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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214067/malignant-central-airway-obstruction
#1
REVIEW
Lakshmi Mudambi, Russell Miller, George A Eapen
This review comprehensively describes recent advances in the management of malignant central airway obstruction (CAO). Malignant CAO can be a dramatic and devastating manifestation of primary lung cancer or metastatic disease. A variety of diagnostic modalities are available to provide valuable information to plan a therapeutic intervention. Clinical heterogeneity in the presentation of malignant CAO provides opportunities to adapt and utilize endoscopic technology and tools in many ways. Mechanical debulking, thermal tools, cryotherapy and airway stents are methods and instruments used to rapidly restore airway patency...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187726/expression-of-interleukin-27-il-27-in-the-lower-airways-diseases-increased-levels-of-il-27-in-early-clinical-stages-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-patients
#2
Piotr Kopiński, Tomasz Wandtke, Andrzej Dyczek, Ewelina Wędrowska, Adriana Roży, Tomasz Senderek, Grzegorz Przybylski, Joanna Chorostowska-Wynimko
INTRODUCTION    Interleukin-27, is a cytokine secreted mostly by antigen presenting cells, key for the Th1 cells immune polarization. Its role in interstitial lung diseases (ILD) as well as in lung cancer has been investigated.  OBJECTIVES    Assessment of IL-27 expression in the lower airways of patients with selected ILD and early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).  PATIENTS AND METHODS    IL-27 concentration was examined by ELISA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) supernatants collected from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and I-IIa NSCLC with peripheral localization, as well as in control subjects (n = 14, 30, 12, 14, 16 and 14, respectively)...
November 29, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039225/toxicological-impact-of-waterpipe-smoking-and-flavorings-in-the-oral-cavity-and-respiratory-system
#3
Fawad Javed, Shatha Subhi ALHarthi, Munerah Saleh BinShabaib, Sangeeta Gajendra, Georgios E Romanos, Irfan Rahman
Waterpipe smoking (WS), an emerging trend has major health concerns. It is prevalent worldwide as a recreational activity both indoors and outdoors. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of waterpipe smoke on the oral and respiratory system (oral cavity and pulmonary tissues). A number of studies have shown that periodontal health status is compromised in waterpipe smokers when compared with nonsmokers. Some studies have associated WS with oral premalignant and malignant lesions; however, due to the poor quality of these studies, the presented outcomes should be interpreted with caution...
August 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031119/index-analysis-and-human-health-risk-model-application-for-evaluating-ambient-air-heavy-metal-contamination-in-chemical-valley-sarnia
#4
Richard Olawoyin, Linda Schweitzer, Kuangyuan Zhang, Oladapo Okareh, Kevin Slates
The impacts of air emissions as a consequence of industrial activities around communities of human habitation have been extensively reported. This study is the first to assess potential adverse human health effects in the Chemical Valley Sarnia (CVS) area, around the St. Clair River, using health risk models, ecological and pollution indices. Large quantities of particulate matters (PM) are generated from anthropogenic activities, which contain several heavy metals in trace quantities with potentially adverse effects to humans and environmental health...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981500/optical-coherence-tomography-for-identification-and-quantification-of-human-airway-wall-layers
#5
Julia N S d'Hooghe, Annika W M Goorsenberg, Daniel M de Bruin, Joris J T H Roelofs, Jouke T Annema, Peter I Bonta
BACKGROUND: High-resolution computed tomography has limitations in the assessment of airway wall layers and related remodeling in obstructive lung diseases. Near infrared-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique that combined with bronchoscopy generates highly detailed images of the airway wall. The aim of this study is to identify and quantify human airway wall layers both ex-vivo and in-vivo by OCT and correlate these to histology. METHODS: Patients with lung cancer, prior to lobectomy, underwent bronchoscopy including in-vivo OCT imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940774/functional-airway-obstruction-observed-with-hyperpolarized-129-xenon-mri
#6
Erin J Song, Chris R Kelsey, Bastiaan Driehuys, Leith Rankine
Hyperpolarized (129) Xenon-MRI (HP (129) Xe MRI) is an emerging imaging modality that allows assessment of both ventilation and gas transfer. Most research to date has focused on non-malignant pulmonary diseases. However, the capability of evaluating the two primary physiological processes of the lung (ventilation and gas transfer) makes HP (129) Xe MRI a promising imaging modality in the management of patients with lung cancer.
September 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900521/effectiveness-of-ultrasonography-and-computed-tomography-in-assessing-thyroid-cartilage-invasion-in-laryngeal-and-hypopharyngeal-cancers
#7
Nilu Malpani Dhoot, B Choudhury, A C Kataki, L Kakoti, S Ahmed, J Sharma
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adequacy of ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of thyroid cartilage invasion in patients with airway cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two consecutive patients referred to our institute underwent US and CT to stage laryngeal (n = 27) or hypopharyngeal (n = 35) cancer in this prospective study. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the patients' clinical histories and histopathology, evaluated thyroid cartilage invasion on US and CT separately and independently...
