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Airway assessment cancer

Xu Naizhen, R Ilona Linnoila, Shioko Kimura
Achaete-scute homologue-1 or ASCL1 (MASH1, hASH1) plays roles in neural development and pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation, and it is expressed in certain lung cancers. This study was aimed to assess whether and/or how ASCL1 plays a role in 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced pulmonary NE hyperplasia and carcinogenesis in hamsters. Hamsters were injected 3 times weekly with either NNK or solvent alone (control) for treatment periods of 6 and 24 weeks, both without and with 6-week recovery...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Laia Fernández-Barat, Miquel Ferrer, Francesca De Rosa, Albert Gabarrús, Mariano Esperatti, Silvia Terraneo, Mariano Rinaudo, Gianluigi Li Bassi, Antoni Torres
OBJECTIVE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa often presents multi-drug resistance (MDR) in intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP), possibly resulting in inappropriate empiric treatment and worse outcomes. We aimed to identify patients with ICUAP at risk for these pathogens in order to improve treatment selection and outcomes. METHODS: We prospectively assessed 222 consecutive immunocompetent ICUAP patients confirmed microbiologically. We determined the characteristics, risk factors, systemic inflammatory response and outcomes of P...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Infection
E M Guinan, J Dowds, C Donohoe, J V Reynolds, J Hussey
Esophageal cancer is a serious malignancy often treated with multimodal interventions and complex surgical resection. As treatment moves to centers of excellence with emphasis on enhanced recovery approaches, the role of the physiotherapist has expanded. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale behind both the evolving prehabilitative role of the physiotherapist and more established postoperative interventions for patients with esophageal cancer. While a weak association between preoperative cardiopulmonary fitness and post-esophagectomy outcome is reported, cardiotoxicity during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy may heighten postoperative risk...
November 9, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Masayuki Tomifuji, Koji Araki, Taku Yamashita, Akihiro Shiotani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of Transoral Videolaryngoscopic Surgery (TOVS) for radiorecurrent supraglottic and hypopharyngeal cancer, and to compare survival and complications between primary and radiorecurrent cases. METHODS: Twelve cases of salvage TOVS for radiorecurrent cancer and 53 cases of TOVS as an initial treatment (primary cases) were evaluated. Days to resume soft diet, Functional Outcomes of Swallowing Scale (FOSS), postoperative complications, epithelization days and survival outcomes were assessed by retrospective chart review...
November 14, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Arun V Kolanjiyil, Clement Kleinstreuer, Ruxana T Sadikot
Pulmonary drug delivery is becoming a favored route for administering drugs to treat both lung and systemic diseases. Examples of lung diseases include asthma, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis. Special respiratory drugs are administered to the lungs, using an appropriate inhaler device. Next to the pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI), the dry powder inhaler (DPI) is a frequently used device because of the good drug stability and a minimal need for patient coordination...
November 3, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Christophe Mas, Bernadett Boda, Mireille Caul Futy, Song Huang, Ludovic Wisniewski, Samuel Constant
This paper highlights the work for which OncoTheis, a Swiss biotechnology company, engaged in the development of innovative bioengineered tissues and organoids for cancer research, was co-awarded the 2015 Lush Science Prize. Noting that the use of animal models failed to lead to the design of effective treatments for cancer, OncoTheis has opted to develop in vitro models based exclusively on human cells. The company currently focuses on lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with more than one million deaths per year...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Josef Yayan, Kurt Rasche
Cannabis is the most widely smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in its plant form, marijuana, but it can also be mixed with tobacco. The specific effects of smoking cannabis are difficult to assess accurately and to distinguish from the effects of tobacco; however its use may produce severe consequences. Cannabis smoke affects the lungs similarly to tobacco smoke, causing symptoms such as increased cough, sputum, and hyperinflation. It can also cause serious lung diseases with increasing years of use...
