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arterial baroreflex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136223/baroreceptors-in-the-carotid-and-hypertension-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-baroreflex-activation-therapy-on-blood-pressure
#1
Manuel Wallbach, Michael J Koziolek
Activation of baroreceptors in the carotid modulates the autonomic nervous system. Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT), which activates baroreceptors in the carotid, has become available in the treatment of resistant hypertension. Besides this, a carotid implant modulating baroreceptors as well as pharmacological modulation of carotid bodies were quite recently presented. This review will underscore currently available and promising approaches that activate baroreceptors in the carotid, and thereby contribute to beneficial effects in patients with arterial hypertension, and discusses potential organoprotective BAT effects beyond blood pressure (BP) reduction...
November 9, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135601/sex-differences-in-cardiac-baroreflex-sensitivity-following-isometric-handgrip-exercise
#2
André L Teixeira, Raphael Ritti-Dias, Diego Antonino, Martim Bottaro, Philip J Millar, Lauro C Vianna
PURPOSE: To investigate potential sex-related differences on spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) following acute isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise. METHODS: Twenty men (23±3 years) and 20 women (24±4 years) randomly performed four sets of 2-min IHG exercise (two sets for each limb) at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC - experimental) or 3% MVC (sham). Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (BP) were monitored using finger photoplethysmography before and 10-, 20-, and 30-min following IHG...
November 13, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135467/univariate-and-multivariate-conditional-entropy-measures-for-the-characterization-of-short-term-cardiovascular-complexity-under-physiological-stress
#3
Martina Valente, Michal Javorka, Alberto Porta, Vlasta Bari, Jana Krohova, Barbora Czippelova, Zuzana Turianikova, Giandomenico Nollo, Luca Faes
A defining feature of physiological systems under the neuroautonomic regulation is their dynamical complexity. The most common approach to assess physiological complexity from short-term recordings, i.e. to compute the rate of entropy generation of an individual system by means of measures of conditional entropy (CE), does not consider that complexity may change when the investigated system is part of a network of physiological interactions. This study aims at extending the concept of short-term complexity towards the perspective of network physiology, defining multivariate CE measures whereby multiple physiological processes are accounted for in the computation of entropy rates...
November 14, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118022/tonic-aortic-depressor-nerve-stimulation-does-not-impede-baroreflex-dynamic-characteristics-concomitantly-mediated-by-the-stimulated-nerve
#4
Toru Kawada, Michael J Turner, Shuji Shimizu, Atsunori Kamiya, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi
Although electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex (baroreflex activation therapy) is being explored as a device therapy for resistant hypertension, possible effects on baroreflex dynamic characteristics of interaction between electrical stimulation and pressure inputs are not fully elucidated. To examine whether the electrical stimulation of the baroreceptor afferent nerve impedes normal short-term arterial pressure (AP) regulation mediated by the stimulated nerve, we electrically stimulated the right aortic depressor nerve (ADN) while estimating the baroreflex dynamic characteristics by imposing pressure inputs to the isolated baroreceptor region of the right ADN in nine anesthetized rats...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114227/non-linear-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-interaction-in-response-to-lower-body-negative-pressure
#5
Ajay K Verma, Da Xu, Amanmeet Garg, Anita T Cote, Nandu Goswami, Andrew P Blaber, Kouhyar Tavakolian
Early detection of hemorrhage remains an open problem. In this regard, blood pressure has been an ineffective measure of blood loss due to numerous compensatory mechanisms sustaining arterial blood pressure homeostasis. Here, we investigate the feasibility of causality detection in the heart rate and blood pressure interaction, a closed-loop control system, for early detection of hemorrhage. The hemorrhage was simulated via graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) from 0 to -40 mmHg. The research hypothesis was that a significant elevation of causal control in the direction of blood pressure to heart rate (i...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112634/baroreflex-sensitivity-and-blood-pressure-variability-can-help-in-understanding-the-different-response-to-therapy-during-acute-phase-of-septic-shock
#6
Marta Carrara, Bernardo Bollen Pinto, Giuseppe Baselli, Karim Bendjelid, Manuela Ferrario
BACKGROUND: Mean values of hemodynamic variables are poorly effective in evaluating an actual recovery of the short-term autonomic mechanisms for blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) regulation. The aim of this work is to analyze the responses to therapy in the early phase of septic shock in order to verify possible associations between BP recovery and BP autonomic control. METHODS: This is an ancillary study from the multicenter prospective observational trial Shockomics (NCT02141607)...
November 6, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093566/hypertension-induces-additional-cardiometabolic-impairments-and-attenuates-aerobic-exercise-training-adaptations-in-fructose-fed-ovariectomized-rats
#7
Janaina de O Brito-Monzani, Iris Callado Sanches, Nathalia Bernardes, Kátia Ponciano, Ivana C Moraes-Silva, Maria-Cláudia Irigoyen, Susana Llesuy, Kátia De Angelis
We tested whether hypertension favors the development of additional cardiometabolic changes in fructose-fed ovariectomized rats and how it affects aerobic exercise training (ET) effects. All rats received fructose in drinking water (10%) beginning at weaning, were ovariectomized at 10 weeks of age and divided into the normotensive sedentary (NFOS) and trained (NFOT) and hypertensive sedentary (HFOS) and trained (HFOT) groups. ET was performed on a treadmill. Arterial pressure (AP) was directly recorded; heart rate and AP variabilities were analyzed...