September 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890556/ethnicity-and-upper-airway-measurements-a-study-in-south-indian-population
#8
Kalpana P Balakrishnan, Punitha A Chockalingam
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most studies on upper airway are conducted based on airway measurements in the western population. We set out to find the normal values of upper airway measurements in South Indian population. The aim of this study was to perform various upper airway examinations and to set standards for normal measurements in the South Indian population as well as to analyse the data for predictors of difficult intubation. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary cancer hospital in Southern India...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843492/effects-of-gasoline-and-ethanol-gasoline-exhaust-exposure-on-human-bronchial-epithelial-and-natural-killer-cells-in-vitro
#9
Michèle Roth, Jakob Usemann, Christoph Bisig, Pierre Comte, Jan Czerwinski, Andreas C R Mayer, Konstantin Beier, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Philipp Latzin, Loretta Müller
Air pollution exposure, including passenger car emissions, may cause substantial respiratory health effects and cancer death. In western countries, the majority of passenger cars are driven by gasoline fuel. Recently, new motor technologies and ethanol fuels have been introduced to the market, but potential health effects have not been thoroughly investigated. We developed and verified a coculture model composed of bronchial epithelial cells (ECs) and natural killer cells (NKs) mimicking the human airways to compare toxic effects between pure gasoline (E0) and ethanol-gasoline-blend (E85, 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) exhaust emitted from a flexfuel gasoline car...
December 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684234/roflumilast-treatment-inhibits-lung-carcinogenesis-in-benzo-a-pyrene-induced-murine-lung-cancer-model
#10
Chang Dong Yeo, Young Ae Kim, Hwa Young Lee, Jin Woo Kim, Seung Joon Kim, Sang Haak Lee, Young Kyoon Kim
Roflumilast, a potent and selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), has been used in treatment of COPD. PDE4 inhibitor is associated with inhibition of chronic airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and mesenchymal markers in B(a)P-induced lung tumors. The aim of this study was to assess whether roflumilast alone or added to inhaled budesonide might have dose-dependent inhibition on lung carcinogenesis induced by carcinogen B(a)P in mice. Female A/J mice were given a single dose of benzo(a)pyrene. Administration of roflumilast (1mg/kg or 5mg/kg) via oral gavage and aerosolized budesonide (2...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680776/a-review-on-the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-asthma
#11
REVIEW
Niloufer S Ali, Kashmira Nanji
Asthma, a major public health issue, is one of the most common diseases affecting millions of population globally. It is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by increased airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness. Vitamin D is of particular interest in asthma due to its immunomodulatory effects. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is found to be associated with a wide range of pulmonary diseases, including viral and bacterial respiratory infections, asthma, and cancer. Several researches have reported positive associations between vitamin D and asthma...
May 29, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679956/pioglitazone-mediated-reversal-of-elevated-glucose-metabolism-in-the-airway-epithelium-of-mouse-lung-adenocarcinomas
#12
Donghai Xiong, Jing Pan, Qi Zhang, Eva Szabo, Mark Steven Miller, Ronald A Lubet, Yian Wang, Ming You
Airway epithelial cells are prone to the damage caused by lung cancer risk factors, such as cigarette smoking. Little is known about surrogate biomarkers in the bronchial airway epithelium that can be used to assess the effect of potential chemoprevention drugs on lung adenocarcinoma formation/progression. Pioglitazone has been suggested as a chemoprevention drug for lung cancer. To study the mechanisms underlying the role of pioglitazone in lung cancer prevention, we performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) and found that Kras signaling was repressed by pioglitazone treatment in the airway epithelial cells of mice with lung adenocarcinoma (FDR q = 9...
July 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673655/peak-inspiratory-flow-as-predictor-for-tracheotomy
#13
M Lesnik, J J Sanchez-Guerrero, O De Crouy Chanel, C Hervé, J Guerlain, S Périé
OBJECTIVES: Quantitative evaluation of upper airway obstruction cannot be commonly performed under acute dyspnea, especially in head and neck cancer (HNC); the decision whether or not to perform airway control surgery may be difficult to reach. Peak inspiratory flow (PIF) has been previously demonstrated to be a useful tool to decide on decannulation after HNC surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of PIF as a standardized non-invasive tool in quantifying severe inspiratory dyspnea requiring emergency tracheostomy...