August 30, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Loni C Arrese, Ricardo Carrau, Emily K Plowman
The Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT-10) represents a validated, easy to administer patient report dysphagia severity scale. Although its ability to detect swallowing impairment has been investigated in other patient populations, the utility of this instrument in individuals with head and neck cancer (HNC) has not been studied. The aim of the current investigation was to determine the relationship between patient ratings of swallowing impairment (EAT-10) and objective clinical ratings of swallow physiology in individuals with HNC...
August 18, 2016: Dysphagia
Karan Gupta, Dushyant Mandlik, Daxesh Patel, Purvi Patel, Bankim Shah, Devanhalli G Vijay, Jagdish M Kothari, Rajendra B Toprani, Kaustubh D Patel
BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is a mainstay modality for airway management for patients with head-neck cancer undergoing surgery. This study aims to define factors predicting need of tracheostomy and define an effective objective criterion to predict tracheostomy need. METHODS: 486 patients undergoing composite resections were studied. Factors analyzed were age, previous surgery, extent of surgery, trismus, extent of mandibular resection and reconstruction etc. Factors were divided into major and minor, using the clinical assessment scoring system for tracheostomy (CASST) criterion...
September 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Stefan P Wesolowski, Piotr W Boros, Tadeusz M Orłowski, Philip H Quanjer
BACKGROUND: Impaired lung function (LF) is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications in patients qualified for lung resection surgery. The recent European guidelines recommend using values below 80% predicted as indicating abnormal LF rather than the lower limit of normal (LLN). OBJECTIVES: To assess how the choice of a cut-off point (80% predicted vs. LLN at -1.645 SD) affects the incidence of functional disorders and postoperative complications in lung cancer patients referred for lung resection...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Takahiro Nakajima, Kazuhiro Yasufuku, Taiki Fujiwara, Ichiro Yoshino
Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive modality for sampling of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes as well as pulmonary lesions adjacent to the airway. Guidelines for staging of lung cancer suggest that EBUS-TBNA should be considered the best first test of nodal staging for radiologically abnormal lymph nodes that are accessible by this approach. The application of EBUS-TBNA in pulmonary medicine and thoracic oncology is expanding with its role in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis, lymphoma, and tuberculosis...
July 2016: Respiratory Investigation
Pei-Ming Huang, Jang-Ming Lee
BACKGROUND: To analyze the outcomes of single or dual luminal self-expandable covered metallic stents (SECMS) for palliative treatment for esophageal cancer with esophago-airway fistula (EAF). METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 50 patients who underwent SECMS placement for malignant EAF at our institution between June 2005 and December 2014 to define clinical results of stenting. Treatment provided was classified into initial single airway, single esophageal, or double stent placement...
July 13, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Esther Pompe, Pim A de Jong, Eva M van Rikxoort, Leticia Gallardo Estrella, Werner U de Jong, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Matthijs Oudkerk, Carlijn M van der Aalst, Bram van Ginneken, Jan-Willem J Lammers, Firdaus Aa Mohamed Hoesein
Osteoporosis is more common in patients with COPD and in smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether measures of emphysema and airway disease on computed tomography (CT) were associated with lower bone density or vertebral fractures in smokers with and without COPD. For this purpose, we included participants from the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. Bone density was measured as Hounsfield Units in the first lumbar vertebra, and vertebral fractures were assessed semiquantitatively. The 15th percentile method (Perc15) was used to assess emphysema, and the airway lumen perimeter (Pi10) was used for airway wall thickness...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asude Ayhan, Serife Kaplan, Zeynep Kayhan, Gulnaz Arslan
The primary aim of this single center retrospective study was to evaluate difficult mask ventilation (DMV) and difficult laryngoscopy (DL) in a unique group of obese patients. A total of 427 adult patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 and surgically treated for endometrial cancer from 2011 to 2014 were assessed. Additional increase in BMI, comorbidities, bedside screening tests for risk factors, and the tools used to manage the patients were noted and their effects on DMV and/or DL investigated. Every escalation in the number of risk factors increased the probability of DMV 2...
