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arterial baroreflex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329321/impact-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-inflammation-on-baroreflex-controlled-sympathetic-arterial-pressure-regulation
#1
Takeshi Tohyama, Keita Saku, Toru Kawada, Takuya Kishi, Keimei Yoshida, Takuya Nishikawa, Hiroshi Mannoji, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kenji Sunagawa, Hiroyuki Tsutsui
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute inflammation, activates sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and alters hemodynamics. Since the arterial baroreflex is a negative feedback system to stabilize arterial pressure (AP), examining the arterial baroreflex function is a prerequisite to understanding complex hemodynamics under LPS challenge. We investigated the impact of LPS-induced acute inflammation on SNA and AP regulation by performing baroreflex open-loop analysis. METHODS: Ten anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were used...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316564/primary-prevention-of-stroke-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-a-scientific-update
#2
Stefana Catalina Bilha, Alexandru Burlacu, Dimitrie Siriopol, Luminita Voroneanu, Adrian Covic
BACKGROUND: Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for stroke, official recommendations for the primary prevention of stroke in CKD are generally lacking. SUMMARY: We searched PubMed and ISI Web of Science for randomised controlled trials, observational studies, reviews, meta-analyses and guidelines referring to measures of stroke prevention or to the treatment of stroke-associated risk factors (cardiovascular disease in general and atrial fibrillation (AF), arterial hypertension or carotid artery disease in particular) among the CKD population...
January 9, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316181/heart-rate-variability-and-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-bilateral-lung-transplant-recipients
#3
Timothée Fontolliet, Pietro Gianella, Vincent Pichot, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Paola Gasche-Soccal, Guido Ferretti, Frédéric Lador
The effects of lung afferents denervation on cardiovascular regulation can be assessed on bilateral lung transplantation patients. The high-frequency component of heart rate variability is known to be synchronous with breathing frequency. Then, if heart beat is neurally modulated by breathing frequency, we may expect disappearance of high frequency of heart rate variability in bilateral lung transplantation patients. On 11 patients and 11 matching healthy controls, we measured R-R interval (electrocardiography), blood pressure (Portapres® ) and breathing frequency (ultrasonic device) in supine rest, during 10-min free breathing, 10-min cadenced breathing (0·25 Hz) and 5-min handgrip...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313987/variable-role-of-carotid-bodies-in-cardiovascular-responses-to-exercise-hypoxia-and-hypercapnia-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#4
Wioletta Pijacka, Pedro L Katayama, Helio C Salgado, Gisele S Lincevicius, Ruy R Campos, Fiona D McBryde, Julian F R Paton
The carotid body has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target for treating cardiovascular disease, however the potential impact of carotid bodies removal on the dynamic cardiovascular responses to acute stressors such as exercise, hypoxia and hypercapnia in hypertension is an important safety consideration that has not been studied. We first validated a novel surgical approach to selectively resect the carotid bodies bilaterally (CBR) sparing the carotid sinus baroreflex. Second, we evaluated the impact of CBR on the cardiovascular responses to exercise, hypoxia and hypercapnia in the conscious, chronically instrumented spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297736/increased-receptor-activity-modifying-protein-1-in-the-nervous-system-is-sufficient-to-protect-against-autonomic-dysregulation-and-hypertension
#5
Rasna Sabharwal, Bianca N Mason, Adisa Kuburas, Francois M Abboud, Andrew F Russo, Mark W Chapleau
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) can cause migraines, yet it is also a potent vasodilator that protects against hypertension. Given the emerging role of CGRP-targeted antibodies for migraine prevention, an important question is whether the protective actions of CGRP are mediated by vascular or neural CGRP receptors. To address this, we have characterized the cardiovascular phenotype of transgenic nestin/hRAMP1 mice that have selective elevation of a CGRP receptor subunit in the nervous system, human receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (hRAMP1)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297147/one-year-cardiovascular-prognosis-of-the-randomized-controlled-short-term-heart-rate-variability-biofeedback-among-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#6
