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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805311/mechanistic-model-for-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-changes-produced-by-telmisartan-in-humans
#1
Dong Woo Chae, Mijeong Son, Yukyung Kim, Hankil Son, Kyungsoo Park
Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), is indicated for the treatment of essential hypertension. This study aimed to develop a mechanistic model of telmisartan drug effect in human using non-invasive markers. Data were acquired from a previous study where telmisartan 80 mg was given once daily for 6 days. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before dosing for day 1 to 5 and serially after the last dose. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were calculated from SBP and DBP...
August 14, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802811/effects-of-respiratory-training-on-heart-rate-variability-and-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-individuals-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Bonnie E Legg Ditterline, Sevda C Aslan, David C Randall, Susan J Harkema, Camilo Castillo, Alexander V Ovechkin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of pressure threshold respiratory training (RT) on heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Before-after intervention case-controlled clinical study. SETTING: SCI research center and outpatient rehabilitation unit. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with chronic SCI ranging from C2 to T11 that participated in RT (n=24) and untrained chronic SCI controls ranging from C2 to T9 (n=20)...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802637/blood-pressure-responses-to-dietary-sodium-association-with-autonomic-cardiovascular-function-in-normotensive-adults
#3
Evan L Matthews, Michael S Brian, David G Edwards, Sean D Stocker, Megan M Wenner, William B Farquhar
Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium vary widely person-to-person. Salt sensitive rodent models display altered autonomic function, a trait thought to contribute to poor cardiovascular health. Thus, we hypothesized that increased salt sensitivity (SS) in normotensive humans would be associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Healthy normotensive men and women completed 1week of high (300mmol·day(-1)) and 1week of low (20mmol·day(-1)) dietary sodium (random order) with 24h mean arterial pressure (MAP) assessed on the last day of each diet to assess SS...
August 6, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782443/cerebral-a%C3%AE-40-and-systemic-hypertension
#4
Hannah M Tayler, Jennifer C Palmer, Taya L Thomas, Patrick G Kehoe, Julian Fr Paton, Seth Love
Mid-life hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion may be preclinical abnormalities in people who later develop Alzheimer's disease. Although accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease and is associated with upregulation of the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 within the brain, it is unclear how this affects systemic arterial pressure. We have investigated whether infusion of Aβ40 into ventricular cerebrospinal fluid modulates blood pressure in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751370/effects-of-different-input-pressure-waveforms-on-the-carotid-sinus-baroreflex-mediated-sympathetic-arterial-pressure-response-in-rats
#5
Toru Kawada, Shuji Shimizu, Hiromi Yamamoto, Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Atsunori Kamiya, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi
Although the pulsatility of an input pressure is an important factor that determines the arterial baroreflex responses, whether the difference in the input waveforms can meaningfully affect the baroreflex function remains unknown. This study aimed to compare baroreflex responses between two distinct pressure waveforms: a forward saw wave (FSW) and a backward saw wave (BSW). In seven anesthetized rats, carotid sinus pressure (CSP) was exposed to the FSW or the BSW with a mean of 120 mmHg, pulse pressure of 40 mmHg, and pulse frequency of 1 Hz...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739304/role-of-nadphox-rho-kinase-signaling-in-the-cyclosporine-nsaids-interactions-on-blood-pressure-and-baroreflexes-in-female-rats
#6
Hanan M El-Gowelli, Karim S Ibrahim, Ahmed F El-Yazbi, Mahmoud M El-Mas
AIMS: The hypertensive effect of the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine (CSA) is paralleled, and probably triggered, by impaired arterial baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS). Here we asked if these effects of CSA are influenced by co-administration of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and if the oxidative NADPH-oxidase (NADPHox)/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway mediates this interaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female rats were treated for 10days with CSA (25mg/kg/day), diclofenac (DIC, COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, 1mg/kg/day), celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor, 10mg/kg/day), or their combinations...