November 2, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077476/can-speech-guided-breathing-influence-cardiovascular-regulation-and-mood-perception-in-hypertensive-patients
#8
Daniel Krüerke, Ana Paula Simões-Wüst, Christoph Kaufmann, Martina Frank, Alexander Faldey, Peter Heusser, Dietrich von Bonin
OBJECTIVES: Anthroposophic therapeutic speech (ATS) has been shown to positively influence heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiorespiratory coordination in healthy volunteers. This prospective, exploratory, pre-post study was performed to investigate ATS effects on baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), heart rate (HR), HRV by standard deviation of beat to beat intervals (SDNN), blood pressure (BP), and mood in hypertensive patients. DESIGN: Patients received three ATS treatments, alternating with three sham interventions (control)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072344/the-effect-of-sex-and-prematurity-on-the-cardiovascular-baroreflex-response-in-sheep
#9
Beth J Allison, Vivian Nguyen, Stephanie R Yiallourou, Ilias Nitsos, Mary Jane Black, Graeme R Polglase
Very preterm infants have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, however the effects of a late preterm birth on future cardiovascular function are not known. We hypothesized that well describes impairments in heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity would persist into adulthood following a late preterm birth. To test this hypothesis sheep born preterm (0.9 gestation: 9M, 7F) or term (11M, 6F) underwent surgery at 14 months of age for insertion of femoral arterial and venous catheters and femoral flow probe...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070505/inter-individual-variability-in-muscle-sympathetic-responses-to-static-handgrip-in-young-men-evidence-for-sympathetic-responder-types
#10
Anthony V Incognito, Connor J Doherty, Jordan B Lee, Matthew J Burns, Philip J Millar
Negative and positive muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responders have been observed during mental stress. We hypothesized that similar MSNA response patterns could be identified during the first minute of static handgrip and contribute to the inter-individual variability throughout exercise. Supine measurements of multi-unit MSNA (microneurography) and continuous blood pressure (Finometer) were recorded in 29 young healthy men during the first (HG1) and second (HG2) minute of static handgrip (30% maximal voluntary contraction) and subsequent post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO)...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060557/evaluating-the-association-between-cardiac-and-peripheral-resistance-arms-of-the-baroreflex
#11
Alberto Porta, Vlasta Bari, Giovanni Ranuzzi, Beatrice De Maria, Mara Malacarne, Massimo Pagani, Daniela Lucini
The study proposes an extension of cardiac baroreflex (cBR) sequence analysis, traditionally performed over spontaneous fluctuations of heart period and systolic arterial pressure, to typify peripheral resistance baroreflex (prBR) from spontaneous variations of peripheral resistances and diastolic arterial pressure. The prBR baroreflex sensitivity (BRSprBR) and percentage of prBR sequences (SEQ%prBR) were computed along with analogous quantities assessed over cBR (i.e. BRScBR and SEQ%cBR). The cBR and prBR were typified in healthy subjects at rest (REST) and during light bicycle ergometer exercise at 10 percent of the maximal effort (EXE)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054562/exercise-attenuates-dexamethasone-induced-hypertension-through-an-improvement-of-baroreflex-activity-independently-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#12
Paula B Constantino, Thiago J Dionísio, Francine Duchatsch, Naiara A Herrera, Josiane O Duarte, Carlos F Santos, Carlos C Crestani, Sandra L Amaral
Dexamethasone-induced hypertension may be caused by baroreflex alterations or renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exacerbation. Aerobic training has been recommended for hypertension treatment, but the mechanisms responsible for reduction of arterial pressure (AP) in dexamethasone (DEX) treated rats are still inconclusive.This study evaluated whether mechanisms responsible for training-induced attenuation of hypertension involve changes in autonomic nervous system and in RAS components. Rats underwent aerobic training protocol on treadmill or were kept sedentary for 8 weeks...
October 18, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052077/beat-to-beat-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-responses-to-the-valsalva-maneuver
#13
REVIEW
David S Goldstein, William P Cheshire
Measurement of beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate responses to the Valsalva maneuver is the basis for a highly informative autonomic function test. Whereas in the past this measurement required intra-arterial cannulation, the development of finger cuff devices that acquire arterial pressure waveforms indistinguishable from those recorded intra-arterially has made it possible to obtain accurate measurements noninvasively. In a patient with orthostatic hypotension, the pattern of blood pressure responses during and after the release of the maneuver can identify a neurogenic basis: sympathetic neurocirculatory failure...