June 30, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606600/maximizing-functional-outcomes-in-head-and-neck-cancer-survivors-assessment-and-rehabilitation
#14
REVIEW
Nausheen Jamal, Barbara Ebersole, Andrew Erman, Dinesh Chhetri
With increases in survivorship for patients with head and neck cancer, attention is turning to quality-of-life issues for survivors. Care for these patients is multifaceted. Dysphagia and issues of voice/speech, airway obstruction, neck and shoulder dysfunction, lymphedema, and pain control are important to address. Rehabilitation interventions are patient-specific and aim to prevent, restore, compensate, and palliate symptoms and sequelae of treatment for optimal functioning. Central to providing comprehensive interdisciplinary care are the head and neck surgeon, laryngologist, and speech-language pathologist...
August 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572013/comparison-of-in-vitro-toxicological-effects-of-biomass-smoke-from-different-sources-of-animal-dung
#15
Claire E McCarthy, Parker F Duffney, Jeffrey D Wyatt, Thomas H Thatcher, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Worldwide, over 4 million premature deaths each year are attributed to the burning of biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Epidemiological studies associate household air pollution with lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infections. Animal dung, a biomass fuel used by economically vulnerable populations, generates more toxic compounds per mass burned than other biomass fuels. The type of animal dung used varies widely depending on local agro-geography...
September 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513319/effect-of-surface-functionalizations-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-on-neoplastic-transformation-potential-in-primary-human-lung-epithelial-cells
#16
Todd A Stueckle, Donna C Davidson, Ray Derk, Peng Wang, Sherri Friend, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Peng Zheng, Nianqiang Wu, Vince Castranova, Yon Rojanasakul, Liying Wang
Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (fMWCNT) development has been intensified to improve their surface activity for numerous applications, and potentially reduce toxic effects. Although MWCNT exposures are associated with lung tumorigenesis in vivo, adverse responses associated with exposure to different fMWCNTs in human lung epithelium are presently unknown. This study hypothesized that different plasma-coating functional groups determine MWCNT neoplastic transformation potential. Using our established model, human primary small airway epithelial cells (pSAECs) were continuously exposed for 8 and 12 weeks at 0...
June 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495686/incidence-of-non-pulmonary-cancer-and-lung-cancer-by-amount-of-emphysema-and-airway-wall-thickness-a-community-based-cohort
#17
Ane Aamli Gagnat, Miriam Gjerdevik, Frode Gallefoss, Harvey O Coxson, Amund Gulsvik, Per Bakke
There is limited knowledge about the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness in cancer.The aim of this study was to investigate if using CT to quantitatively assess the amount of emphysema and airway wall thickness independently predicts the subsequent incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer.In the GenKOLS study of 2003-2005, 947 ever-smokers performed spirometry and underwent CT examination. The main predictors were the amount of emphysema measured by the percentage of low attenuation areas (%LAA) on CT and standardised measures of airway wall thickness (AWT-PI10)...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468623/acute-cigarette-smoke-exposure-activates-apoptotic-and-inflammatory-programs-but-a-second-stimulus-is-required-to-induce-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-copd-epithelium
#18
Lynne A Murray, Rebecca Dunmore, Ana Camelo, Carla A Da Silva, Malin J Gustavsson, David M Habiel, Tillie L Hackett, Cory M Hogaboam, Matthew A Sleeman, Darryl A Knight
BACKGROUND: Smoking and aberrant epithelial responses are risk factors for lung cancer as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In these conditions, disease progression is associated with epithelial damage and fragility, airway remodelling and sub-epithelial fibrosis. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of cigarette smoke on epithelial cell phenotype and pro-fibrotic responses in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Apoptosis was significantly greater in unstimulated cells from COPD patients compared to control, but proliferation and CXCL8 release were not different...
May 3, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464879/%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-agonist-suppresses-eosinophil-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#19
Keigo Kainuma, Tetsu Kobayashi, Corina N D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Masaaki Toda, Taro Yasuma, Kota Nishihama, Hajime Fujimoto, Yu Kuwabara, Koa Hosoki, Mizuho Nagao, Takao Fujisawa, Esteban C Gabazza
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is currently recognized as an important mechanism for the increased number of myofibroblasts in cancer and fibrotic diseases. We have already reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition is involved in airway remodeling induced by eosinophils. Procaterol is a selective and full β2 adrenergic agonist that is used as a rescue of asthmatic attack inhaler form and orally as a controller. In this study, we evaluated whether procaterol can suppress epithelial-mesenchymal transition of airway epithelial cells induced by eosinophils...
May 2, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446970/the-role-of-endobronchial-ultrasound-versus-mediastinoscopy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Katarzyna Czarnecka-Kujawa, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
This review provides an update on the current role of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and mediastinoscopy (Med) in assessment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Invasive mediastinal lymph node (LN) staging is the major application for both of these techniques. Up until recently, Med was the gold standard for invasive mediastinal LN staging in NSCLC. However, EBUS-TBNA has shown to be equivalent, and in some studies better than Med for invasive staging of lung cancer...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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