July 21, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737621/baroreflex-activation-therapy-a-new-approach-to-the-management-of-advanced-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#7
Edoardo Gronda, Darrel Francis, Faiez Zannad, Christian Hamm, Josep Brugada, Emilio Vanoli
: Chronic heart failure is a common clinical condition characterized by persistent excessive sympathetic nervous system activation. The derangement of the sympathetic activity has relevant implications for disease progression and patient survival. Aiming to positively impact patient outcome, autonomic nervous system modulatory therapies have been developed and tested in animal and clinical studies. As a general gross assumption, direct vagal stimulation and baroreflex activation are considered equivalent. This assumption does not take into account the fact that direct cervical vagal nerve stimulation involves activation of both afferent and efferent fibers innervating not only the heart, but the entire visceral system, leading to undesired responses to and from this compartment...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729675/oxygen-induced-impairment-in-arterial-function-is-corrected-by-slow-breathing-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#8
Luciano Bernardi, Daniel Gordin, Marco Bordino, Milla Rosengård-Bärlund, Anna Sandelin, Carol Forsblom, Per-Henrik Groop
Hyperoxia and slow breathing acutely improve autonomic function in type-1 diabetes. However, their effects on arterial function may reveal different mechanisms, perhaps potentially useful. To test the effects of oxygen and slow breathing we measured arterial function (augmentation index, pulse wave velocity), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and oxygen saturation (SAT), during spontaneous and slow breathing (6 breaths/min), in normoxia and hyperoxia (5 L/min oxygen) in 91 type-1 diabetic and 40 age-matched control participants...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716819/effect-of-type-2-diabetes-surgical-incision-and-volatile-anesthesia-on-hemodynamics-in-the-rat
#9
Carol T Bussey, Regis R Lamberts
Diabetic patients have increased cardiac complications during surgery, possibly due to impaired autonomic regulation. Anesthesia lowers blood pressure and heart rate (HR), whereas surgical intervention has opposing effects. The interaction of anesthesia and surgical intervention on hemodynamics in diabetes is unknown, despite being a potential perioperative risk factor. We aimed to determine the effect of diabetes on the integrative interaction between hemodynamics, anesthesia, and surgical incision. Zucker type 2 diabetic rats (DM) and their nondiabetic littermates (ND) were implanted with an intravenous port for drug delivery, and a radiotelemeter to measure mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and derive HR (total n = 50)...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716522/exercise-individualized-by-trimpi-method-reduces-arterial-stiffness-in-early-onset-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial-with-aerobic-interval-training
#10
Alfonso Bellia, Ferdinando Iellamo, Elisa De Carli, Aikaterini Andreadi, Elvira Padua, Mauro Lombardo, Giuseppe Annino, Francesca Campoli, Sara Tartaglione, Stefano D'Ottavio, David Della-Morte, Davide Lauro
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness (AS) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) are subclinical markers of vascular diseases in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We evaluated the effects of aerobic interval training (AIT), with loads prescribed according to individual heart rate and lactate profiling obtained during a baseline treadmill test (TRIMPi method), on AS and BRS in patients with early-onset T2D without cardiovascular complications. POPULATION STUDY AND METHODS: Twenty-two sedentary overweight T2D patients (aged 57±7years) were randomized to 12-weeks open-label of supervised AIT by TRIMPi (n=8) or unsupervised physical activity as per usual care (SOC) (n=11)...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707593/effects-of-some-indigenous-plants-of-north-karnataka-india-on-cardiovascular-and-glucose-regulatory-systems-in-diabetic-rats
#11
Kusal K Das, Kailash S Chadchan, R Chandramouli Reddy, M S Biradar, Pallavi S Kanthe, Bheemshetty S Pati, Jeevan G Ambekar, Ishwar B Bagoji, Swastika Das
BACKGROUND: The medicinal plants of north Karnataka, India are always researchers delight as many of these plants are rarely found in elsewhere other than this part of India. Kenaf leaves (Hibiscus cannabinus Linn, Pundi), Chick pea leaves (Cicer arietinum Linn, Chana) and Prickly lettuce leaves (Lactuca scariola Linn, Hattaraki.) are a few of these indigenous plants which are routinely consumed by the people as diet in this part of India. Various studies were done on these plants to find out some potential anti diabetic efficacies but reports are still not encouraging...
July 12, 2017: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699532/modulation-of-heart-rate-by-acute-or-chronic-aerobic-exercise-potential-effects-on-blood-pressure-control
#12
Carme Perez-Quilis, J Derek Kingsley, Kabir Malkani, Gianfranco Cervellin, Giuseppe Lippi, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar
It was initially assumed that heart rate and arterial blood pressure were modulated by normal respiration and muscle contraction. The arterial baroreflex, an inverse relationship between blood pressure and heart rate, was later reported. Nonetheless, it was then assumed that those responses involved vagal modulation. We summarize available evidence on the modulation of heart rate by acute or chronic aerobic exercise as well as its potential implications on BP control. Numerous studies have tried to clarify whether aerobic exercise modifies neurally-mediated vasoconstriction, but they report contradictory results...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687588/the-carotid-baroreflex-modifies-the-pressor-threshold-of-the-muscle-metaboreflex-in-humans
#13
Masashi Ichinose, Tomoko K Ichinose-Kuwahara, Kazuhito Watanabe, Narihiko Kondo, Takeshi Nishiyasu
The purpose of present study was to test our hypothesis that unloading the carotid baroreceptors alters the threshold and gain of the muscle metaboreflex in humans. Ten healthy subjects performed a static handgrip exercise at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction. Contraction was sustained for 15, 30, 45 and 60 s, and was followed by 3 min of forearm circulatory arrest, during which forearm muscular pH is known to decrease linearly with increasing contraction time. The carotid baroreceptors were unloaded by applying 0...
