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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791601/resting-spontaneous-baroreflex-sensitivity-and-cardiac-autonomic-control-in-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users
#1
Marcelo R Dos Santos, Ana L C Sayegh, Rafael Armani, Valéria Costa-Hong, Francis R de Souza, Edgar Toschi-Dias, Luiz A Bortolotto, Mauricio Yonamine, Carlos E Negrão, Maria-Janieire N N Alves
OBJECTIVES: Misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids in athletes is a strategy used to enhance strength and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, its abuse leads to an imbalance in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, increased vascular resistance, and increased blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. Therefore, we tested whether anabolic androgenic steroids could impair resting baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac sympathovagal control. In addition, we evaluate pulse wave velocity to ascertain the arterial stiffness of large vessels...
May 21, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789952/carotid-body-ablation-a-new-target-to-address-central-autonomic-dysfunction
#2
REVIEW
Rodrigo Iturriaga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An abnormal heightened carotid body (CB) chemoreflex, which produces autonomic dysfunction and sympathetic overactivation, is the common hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), resistant hypertension, systolic heart failure (HF), and cardiometabolic diseases. Accordingly, it has been proposed that the elimination of the CB chemosensory input to the brainstem may reduce the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations in sympathetic-associated diseases in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing body of evidence obtained in preclinical animal models support that an enhanced CB discharge produces sympathetic hyperactivity, baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability impairment, breathing instability, hypertension, and insulin resistance...
May 22, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789692/pulse-pressure-amplification-and-cardiac-autonomic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Ioanna Eleftheriadou, George C Drosos, Anastasios Tentolouris, Konstantonis George, Petros P Sfikakis, Athanasios D Protogerou, Nikolaos Tentolouris
The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between pulse pressure amplification (PPA) and cardiac autonomic activity (baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV)) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, we examined the association between cardiac autonomic activity and central hemodynamic parameters that may affect PPA such as augmentation index (AIx), aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV)), and common carotid artery stiffness distensibility coefficient (DC)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778242/cardiovascular-responses-to-isometric-handgrip-exercise-in-young-patients-with-recurrent-vasovagal-syncope
#4
Juan Idiaquez, Juan Francisco Idiaquez, Rodrigo Iturriaga
OBJECTIVE: Arterial blood pressure (BP) increased in healthy humans in response to isometric handgrip (IHG), but the pattern of the relative contribution of cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) changes to the pressor response is different among individuals. We investigated weather patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS) have a similar pattern of individual CO, TPR and pressor responses to IHG, as healthy subjects. METHODS: 32 patients (27...
July 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763765/towards-understanding-the-complexity-of-cardiovascular-oscillations-insights-from-information-theory
#5
Michal Javorka, Jana Krohova, Barbora Czippelova, Zuzana Turianikova, Zuzana Lazarova, Radovan Wiszt, Luca Faes
Cardiovascular complexity is a feature of healthy physiological regulation, which stems from the simultaneous activity of several cardiovascular reflexes and other non-reflex physiological mechanisms. It is manifested in the rich dynamics characterizing the spontaneous heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV and BPV). The present study faces the challenge of disclosing the origin of short-term HRV and BPV from the statistical perspective offered by information theory. To dissect the physiological mechanisms giving rise to cardiovascular complexity in different conditions, measures of predictive information, information storage, information transfer and information modification were applied to the beat-to-beat variability of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and respiratory volume signal recorded non-invasively in 61 healthy young subjects at supine rest and during head-up tilt (HUT) and mental arithmetics (MA)...
May 5, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755228/effect-of-1-week-yoga-based-residential-program-on-cardiovascular-variables-of-hypertensive-patients-a-comparative-study
#6
Kashinath G Metri, Balaram Pradhan, Amit Singh, H R Nagendra
Introduction: Hypertension (HTN) is an important public health concern and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Yoga is a form of mind-body medicine shown to be effective in controlling blood pressure (BP) and reduces cardiac risk factors in HTN. Integrated approach of Yoga therapy (IAYT) is a residential yoga-based lifestyle intervention proven to be beneficial in several health conditions. Aim: To study the efficacy of 1 week of residential IAYT intervention on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients...
May 2018: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745800/interaction-between-graviception-and-carotid-baroreflex-function-in-humans-during-parabolic-flight-induced-microgravity
#7
Shigehiko Ogoh, Michaël Marais, Romain Lericollais, Pierre Denise, Peter B Raven, Hervé Normand
The aim of the present study was to assess carotid baroreflex (CBR) during acute changes in otolithic activity in humans. To address this question, we designed a set of experiments to identify the modulatory effects of microgravity on CBR function at a tilt angle of -2{degree sign}, which was identified to minimize changes in central blood volume during parabolic flight. During parabolic flight at 0g and 1g, CBR function curves were modelled from the heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to rapid pulse trains of neck pressure (NP) and neck suction (NS) ranging from +40 to -80 Torr; CBR control of HR (carotid-HR) and MAP (carotid-MAP) baroreflex function curves, respectively...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726017/effect-of-cerebral-flow-autoregulation-function-on-cerebral-flow-rate-under-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-device-support
#8
Selim Bozkurt
Neurological complications in continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) patients are the second-leading risk of death after multi-organ failure. They are associated with altered blood flow in the cardiovascular system because of CF-LVAD support. Moreover, an impaired cerebral autoregulation function may also contribute to complications such as hyperperfusion in the cerebral circulation under mechanical circulatory support. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of cerebral autoregulatory function on cerebral blood flow rate under CF-LVAD support...
