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Pulkit Khatri, Jun Shao
Many of the lipids and surfactants used to prepare the self-emulsified nanoemulsion (SEN) are subjected to the gastro-intestinal enzymatic digestion, which may affect the absorption of the loaded drug. The present study was to investigate the impact of such digestion on the transport of hydrophilic macromolecules (10-kDa dextran as the model compound) loaded in SEN through the MDCK cell monolayer and ex-vivo rat intestines. FITC-labeled dextran (FD) was loaded inside the inner oil phase of SEN by the formation of FD-phospholipid solid dispersion (FDPS)...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Lei Zhou, Zeyong Yang, Xianfu Lu, Xingxing Li, Xiaohu An, Jing Chai, Qiling Yang, Shikai Yan, Yuanhai Li
Isoflurane can provide both neuroprotection and neurotoxicity in various culture models and in rodent developing brains. Emulsified Isoflurane (EI) is an emulsion formulation of isoflurane, while its underlying molecular mechanism of developemental nerve toxicity largely remains unclear. We hypothesized that EI induced fetal neural stem cells (FNSCs) apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. FNSCs were isolated from the cortex of SD rats during 14 days of gestation...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
Alberto Elmi, Domenico Ventrella, Francesca Barone, Gianfranco Filippini, Stefania Benvenuti, Annamaria Pisi, Maurizio Scozzoli, Maria L Bacci
Essential oils possess a variety of biological properties (i.e., antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic) that could possibly be applied in reproductive medicine, but their effects on spermatozoa are still partially unknown. The aim of the study was to describe the effects of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. and Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) essential oils on the main morpho-functional parameters of swine spermatozoa. Essential oils were preliminary characterized by gas chromatography and added with emulsifiers to facilitate diffusion...
December 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
RamyaDevi K C, Lakshmi Sundaram R, Asha D, Sivamurugan V, Vidya Vasudevan, Mary Elizabeth Gnanambal Krishnan
We identified that Pseudomonas guguanensis produced macromolecular mono-rhamnolipid (Mol. Wt 1264.52Da) upon sensing n-hexadecane/diesel/kerosene from its surroundings. Permutation experiments were done to improve the laboratory-scale mono-rhamnolipid production (ie, a three-fold increase) using RSM validation. Consequently, maximal mono-rhamnolipids production [40-50mg/L] and emulsification abilities [65-70%] were encountered on day 8 using vegetable oil, peptone+yeast extract. EI24 values of the rhamnolipids were found to be 78±1...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chen Ye, Hong Chi
Many drugs and proteins formulated for treatment of various diseases are not fully utilised due to environmentally problems such as degradation by enzymes or it being hydrophobic. To counter this problem, the drug and protein of interest are encapsulated by synthetic polymers where they are protected from the environment. This allows the molecule to reach its target safely and maximise its function. In this paper, we will discuss about the different techniques of encapsulation that includes emulsion evaporation, self-emulsifying drug delivery system and supercritical fluid...
February 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Bo Pang, Huan Liu, Peiwen Liu, Xinwen Peng, Kai Zhang
HYPOTHESIS: Hydrophobic particles with static water contact angles larger than 90° are more like to stabilize W/O Pickering emulsions. In particular, high internal phase Pickering emulsions (HIPEs) are of great interest for diverse applications. However, W/O HIPEs have rarely been realized using sustainable biopolymers. Herein, we used stearoylated microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) to stabilize W/O Pickering emulsions and especially, W/O HIPEs. Moreover, these W/O HIPEs can be further used as platforms for the preparation of porous materials, such as porous foams...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Song Wang, Jiaxu Li, Mengfei Qi, Xiang Gao, Wen-Jun Wang
Macroporous materials polymerized from high internal phase emulsions (PolyHIPEs) possess well-defined interconnected porous structures and tunable device shapes. This provides interesting property characteristics well-suited for a variety of applications. However, such materials also demonstrate poor mechanical performances, which limit their potential use. As will be demonstrated, this results from the high surfactant content required by PolyHIPEs. Herein, a new approach is introduced for designing a highly efficient polymeric surfactant, which generates interconnected pores in PolyHIPEs through designing an incompatible surfactant and skeleton material...
