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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895591/comparison-in-conscious-rabbits-of-the-baroreceptor-heart-rate-reflex-effects-of-chronic-treatment-with-rilmenidine-moxonidine-and-clonidine
#1
Monique L Parkin, Kyungjoon Lim, Sandra L Burke, Geoffrey A Head
We investigated the effects of chronic subcutaneous treatment with centrally-acting antihypertensive agents moxonidine, rilmenidine, and clonidine on the baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) in conscious normotensive rabbits over 3 weeks. Infusions of phenylephrine and nitroprusside were performed at week 0 and at weeks 1 and 3 of treatment to determine mean arterial pressure (MAP)-HR baroreflex relationships. A second curve was performed after intravenous methscopolamine to determine the sympathetic baroreflex relationship...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878227/cardiovascular-coupling-during-graded-postural-challenge-comparison-between-linear-tools-and-joint-symbolic-analysis
#2
Alberto Porta, Anielle C M Takahashi, Aparecida M Catai
Background: A joint symbolic analysis (JSA) is applied to assess the strength of the cardiovascular coupling from spontaneous beat-to-beat variability of the heart period (HP) and the systolic arterial pressure (SAP) during an experimental protocol inducing a gradual baroreflex unloading evoked by postural change (i.e. graded head-up tilt). Method: The adopted JSA can quantify the degree of association between the HP and SAP variabilities as a function of the time scale of the HP and SAP patterns...
June 30, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861895/effects-of-postural-change-from-supine-to-head-up-tilt-on-skin-sympathetic-nerve-activity-component-synchronised-with-cardiac-cycle-in-warmed-men
#3
Yu Ogawa, Yoshi-Ichiro Kamijo, Shigeki Ikegawa, Shizue Masuki, Hiroshi Nose
In humans, the cutaneous vasodilatation response to hyperthermia has been suggested to be suppressed by baroreflexes to maintain arterial pressure when the posture was changed from supine to upright, and if the reflexes do not function sufficiently, it can cause heat syncope. However, the efferent signals of the reflexes have not been identified. To identify the signals, we continuously measured skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA; microneurography), right atrial volume (RAV; echocardiography, the baroreceptors for the reflexes are reportedly located), cutaneous vascular conductance on the chest (CVCchest ; laser Doppler flowmetry), and oesophageal temperature (Toes ; thermocouple) in young men before and after passive warming with a perfusion suit, during which periods the posture was changed from supine to 30° head-up tilt positions...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857694/comparable-attenuation-of-sympathetic-nervous-system-activity-in-obese-subjects-with-normal-glucose-tolerance-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-type-2-diabetes-following-equivalent-weight-loss
#4
Nora E Straznicky, Mariee T Grima, Carolina I Sari, Elisabeth A Lambert, Sarah E Phillips, Nina Eikelis, Justin A Mariani, Daisuke Kobayashi, Dagmara Hering, John B Dixon, Gavin W Lambert
Background and Purpose: Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) that contributes to target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. In this study we examined whether baseline metabolic status influences the degree of sympathoinhibition attained following equivalent dietary weight loss. Methods: Un-medicated obese individuals categorized as normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n = 15), impaired glucose tolerant (IGT, n = 24), and newly-diagnosed T2D (n = 15) consumed a hypocaloric diet (29% fat, 23% protein, 45% carbohydrate) for 4-months...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856414/neurovascular-control-of-blood-pressure-is-influenced-by-aging-sex-and-sex-hormones
#5
Sarah Elizabeth Baker, Jacqueline K Limberg, Sushant M Ranadive, Michael J Joyner
In this review, we highlight that the relationship between muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and mean arterial pressure is complex, differs by sex, and changes with age. In young men there is an inverse relationship between MSNA and cardiac output where high MSNA is compensated for by low cardiac output. This inverse relationship is not seen in older men. In young women sympathetic vasoconstriction is offset by β-adrenoreceptor mediated vasodilation, limiting the ability of young women to maintain blood pressure in response to orthostatic stress...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810517/changes-in-vagus-nerve-activity-associated-with-ictal-tachycardia-in-pigs
#6
Cristian Sevcencu, Thomas N Nielsen, Johannes J Struijk
OBJECTIVE: Ictal tachycardia (IT) is common and may pave the way towards cardiac conditions with high risk potential. However, the mechanisms of IT remain obscure and therefore difficult to control. For example, whereas IT is associated with a sympathetic surge, it is unclear why the IT effects are not opposed by baroreflex cardiac inhibition during seizures. As the vagus nerves (VN) are main mediators for such baroreflexes, this study was performed to investigate the VN activity in IT...