December 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038360/carotid-sinus-hypersensitivity-block-of-the-sternocleidomastoid-muscle-does-not-affect-responses-to-carotid-sinus-massage-in-healthy-young-adults
#14
Matthew G Lloyd, James M Wakeling, Michael S Koehle, Robert J Drapala, Victoria E Claydon
The arterial baroreflex is crucial for short-term blood pressure control - abnormal baroreflex function predisposes to syncope and falling. Hypersensitive responses to carotid baroreflex stimulation using carotid sinus massage (CSM) are common in older adults and may be associated with syncope. The pathophysiology of this hypersensitivity is unknown, but chronic denervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscles is common in elderly patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH), and is proposed to interfere with normal integration of afferent firing from the carotid baroreceptors with proprioceptive feedback from the sternocleidomastoids, producing large responses to CSM...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025323/cardiovascular-autonomic-responses-in-the-vcd-rat-model-of-menopause-effects-of-short-and-long-term-ovarian-failure
#15
Domitila A Huber, Darlan Bazilio, Flaviano Lorenzon, Sibele Sehnem, Lucas Pacheco, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Fernanda B Lima
After menopause, hypertension elevates the risk of cardiac diseases, one of the major causes of women's morbidity. The gradual depletion of ovarian follicles in rats, induced by 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), is a model for studying the physiology of menopause. 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide treatment leads to early ovarian failure (OF) and a hormonal profile comparable to menopause in humans. We have hypothesized that OF can compromise the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic tones of the cardiovascular system, shifting toward dominance of the former...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024446/baroreflex-sensitivity-an-algebraic-dilemma
#16
EDITORIAL
Anna Taboni, Nazzareno Fagoni, Giovanni Vinetti, Guido Ferretti
The baroreflex system is a complex mechanism for short-term regulation of arterial blood pressure, involving the heart rate (HR), the heart contractility and the vascular tone in its efferent branches. The study of arterial baroreflexes relies on two different experimental approaches. On one hand, the closed-loop approach analyses the mutual relationship between HR and arterial blood pressure, both in steady state and in dynamic conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 11, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971842/inorganic-nitrate-supplementation-attenuates-peripheral-chemoreflex-sensitivity-but-does-not-improve-cardiovagal-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-older-adults
#17
Joshua M Bock, Kenichi Ueda, Aaron C Schneider, William E Hughes, Jacqueline K Limberg, Nathan S Bryan, Darren P Casey
Aging is associated with increased peripheral chemoreceptor activity, reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, as well as attenuation of cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), collectively increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Evidence suggests NO may attenuate peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity and increase BRS. Exogenous inorganic nitrate increases NO bioavailability via the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Our hypothesis was that inorganic nitrate supplementation would attenuate peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity and enhance spontaneous cardiovagal BRS in older adults...
September 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970198/sympathetic-neural-reactivity-to-mental-stress-differs-in-black-and-non-hispanic-white-adults
#18
Ida T Fonkoue, Christopher E Schwartz, Min Wang, Jason R Carter
Black adults have a higher risk of hypertension compared to non-Hispanic white (NHW) adults, but physiological mechanisms underlying this predisposition remain unclear. This study compared muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses to mental stress in a group of young black and NHW participants. We hypothesized that the sympathoexcitation associated with mental stress would be greater in black adults compared to NHW. Thirty-five male adults (19 black, 23±1 years; 16 NHW, 22±1 years) were examined during a 5 min supine baseline and 5 min of mental stress (via mental arithmetic)...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964815/peripheral-versus-central-effect-of-intravenous-moxonidine-on-rat-carotid-sinus-baroreflex-mediated-sympathetic-arterial-pressure-regulation
#19
Toru Kawada, Shuji Shimizu, Hiromi Yamamoto, Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi
AIMS: Moxonidine is a centrally acting antihypertensive agent with a selectivity to I1-imidazoline receptors higher than that to α2-adrenergic receptors. The present study aimed to quantify a peripheral effect of moxonidine on carotid sinus baroreflex-mediated sympathetic arterial pressure (AP) regulation separately from its central effect. MAIN METHODS: In eight anesthetized Wistar rats, changes in efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and AP in response to a carotid sinus pressure input were compared before and during an intravenous administration of moxonidine (100μgkg(-1) bolus followed by a continuous infusion at 200μg·kg(-1)·h(-1))...
December 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955233/hydrogen-sulfide-facilitates-the-impaired-sensitivity-of-carotid-sinus-baroreflex-in-rats-with-vascular-calcification
#20
Hui Li, Xu Teng, Rui Yang, Qi Guo, Hongmei Xue, Lin Xiao, Xiaocui Duan, Danyang Tian, Xiaohong Feng, Yuming Wu
Arterial baroreflex is a general mechanism maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis; its sensitivity is reduced in vascular calcification (VC). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) treatment facilitates baroreflexive sensitivity in normal and hypertensive rats. Here, we aimed to detect the effect of H2S on baroreflexive sensitivity in rats with VC. The rat VC model was induced by vitamin D3 plus nicotine for 4 weeks. The sensitivity of baroreflex was detected by perfusing the isolated carotid sinus. VC was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Ca(2+) content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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