December 5, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Stefani Cortés-Camargo, Raquel Gallardo-Rivera, Blanca E Barragán-Huerta, Octavio Dublán-García, Angélica Román-Guerrero, César Pérez-Alonso
In this work the physicochemical and functional properties of mesquite gum (MG) and nopal mucilage (NM) mixtures (75-25, 50-50, 25-75) were evaluated and compared with those of the individual biopolymers. MG-NM mixtures exhibited more negative zeta potential (ZP) values than those displayed by MG and NM, with 75-25 MG-NM showing the most negative value (-14.92 mV at pH = 7.0), indicative that this biopolymer mixture had the highest electrostatic stability in aqueous dispersions. Viscosity curves and strain amplitude sweep of aqueous dispersions (30% w/w) of the individual gums and their mixtures revealed that all exhibited shear thinning behavior, with NM having higher viscosity than MG, and all displaying fluid-like viscoelastic behavior where the loss modulus predominated over the storage modulus (G″>G')...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Guizhi Zhu, Geoffrey M Lynn, Orit Jacobson, Kai Chen, Yi Liu, Huimin Zhang, Ying Ma, Fuwu Zhang, Rui Tian, Qianqian Ni, Siyuan Cheng, Zhantong Wang, Nan Lu, Bryant C Yung, Zhe Wang, Lixin Lang, Xiao Fu, Albert Jin, Ido D Weiss, Harshad Vishwasrao, Gang Niu, Hari Shroff, Dennis M Klinman, Robert A Seder, Xiaoyuan Chen
Subunit vaccines have been investigated in over 1000 clinical trials of cancer immunotherapy, but have shown limited efficacy. Nanovaccines may improve efficacy but have rarely been clinically translated. By conjugating molecular vaccines with Evans blue (EB) into albumin-binding vaccines (AlbiVax), here we develop clinically promising albumin/AlbiVax nanocomplexes that self-assemble in vivo from AlbiVax and endogenous albumin for efficient vaccine delivery and potent cancer immunotherapy. PET pharmacoimaging, super-resolution microscopies, and flow cytometry reveal almost 100-fold more efficient co-delivery of CpG and antigens (Ags) to lymph nodes (LNs) by albumin/AlbiVax than benchmark incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA)...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
Janusz Nowicki, Julia Woch, Małgorzata Mościpan, Andrzej Robaszkiewicz, Rafał Grabowski, Izabela Semeniuk, Karol Erfurt
The synthesis of selected polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymer (poloxamer) fatty acid monoesters is presented. Organotin homogeneous catalyst Sn bis(2-ethylhexanoate) effectively catalyzed the esterification reaction of (EO)-(PO)-(EO) block copolymer (poloxamer) with fatty acids. The reaction proceeded in high yield and high selectivity to monoesters. Content of diesters in final products was below 1 wt%. The new protocol opened up a high yield and high selective method for the synthesis of poloxamer fatty acid monoesters...