October 25, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792993/abnormal-autonomic-nervous-system-function-in-rural-thai-men-a-potential-contributor-to-their-high-risk-of-sudden-unexplained-nocturnal-death-syndrome
#7
Raoyrin Chanavirut, Terdthai Tong-Un, Dusit Jirakulsomchok, J Michael Wyss, Sanya Roysommuti
BACKGROUND: Rural compared to urban Thai populations have a higher incidence of sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS). This study tests the hypothesis that compared to young urban Thai men, the young rural northeast Thai men display autonomic system dysfunction that may contribute to their relatively high risk to develop SUNDS. METHODS: Forty-seven healthy second and third year students from Khon Kaen University (20-22years old) were divided into central, urban northeastern, and rural northeastern groups, based on the locality in which they had grown up and in which their parents had lived prior to their birth...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777356/prolonged-baroreflex-activation-abolishes-salt-induced-hypertension-after-reductions-in-kidney-mass
#8
Drew A Hildebrandt, Eric D Irwin, Thomas E Lohmeier
Chronic electric activation of the carotid baroreflex produces sustained reductions in sympathetic activity and arterial pressure and is currently being evaluated for therapy in patients with resistant hypertension. However, patients with significant impairment of renal function have been largely excluded from clinical trials. Thus, there is little information on blood pressure and renal responses to baroreflex activation in subjects with advanced chronic kidney disease, which is common in resistant hypertension...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754150/os-29-02-circadian-blood-pressure-profile-abnormalities-and-autonomic-dysfunction
#9
Oleg Mamontov, Mikhail Bogachev, Andrey Kozlenoc
OBJECTIVE: To assess the autonomic regulation in patients with various circadian blood pressure profile (CBPP) anomalies that persisted despite of combined antihypertensive therapy. DESIGN AND METHOD: We studied 114 hypertensives aged 56,8 ± 17,9 years receiving combined antihypertensive therapy divided into two groups, with adequate (n = 61) and inadequate (n = 53) CBPP. Groups were comparable in terms of age and number of drugs intake per day (2.8 ± 1...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754027/yia-03-03-effect-of-gabapentin-ligand-of-alpha-2-delta-subunit-of-voltage-dependent-calcium-channels-on-blood-pressure-and-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-the-influence-of-guanethidine-induced-sympathectomy
#10
Michal Behuliak, Michal Bencze, Anna Vavrinova, Ivana Vaneckova, Josef Zicha
OBJECTIVE: Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) play an important role in two major abnormalities observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) - hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enhanced Ca influx to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). α2δ subunit of VDCC, which promotes surface trafficking and modulates the biophysical properties of VDCC, was identified as a critical component of increased L-type VDCC calcium currents in arterial myocytes of SHR. On the other hand, N-type VDCCs control a neurotransmitter release in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system and play an important role in sympathetic hyperactivity in SHR...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754003/js-ish-isn-2-role-of-the-kidney-in-resistant-hypertension-why-so-resistant-to-bp-control-in-ckd-patients
#11
George Bakris
Resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg despite adherence to a combination of at least three optimally dosed antihypertensive medications, one of which is a diuretic. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the more common patient comorbidities associated with resistant hypertension. Recommended low-salt diet and triple antihypertensive drug regimens that include a diuretic, should be complemented by the sequential addition of other antihypertensive drugs. CKD is associated with premature vascular ageing, characterized by accelerated arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753885/ish-ada-06-intima-media-thickness-of-the-carotid-bulb-is-associated-with-worsening-of-orthostatic-hypotension-in-patients-with-metabolic-disorder
#12
Yusuke Kobayashi, Hideo Kobayashi, Hiroaki Ishiguro, Keisuke Yatsu, Tetsuya Fujikawa, Satoshi Umemura
OBJECTIVE: Though both carotid bulb and aortic arch are known to play important roles in regulation of blood pressure through modulation in baroreflex function, few studies have investigated the association of carotid bulb atherosclerosis and large arterial stiffness and orthostatic blood pressure change. DESIGN AND METHOD: Patients with metabolic disorder such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus underwent measurement of segment-specific carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (as an index of atherosclerosis of carotid bulb), cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) (as an index for large arterial stiffness), heart rate variability (HRV) (as an index of baroreflex function) and sit-to-stand orthostatic blood pressure change (as a simple method for detecting orthostatic hypotension)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753836/sy-05-2-progression-of-hypertensive-heart-disease-new-therapeutic-approach
#13
Masatsugu Horiuchi
Hypertensive patients have greater chances of such cardiovascular events as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart or renal failure, peripheral artery disease, and dementia. It is also well recognized that diabetes increases the cardiovascular risks in concert with hypertension. Therefore, main goals for an innovation of anti-hypertensive therapy would be to achieve further risk reduction by targeting the functional, metabolic, and structural alterations associated with hypertension. Professors Dzau and Braunwald et al proposed the concept of "the cardiovascular disease continuum" in 1991, and that hypertension may trigger the chain of events, leading to end-stage heart disease; however, this concept was quite new at that time, and there was some discussion whether "the cardiovascular disease continuum" is true or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746741/simultaneous-characterization-of-sympathetic-and-cardiac-arms-of-the-baroreflex-through-sequence-techniques-during-incremental-head-up-tilt