March 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
Gunnar Damgård Nielsen, Søren Thor Larsen, Peder Wolkoff
In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) established an indoor air quality guideline for short- and long-term exposures to formaldehyde (FA) of 0.1 mg/m(3) (0.08 ppm) for all 30-min periods at lifelong exposure. This guideline was supported by studies from 2010 to 2013. Since 2013, new key studies have been published and key cancer cohorts have been updated, which we have evaluated and compared with the WHO guideline. FA is genotoxic, causing DNA adduct formation, and has a clastogenic effect; exposure-response relationships were nonlinear...
May 21, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Asuka Matsuzaki, Naozumi Hashimoto, Shotaro Okachi, Tetsuo Taniguchi, Koji Kawaguchi, Takayuki Fukui, Kenji Wakai, Kohei Yokoi, Yoshinori Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Previously, it has been shown that using a fixed ratio of FEV1/FVC of 0.7 to classify airway obstruction could not predict survival outcomes in lung cancer patients undergoing thoracic surgery. We demonstrated that use of the lower limit of normal (LLN) of FEV1/FVC may allow better risk stratification for postoperative outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Nevertheless, it remained unclear whether survival outcomes in this population could be predicted by LLN-defined airway obstruction...
May 2016: Respiratory Investigation
Masumi Suzui, Mitsuru Futakuchi, Katsumi Fukamachi, Takamasa Numano, Mohamed Abdelgied, Satoru Takahashi, Makoto Ohnishi, Toyonori Omori, Shuji Tsuruoka, Akihiko Hirose, Jun Kanno, Yoshimitsu Sakamoto, David B Alexander, William T Alexander, Xu Jiegou, Hiroyuki Tsuda
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have a fibrous structure and physical properties similar to asbestos and have been shown to induce malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum after injection into the scrotum or peritoneal cavity in rats and mice. For human cancer risk assessment, however, data after administration of MWCNT via the airway, the exposure route that is most relevant to humans, is required. The present study was undertaken to investigate the carcinogenicity of MWCNT-N (NIKKISO) after administration to the rat lung...
July 2016: Cancer Science
Fahrettin Talay, Mehmet Tosun, Zehra Asuk Yaşar, Özlem Kar Kurt, Aysel Karği, Serkan Öztürk, Mehmet Fatih Özlü, Aytekin Alçelik
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a systemic disorder characterized by chronic airflow limitation and an increased inflammatory response of the airways. Comorbidities are frequent in COPD and it is crucial to predict these in early stage for adequate management of COPD. Recent studies have reported that elevated levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), a zinc-binding metalloproteinase, detected in patients with asthma, lung cancer, and pulmonary embolism and independently associated with cardiovascular events...
June 2016: Inflammation
Livia Lamartina, S Ippolito, M Danis, F Bidault, I Borget, A Berdelou, A Al Ghuzlan, D Hartl, P Blanchard, M Terroir, D Deandreis, M Schlumberger, E Baudin, S Leboulleux
BACKGROUND: Antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the mainstay of advanced thyroid cancer (TC) treatment. Concern is rising about TKI-related toxicity. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and to investigate the risk factors of hemoptysis in TC patients during TKI treatment. METHODS: We analyzed consecutive TC patients treated with TKI in our center between 2005 and 2013 and performed an independent review of computed tomography scan images for airway invasion assessment...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kirsten Lindner, Linda Lübbe, Ann-Kathrin Müller, Daniel Palmes, Norbert Senninger, Richard Hummel
Fistulas between the upper intestinal tract and the airway following esophagectomy are a rare and severe complication with significant mortality. Treatment and therapy are difficult and require a multidisciplinary approach. The objective of this retrospective study was to identify risk factors for these fistulas following esophagetcomy, and to assess their impact on the further clinical course and outcome. 211 patients undergoing Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy for esophageal cancer between 2005 and 2012 were included...
April 7, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
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