July 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675547/baroreceptor-reflex-failure-review-of-the-literature-and-the-potential-impact-on-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#14
Shivani Shah-Becker, Michael Pennock, Lawrence Sinoway, David Goldenberg, Neerav Goyal
BACKGROUND: Baroreceptor dysfunction and reflex failure may occur after surgery affecting the carotid artery. The implications for patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer are not well described. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed was performed between March 2016 and May 2016. Search terms used individually and in combination included: "baroreflex failure," "carotid sinus sensitivity," "carotid endarterectomy," "carotid body tumor," and "head and neck cancer...
July 4, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663324/new-indices-from-microneurography-to-investigate-the-arterial-baroreflex
#15
Alexandre Laurin, Matthew G Lloyd, Tesshin Hachiya, Mitsuru Saito, Victoria E Claydon, Andrew Blaber
Baroreflex-mediated changes in heart rate and vascular resistance in response to variations in blood pressure are critical to maintain homeostasis. We aimed to develop time domain analysis methods to complement existing cross-spectral techniques in the investigation of the vascular resistance baroreflex response to orthostatic stress. A secondary goal was to apply these methods to distinguish between levels of orthostatic tolerance using baseline data. Eleven healthy, normotensive males participated in a graded lower body negative pressure protocol...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658076/recovery-time-profiling-after-short-middle-and-long-distance-swimming-performance
#16
Alessandro Piras, Matteo Cortesi, Francesco Campa, Monica Perazzolo, Giorgio Gatta
We investigated cardiac autonomic responses and hemodynamic parameters on recovery time following short-, middle- and long-swimming performance. Ten male regional-level swimmers were tested to estimate time and frequency domains of arterial baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability after 100-, 200-, and 400-m of front crawl. We found a BRS reduction for 90 min after a maximal 100- and 200-m front crawl event, meanwhile the reflex was restored back to the baseline value about 70 min after 400-m. The vagally mediated HF power of R-R intervals was significantly reduced for 30 min after 400-m, and more than 90 min after 100- and 200-m, with a concomitant increase of sympathetic modulation...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642732/autonomic-function-impairment-and-brain-perfusion-deficit-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Wei-Che Lin, Pei-Chin Chen, Chih-Cheng Huang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Hung-Chen Wang, Kun-Hsien Chou, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Yi-Wen Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu
INTRODUCTION: Autonomic disorders have been recognized as important Parkinson's disease (PD) components. Some vulnerable structures are related to the central autonomic network and have also been linked to autonomic function alterations. The aims of the study are to evaluate the severity of the autonomic dysfunction and the cortical hypoperfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI. And then, possible relationships of significant between-group differences in perfusion pattern to clinical variables and autonomic functions were examined to determine the pharmaceutical effects of dopaminergic treatment on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635325/effect-of-salt-loading-on-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-reduced-renal-mass-hypertension
#18
Besim Özaykan, Eylem Taskin, Ali Magemizoğlu
BACKGROUND: High dietary salt, as well as renal mass reduction, is known to decrease baroreflex sensitivity in rats. However, the effect of high salt intake on baroreflex sensitivity is unknown in reduced renal mass (RRM) hypertension; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salt loading on arterial baroreflex sensitivity and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in RRM hypertension. METHODS: Both RRM and sham-operated control (SO) rats were loaded with 0...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620841/device-based-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-arterial-hypertension
#19
REVIEW
Jens Jordan
Device-based antihypertensive treatments have primarily been developed and clinically tested for patients with hypertension refractory to pharmacological treatment. Most but not all device-based treatments target the sympathetic nervous system and provided important new insight in the mechanisms of human hypertension. This review provides an overview on the scientific rational and clinical data on recent device-based antihypertensive treatment approaches. Device-based treatments targeting the sympathetic nervous system include catheter-based renal nerve ablation, electrical carotid sinus stimulation, modulation of baroreflex transduction through a dedicated carotid stent, carotid body denervation, and deep brain stimulation...
July 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614420/the-degree-of-cardiac-baroreflex-involvement-during-active-standing-is-associated-with-the-quality-of-life-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#20
Antonio Roberto Zamunér, Alberto Porta, Carolina Pieroni Andrade, Meire Forti, Andrea Marchi, Raffaello Furlan, Franca Barbic, Aparecida Maria Catai, Ester Silva
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a rheumatologic disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue and other symptoms. Baroreflex dysfunction has been observed in women with FMS. However, it is unknown whether the limited involvement of the baroreflex control during an orthostatic stimulus has some impact on the quality of life of the FMS patient. Therefore, the aim of the study is evaluate the relationship between the quality of life of the FMS patient and indexes of the cardiovascular autonomic control as estimated from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP)...
2017: PloS One
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