Li-Ching Yu, I-Mei Lin, Sheng-Yu Fan, Chin-Lung Chien, Tsung-Hsien Lin
PURPOSE: Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) is an effective psychophysiological intervention, with short-term effects of increased autonomic nervous system homeostasis, strengthened baroreflex sensitivity, and decreased hostility in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The study examined the 1-year HRV-BF effect on cardiovascular prognosis of these patients. METHODS: Of 222 patients with CAD referred by cardiologists, 210 were screened and randomly assigned to the HRV-BF and control groups...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283975/sympathetic-baroreceptor-regulation-during-hypoxic-hypotension-in-humans-new-insights
#7
Christophe Janssen, Guido Grassi, Dominique Laude, Philippe van de Borne
BACKGROUND: Baroreceptor activation by a continuous infusion of phenylephrine selectively abolishes the muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) response to hypoxia in humans. Baroreceptor deactivation enhances the MSNA rise during hypoxia in animals. Whether this is true in humans is unknown and was tested in the present study. METHODS: We assessed MSNA responses elicited by isocapnic hypoxia (10% O2 in N2) during baroreflex loading and unloading with phenylephrine and nitroprusside, respectively, in 19 healthy volunteers...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281076/impaired-baroreflex-sensitivity-carotid-stiffness-and-exaggerated-exercise-blood-pressure-a-community-based-analysis-from-the-paris-prospective-study-iii
#8
James E Sharman, Pierre Boutouyrie, Marie-Cécile Perier, Frédérique Thomas, Catherine Guibout, Hakim Khettab, Bruno Pannier, Stéphane Laurent, Xavier Jouven, Jean-Philippe Empana
Aims: People with exaggerated exercise blood pressure (BP) have adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Mechanisms are unknown but could be explained through impaired neural baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and/or large artery stiffness. This study aimed to determine the associations of carotid BRS and carotid stiffness with exaggerated exercise BP. Methods and results: Blood pressure was recorded at rest and following an exercise step-test among 8976 adults aged 50 to 75 years from the Paris Prospective Study III...
December 21, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272958/reduced-neural-baroreflex-sensitivity-is-related-to-enhanced-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-end-stage-liver-disease
#9
Adrienn Sárközi, Domonkos Cseh, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Márk Kollai
OBJECTIVES: Reduced baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is a frequent complication in end-stage liver disease, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We investigated the mechanical and neural components of BRS. Increased nitric oxide (NO) production has been reported in end-stage liver failure. Based on earlier experiments, we hypothesised that enhanced endothelial function might affect baroreflex function. Therefore, we explored the relation between endothelial function and the components of BRS...
December 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235056/separating-arterial-pressure-increases-and-decreases-in-assessing-cardiac-baroreflex-sensitivity-via-sequence-and-bivariate-phase-rectified-signal-averaging-techniques
#10
Beatrice De Maria, Vlasta Bari, Marco Ranucci, Valeria Pistuddi, Giovanni Ranuzzi, Anielle C M Takahashi, Aparecida M Catai, Laura Dalla Vecchia, Sergio Cerutti, Alberto Porta
Cardiac baroreflex (cBR) is activated by both arterial pressure (AP) increases and decreases. Sequence method, a widely utilized tool assessing cBR sensitivity (cBRS) from spontaneous heart period (HP) and systolic AP (SAP) variations, allows the separated computation of cBRS from positive and negative SAP variations. The recently proposed phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) method has the same feature but it has been applied so far solely to positive SAP variations. We adapted the PRSA method to compute cBRS over negative SAP variations and we compared the results with those derived from sequence method over two protocols: (i) graded head-up tilt (HUT) at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75° in 19 healthy subjects and (ii) general anesthesia induction in 118 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery...