May 3, 2018: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723261/microvolt-t-wave-alternans-and-autonomic-nervous-system-parameters-can-be-helpful-in-the-identification-of-low-arrhythmic-risk-patients-with-ischemic-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction
#9
Ludmiła Daniłowicz-Szymanowicz, Damian Kaufmann, Katarzyna Rozwadowska, Maciej Kempa, Ewa Lewicka, Grzegorz Raczak
INTRODUCTION: The role of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) placement in the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in all consecutive patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% is still a matter of hot debate due to the fact that the population of these patients is highly heterogeneous in terms of the SCD risk. Nevertheless, reduced LVEF is still the only established criterion during qualification of patients for ICD implantation in the primary prevention of SCD, therefore identification of persons with particularly high risk among patients with LVEF ≤35% is currently of lesser importance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718876/effects-of-slow-breathing-rate-on-heart-rate-variability-and-arterial-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-essential-hypertension
#10
Changjun Li, Qinghua Chang, Jia Zhang, Wenshu Chai
This study is to investigate the effects of slow breathing on heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial baroreflex sensitivity in essential hypertension.We studied 60 patients with essential hypertension and 60 healthy controls. All subjects underwent controlled breathing at 8 and 16 breaths per minute. Electrocardiogram, respiratory, and blood pressure signals were recorded simultaneously. We studied effects of slow breathing on heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory peak, high-frequency (HF) power, low-frequency (LF) power, and LF/HF ratio of HRV with traditional and corrected spectral analysis...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705650/baroreflex-activation-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-in-patients-with-and-without-coronary-artery-disease
#11
Marcel Halbach, William T Abraham, Christian Butter, Anique Ducharme, Didier Klug, William C Little, Hannes Reuter, Jill E Schafer, Michele Senni, Vijay Swarup, Rolf Wachter, Fred A Weaver, Seth J Wilks, Michael R Zile, Jochen Müller-Ehmsen
BACKGROUND: In a randomized trial, baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) improved exercise capacity, quality of life and NT-proBNP in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In view of different mechanisms underlying HFrEF, we performed a post-hoc subgroup analysis of efficacy and safety of BAT in patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <35% and NYHA Class III were randomized 1:1 to guideline-directed medical and device therapy alone or plus BAT...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701999/mechanisms-underlying-the-increased-cardiac-norepinephrine-spillover-in-heart-failure
#12
Rohit Ramchandra, Sally Hood, Daniel Xing, Gavin Lambert, Clive May
Patients with heart failure (HF) have increased levels of cardiac norepinephrine (NE) spillover, which is an independent predictor of mortality. We hypothesized that this increase in NE spillover in HF depends not only on increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but also on changes in the mechanisms controlling NE release and re-uptake. Such changes would lead to differences between the increases in directly recorded SNA and NE spillover to the heart in HF. Experiments were conducted in conscious sheep implanted with electrodes to record cardiac SNA (CSNA)...
April 27, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686011/direct-recording-of-cardiac-and-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-shows-differential-control-in-renovascular-hypertension
#13
Tycho R Tromp, Darvina Mahesh, Jaap A Joles, Rohit Ramchandra
There is increasing evidence that hypertension is initiated and maintained by elevated sympathetic tone. Increased sympathetic drive to the heart is linked to cardiac hypertrophy in hypertension and worsens prognosis. However, cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) has not previously been directly recorded in hypertension. We hypothesized that directly recorded cardiac SNA levels would be elevated during hypertension and that baroreflex control of cardiac SNA would be impaired during hypertension. Adult ewes either underwent unilateral renal artery clipping (n=12) or sham surgery (n=15)...
