating access to healthy green environments by all population groups. This study aims to provide knowledge of the use of green spaces by people with mobility disabilities...
December 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207249/preschoolers-health-related-quality-of-life-following-the-implementation-of-a-childcare-physical-activity-intervention
#20
Stephanie Truelove, Andrew M Johnson, Leigh M Vanderloo, Molly Driediger, Shauna M Burke, Jennifer D Irwin, Brian W Timmons, Anca Gaston, Patricia Tucker
BACKGROUND: Being active offers many physical and emotional benefits contributing to a higher health-related quality of life (HRQoL); however, this relationship remains unexplored among preschoolers (2.5-5 years). This study examined the impact of the Supporting Physical Activity in the Childcare Environment (SPACE); an intervention implemented using a cluster randomized controlled trial on preschoolers' HRQoL. METHODS: Childcare centres were randomly allocated to the experimental (n = 11) or control (n = 11) condition, and preschoolers' HRQoL was measured using the parent-report Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4...
December 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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