#14
Andrea Marchi, Vlasta Bari, Beatrice De Maria, Murray Esler, Elisabeth Lambert, Mathias Baumert, Alberto Porta
We propose a sympathetic baroreflex (sBR) sequence method for characterizing sBR from spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP). The method exploits a previously defined MSNA variability quantifying the fluctuations of MSNA burst rate. The method is based on the detection of MSNA and DAP sequences characterized by the contemporaneous DAP increase and MSNA decrease or vice versa. The percentage of sBR sequences (SEQ%sBR) was taken as an indication of the degree of sBR solicitation and the average slope of the regression lines in the (DAP, MSNA) plane was taken as sBR sensitivity (sBRSSEQ) and expressed in bursts(...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660603/magnitude-of-morning-surge-in-blood-pressure-is-associated-with-sympathetic-but-not-cardiac-baroreflex-sensitivity
#15
Aaron W Johnson, Sarah L Hissen, Vaughan G Macefield, Rachael Brown, Chloe E Taylor
The ability of the arterial baroreflex to regulate blood pressure may influence the magnitude of the morning surge in blood pressure (MSBP). The aim was to investigate the relationships between sympathetic and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and the morning surge. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure was recorded in 14 young individuals. The morning surge was defined via the pre-awakening method, which is calculated as the difference between mean blood pressure values 2 h before and 2 h after rising from sleep...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649235/relationship-between-vitamin-d-status-and-autonomic-nervous-system-activity
#16
Morton G Burt, Brenda L Mangelsdorf, Stephen N Stranks, Arduino A Mangoni
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m², 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L) underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D...
2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646556/ventrolateral-periaqueductal-grey-matter-neurotransmission-modulates-cardiac-baroreflex-activity
#17
Davi C Lagatta, Nilson C Ferreira-Junior, Milena Deolindo, Fernando M A Corrêa, Leonardo B M Resstel
Baroreflex activity is a neural mechanism responsible for short-term adjustments in blood pressure (BP). Several supramedullary areas, which send projections to the medulla, are able to control this reflex. In this context, the ventrolateral part of the periaqueductal grey matter (vlPAG), which is a mesencephalic structure, has been suggested to regulate the cardiovascular system. However, its involvement in baroreflex control has never been addressed. Therefore, our hypothesis is that the vlPAG neurotransmission is involved in baroreflex cardiac activity...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643208/ish-ada-06-intima-media-thickness-of-the-carotid-bulb-is-associated-with-worsening-of-orthostatic-hypotension-in-patients-with-metabolic-disorder
#18
Yusuke Kobayashi, Hideo Kobayashi, Hiroaki Ishiguro, Keisuke Yatsu, Tetsuya Fujikawa, Satoshi Umemura
OBJECTIVE: Though both carotid bulb and aortic arch are known to play important roles in regulation of blood pressure through modulation in baroreflex function, few studies have investigated the association of carotid bulb atherosclerosis and large arterial stiffness and orthostatic blood pressure change. DESIGN AND METHOD: Patients with metabolic disorder such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus underwent measurement of segment-specific carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (as an index of atherosclerosis of carotid bulb), cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) (as an index for large arterial stiffness), heart rate variability (HRV) (as an index of baroreflex function) and sit-to-stand orthostatic blood pressure change (as a simple method for detecting orthostatic hypotension)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643080/os-29-02-circadian-blood-pressure-profile-abnormalities-and-autonomic-dysfunction
#19
Oleg Mamontov, Mikhail Bogachev, Andrey Kozlenoc
OBJECTIVE: To assess the autonomic regulation in patients with various circadian blood pressure profile (CBPP) anomalies that persisted despite of combined antihypertensive therapy. DESIGN AND METHOD: We studied 114 hypertensives aged 56,8 ± 17,9 years receiving combined antihypertensive therapy divided into two groups, with adequate (n = 61) and inadequate (n = 53) CBPP. Groups were comparable in terms of age and number of drugs intake per day (2.8 ± 1...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642945/yia-03-03-effect-of-gabapentin-ligand-of-alpha-2-delta-subunit-of-voltage-dependent-calcium-channels-on-blood-pressure-and-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-the-influence-of-guanethidine-induced-sympathectomy
#20
Michal Behuliak, Michal Bencze, Anna Vavrinova, Ivana Vaneckova, Josef Zicha
OBJECTIVE: Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) play an important role in two major abnormalities observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) - hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enhanced Ca influx to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). α2δ subunit of VDCC, which promotes surface trafficking and modulates the biophysical properties of VDCC, was identified as a critical component of increased L-type VDCC calcium currents in arterial myocytes of SHR. On the other hand, N-type VDCCs control a neurotransmitter release in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system and play an important role in sympathetic hyperactivity in SHR...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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