December 13, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217881/reduced-baroreflex-sensitivity-decreased-heart-rate-variability-with-increased-arterial-stiffness-in-predialysis
#11
C Lal, M Kaur, A K Jaryal, K K Deepak, D Bhowmik, S K Agarwal
High cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is observed in predialytic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The underlying mechanism of cardiovascular dysfunction often remains unclear. The present study was designed to perform multiparametric assessment of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), arterial stiffness indices, and cardiovascular variabilities (heart rate variability [HRV] and blood pressure variability [BPV]) together in predialytic CKD patients; compare it with normal healthy controls; and determine their relationships in predialytic nondiabetic CKD patients...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212671/influence-of-age-and-gender-on-the-phase-and-strength-of-the-relation-between-heart-period-and-systolic-blood-pressure-spontaneous-fluctuations
#12
Juliana C Milan-Mattos, Alberto Porta, Natália M Perseguini, Vinicius Minatel, Patricia Rehder-Santos, Anielle C M Takahashi, Stela M Mattiello, Aparecida M Catai
Aging affects baroreflex regulation. The effect of senescence on baroreflex control was assessed from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) through the HP-SAP gain, while the HP-SAP phase and strength are usually disregarded. This study checks whether the HP-SAP phase and strength, as estimated respectively via the phase of the HP-SAP cross-spectrum (PhHP-SAP) and squared coherence function (K2HP-SAP), varies with age in healthy individuals and trends are gender-dependent...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167228/contribution-of-impaired-parasympathetic-activity-to-right-ventricular-dysfunction-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#13
Denielli da Silva Gonçalves Bos, Cathelijne E Van Der Bruggen, Kondababu Kurakula, Xiao-Qing Sun, Karina R Casali, Adenauer G Casali, Nina Rol, Robert Szulcek, Cris Dos Remedios, Christophe Guignabert, Ly Tu, Peter Dorfmuller, Marc Humbert, Paul J M Wijnker, Diederik W D Kuster, Jolanda van der Velden, Marie-José Goumans, Harm-Jan Bogaard, Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf, Frances S de Man, M Louis Handoko
Background -Beneficial effects of parasympathetic stimulation have been reported in left heart failure, however, whether it would be beneficial for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains to be explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between parasympathetic activity and right ventricular (RV) function in PAH-patients, and the potential therapeutic effects of pyridostigmine (PYR), an oral drug stimulating the parasympathetic activity through acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibition, in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH)...
November 22, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136223/baroreceptors-in-the-carotid-and-hypertension-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-baroreflex-activation-therapy-on-blood-pressure
#14
Manuel Wallbach, Michael J Koziolek
Activation of baroreceptors in the carotid modulates the autonomic nervous system. Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT), which activates baroreceptors in the carotid, has become available in the treatment of resistant hypertension. Besides this, a carotid implant modulating baroreceptors as well as pharmacological modulation of carotid bodies were quite recently presented. This review will underscore currently available and promising approaches that activate baroreceptors in the carotid, and thereby contribute to beneficial effects in patients with arterial hypertension, and discusses potential organoprotective BAT effects beyond blood pressure (BP) reduction...
November 9, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135601/sex-differences-in-cardiac-baroreflex-sensitivity-following-isometric-handgrip-exercise
#15
André L Teixeira, Raphael Ritti-Dias, Diego Antonino, Martim Bottaro, Philip J Millar, Lauro C Vianna
PURPOSE: To investigate potential sex-related differences on spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) following acute isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise. METHODS: Twenty men (23±3 years) and 20 women (24±4 years) randomly performed four sets of 2-min IHG exercise (two sets for each limb) at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC - experimental) or 3% MVC (sham). Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (BP) were monitored using finger photoplethysmography before and 10-, 20-, and 30-min following IHG...