April 23, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677053/safety-profile-of-baroreflex-activation-therapy-neo-in-patients-with-resistant-hypertension
#14
Manuel Wallbach, Enrico Böhning, Luca-Yves Lehnig, Charlotte Schroer, Gerhard Anton Müller, Rolf Wachter, Stephan Lüders, Dieter Zenker, Michael Johann Koziolek
OBJECTIVE: Unlike safety data of baroreflex activation therapy device (Rheos), only few data of the currently used second device (Barostim neo) are available and little is reported about common side effects. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed patients with resistant hypertension treated with Barostim neo. A standardized interview regarding side effects of the therapy was performed in routine follow-up visits after device implantation in 42 patients to determine adverse events staged into three degrees...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672226/high-intensity-muscle-metaboreflex-activation-attenuates-cardiopulmonary-baroreflex-mediated-inhibition-of-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity
#15
Keisho Katayama, Jasdeep Kaur, Benjamin E Young, Thales C Barbosa, Shigehiko Ogoh, Paul J Fadel
Previous studies have shown that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is reduced during low- and mild-intensity dynamic leg exercise. It has been suggested that such inhibition is mediated by loading of the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors and that this effect is overridden by muscle metaboreflex activation with higher intensity exercise. However, limited data are available regarding the interaction between the cardiopulmonary baroreflex and the muscle metaboreflex. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that cardiopulmonary baroreflex-mediated inhibition of MSNA is attenuated during high intensity muscle metaboreflex activation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657937/the-role-of-angiotensin-ii-infusion-on-the-baroreflex-sensitivity-and-renal-function-in-intact-and-bilateral-renal-denervation-rats
#16
Mohammad Karim Azadbakht, Jalal Hassanshahi, Mehdi Nematbakhsh
Background: The role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in communication between renal system and cardiovascular system is extremely important. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) index defines as heart rate (HR) alteration versus mean arterial pressure (MAP) change ratio . Sympathetic nerve is arm of the baroreflexes and any change in its activity will lead to change in the BRS. The role of angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion in systemic circulation accompanied with bilateral renal denervation (RDN) on BRS index and renal function was studied...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652544/acute-effects-of-device-guided-slow-breathing-on-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#17
Ida Fonkoue, Paul J Marvar, Seth D Norrholm, Melanie L Kankam, Yunxiao Li, Dana DaCosta, Barbara O Rothbaum, Jeanie Park
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients have elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity and impaired sympathetic and cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Device-guided slow breathing (DGB) has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic activity in other patient populations. We hypothesized that DGB acutely lowers BP, heart rate (HR), and improves BRS in PTSD. In 23 prehypertensive veterans with PTSD, we measured continuous BP, EKG, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest, and during 15 minutes of device-guided slow breathing at 5 breaths/min (DGB; n=13) or identical sham device breathing at normal rates of 14 breaths/min (SHAM; n=10)...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627692/hemin-blunts-the-depressant-effect-of-chronic-nicotine-on-reflex-tachycardia-via-activation-of-central-nos-pi3k-pathway-in-female-rats
#18
Mohamed A Fouda, Hanan M El-Gowelli, Sahar M El-Gowilly, Mahmoud M El-Mas
BACKGROUND: Chronic nicotine administration impairs reflex chronotropic responses that follow arterial baroreceptor unloading in female rats with repleted, but not depleted (ovariectomized, OVX), estrogen (E2 ). This study investigated whether products of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and/or heme oxygenase (HO) and related soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling mediate the E2 -sensitive depressant effect of nicotine on reflex tachycardia...
October 3, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623471/chronic-captopril-treatment-reveals-the-role-of-ang-ii-in-cardiovascular-function-of-embryonic-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis
#19
Casey A Mueller, John Eme, Kevin B Tate, Dane A Crossley
Angiotensin II (ANG II) is a powerful vasoconstrictor of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that plays an important role in cardiovascular regulation in adult and developing vertebrates. Knowledge of ANG II's contribution to developmental cardiovascular function comes from studies in fetal mammals and embryonic chickens. This is the first study to examine the role of ANG II in cardiovascular control in an embryonic reptile, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Using chronic low (~ 5-mg kg embryo-1 ), or high doses (~ 450-mg kg embryo-1 ) of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, we disrupted the RAS and examined the influence of ANG II in cardiovascular function at 90% of embryonic development...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605766/the-benefits-of-soluble-non-bacterial-fraction-of-kefir-on-blood-pressure-and-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-hypertensive-rats-are-mediated-by-an-increase-in-baroreflex-sensitivity-and-decrease-in-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-activity
#20
Girlandia Alexandre Brasil, Mirian de Almeida Silva-Cutini, Flávia de Souza Andrade Moraes, Thiago de Melo Costa Pereira, Elisardo Corral Vasquez, Dominik Lenz, Nazaré Souza Bissoli, Denise Coutinho Endringer, Ewelyne Miranda de Lima, Vinícia Campana Biancardi, June Ferreira Maia, Tadeu Uggere de Andrade
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate whether long-term treatment with the soluble non-bacterial fraction of kefir affects mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac hypertrophy through the modulation of baroreflex sensitivity, ACE activity, and the inflammatory-to-anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). METHODS: SHRs were treated with the soluble non-bacterial kefir fraction (SHR-kefir) or with kefir vehicle (SHR-soluble fraction of milk)...
February 7, 2018: Nutrition
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