November 13, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135467/univariate-and-multivariate-conditional-entropy-measures-for-the-characterization-of-short-term-cardiovascular-complexity-under-physiological-stress
#16
Martina Valente, Michal Javorka, Alberto Porta, Vlasta Bari, Jana Krohova, Barbora Czippelova, Zuzana Turianikova, Giandomenico Nollo, Luca Faes
A defining feature of physiological systems under the neuroautonomic regulation is their dynamical complexity. The most common approach to assess physiological complexity from short-term recordings, i.e. to compute the rate of entropy generation of an individual system by means of measures of conditional entropy (CE), does not consider that complexity may change when the investigated system is part of a network of physiological interactions. This study aims at extending the concept of short-term complexity towards the perspective of network physiology, defining multivariate CE measures whereby multiple physiological processes are accounted for in the computation of entropy rates...
November 14, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118022/tonic-aortic-depressor-nerve-stimulation-does-not-impede-baroreflex-dynamic-characteristics-concomitantly-mediated-by-the-stimulated-nerve
#17
Toru Kawada, Michael J Turner, Shuji Shimizu, Atsunori Kamiya, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi
Although electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex (baroreflex activation therapy) is being explored as a device therapy for resistant hypertension, possible effects on baroreflex dynamic characteristics of interaction between electrical stimulation and pressure inputs are not fully elucidated. To examine whether the electrical stimulation of the baroreceptor afferent nerve impedes normal short-term arterial pressure (AP) regulation mediated by the stimulated nerve, we electrically stimulated the right aortic depressor nerve (ADN) while estimating the baroreflex dynamic characteristics by imposing pressure inputs to the isolated baroreceptor region of the right ADN in nine anesthetized rats...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114227/non-linear-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-interaction-in-response-to-lower-body-negative-pressure
#18
Ajay K Verma, Da Xu, Amanmeet Garg, Anita T Cote, Nandu Goswami, Andrew P Blaber, Kouhyar Tavakolian
Early detection of hemorrhage remains an open problem. In this regard, blood pressure has been an ineffective measure of blood loss due to numerous compensatory mechanisms sustaining arterial blood pressure homeostasis. Here, we investigate the feasibility of causality detection in the heart rate and blood pressure interaction, a closed-loop control system, for early detection of hemorrhage. The hemorrhage was simulated via graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) from 0 to -40 mmHg. The research hypothesis was that a significant elevation of causal control in the direction of blood pressure to heart rate (i...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112634/baroreflex-sensitivity-and-blood-pressure-variability-can-help-in-understanding-the-different-response-to-therapy-during-acute-phase-of-septic-shock
#19
Marta Carrara, Bernardo Bollen Pinto, Giuseppe Baselli, Karim Bendjelid, Manuela Ferrario
BACKGROUND: Mean values of hemodynamic variables are poorly effective in evaluating an actual recovery of the short-term autonomic mechanisms for blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) regulation. The aim of this work is to analyze the responses to therapy in the early phase of septic shock in order to verify possible associations between BP recovery and BP autonomic control. METHODS: This is an ancillary study from the multicenter prospective observational trial Shockomics (NCT02141607)...
November 6, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093566/hypertension-induces-additional-cardiometabolic-impairments-and-attenuates-aerobic-exercise-training-adaptations-in-fructose-fed-ovariectomized-rats
#20
Janaina de O Brito-Monzani, Iris Callado Sanches, Nathalia Bernardes, Kátia Ponciano, Ivana C Moraes-Silva, Maria-Cláudia Irigoyen, Susana Llesuy, Kátia De Angelis
We tested whether hypertension favors the development of additional cardiometabolic changes in fructose-fed ovariectomized rats and how it affects aerobic exercise training (ET) effects. All rats received fructose in drinking water (10%) beginning at weaning, were ovariectomized at 10 weeks of age and divided into the normotensive sedentary (NFOS) and trained (NFOT) and hypertensive sedentary (HFOS) and trained (HFOT) groups. ET was performed on a treadmill. Arterial pressure (AP) was directly recorded; heart rate and AP variabilities were analyzed...
November 2, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
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