2017: Journal of Surfactants and Detergents
Justine Ramseyer, Barbara Thuerig, Maria De Mieri, Hans-Jakob Schärer, Thomas Oberhänsli, Mahabir P Gupta, Lucius Tamm, Matthias Hamburger, Olivier Potterat
An in-house library of more than 3000 extracts of plant and fungal origin was screened against some major plant pathogens. As one of the hits, an ethyl acetate extract from inflorescences of Verbesina lanata showed significant inhibitory activity in vitro against grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), with a MIC100 value of 35 μg/mL. An emulsifiable concentrate formulation with 50 mg/g of the extract was developed for in vivo evaluation. A suspension of the formulation containing 1 mg/mL of extract lowered leaf surface infection of grapevine seedling by 82% compared to the nontreated control...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
San Huang, Yuling Liu, Weihan Zhang, Kylie J Dale, Silu Liu, Jingnan Zhu, Luca Serventi
Soaking of legumes results in the loss of macronutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals. Fibre, protein and phytochemicals found in legumes exert emulsifying activity that may improve the structure and texture of gluten-free bread. The legume soaking water of haricot beans, garbanzo chickpeas, whole green lentils, split yellow peas and yellow soybeans were tested in this study for functional properties and use as food ingredients. Composition, physicochemical properties and effect on the quality of gluten-free bread were determined for each legume soaking water...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Vineet Kumar Rai, Nidhi Mishra, Kuldeep Singh Yadav, Narayan Prasad Yadav
The use of nanoemulsion in augmenting dermal and transdermal effectiveness of drugs has now well established. The development of nanoemulsion based semisolid dosage forms is an active area of present research. However, thickening or liquid-to-semisolid conversion of the nanoemulsions provides opportunities to the formulation scientist to explore novel means of solving instability issues during transformation. Extending knowledge about the explicit role of nature/magnitude of zeta potential, types of emulsifiers and selection of appropriate semisolid bases could place these versatile carriers from laboratory to industrial scale...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Tina Kauss, Alexandra Gaubert, Luc Tabaran, Giovanni Tonelli, Thida Phoeung, Marie-Hélène Langlois, Nick White, Anthony Cartwright, Melba Gomes, Karen Gaudin
Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, commonly used for oral delivery of poorly soluble compounds, were used to formulate water soluble but moisture labile compounds for rectal application. The objective was to use the oily phase of the system to formulate a liquid, non-aqueous product while obtaining the advantages of self-emulsification, rapid contact with the rectal mucosa and rapid absorption post-administration. Ceftriaxone was used as a model drug and the human bile salt sodium chenodeoxycholate was used as an absorption enhancer...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Qiang Liu, Haining Li, Juan Yang, Xiaoyan Niu, Chunmei Zhao, Li Zhao, Zhenhai Wang
AIMS: Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory disease of the optic nerve, which often occurs in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and leads to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and even severe visual loss. Valproic acid (VPA) is a short-chain branched fatty acid with anti-epileptic, neuro-protective and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we examined the effects of VPA in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: EAE was induced by subcutaneous injection with myelin basic protein, emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra into the Lewis rats...
November 30, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Huanle Chen, David Julian McClements, Enmin Chen, Shilin Liu, Bin Li, Yan Li
The emulsifying properties of a natural cationic polysaccharide (chitosan) were improved by in situ conjugation with a natural essential oil (cinnamaldehyde, CA) during homogenization. In the absence of CA, chitosan-coated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) droplets were highly susceptible to creaming and coalescence at pH values ranging from 1 to 6.5. However, incorporation of relatively low levels of CA in the oil phase greatly improved the formation and stability of the oil-in-water emulsions. These effects were attributed to two main factors: (i) covalent binding of lipophilic CA moieties to hydrophilic chitosan chains leading to conjugates with good surface-activity; (ii) interfacial cross-linking of adsorbed chitosan layers by CA leading to the formation of a rigid polymeric coating around the lipid droplets that improved their stability against coalescence...
December 4, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Nauman Khalid, Gaofeng Shu, Brenden J Holland, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima, Colin J Barrow
This study evaluates the effect of modified lecithin (ML) and sodium caseinate (SC) on the formulation, stability and bioaccessibility of astaxanthin (AXT) loaded oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions. These nanoemulsions were formulated using high-pressure homogenization in four passes at 100MPa. The volume mean diameter (d4,3) of nanoemulsions produced by ML and SC were 163±5 and 144±12 nm, respectively. The physiochemical stability of nanoemulsions was recorded at 25°C. The nanoemulsions prepared by ML were stable for 30 minutes against a wide range of pH and heating temperatures (60-120 °C)...
December 2017: Food Research International
Mohammad Anvari, Helen S Joyner Melito
Concentrated emulsions containing both proteins and polysaccharides are the basis for many commercial products; however, the effects of protein-polysaccharide interactions on the functional properties of these complex systems are often poorly understood from a fundamental standpoint. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of fish gelatin (FG)-gum arabic (GA) complexation at different aqueous phase pH (3.6, 5.0, and 9.0) on concentrated emulsion structure-function relationships. Concentrated emulsions were prepared using FG-GA mixtures and characterized by rheometry and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM)...
December 2017: Food Research International
Olumide S Fawale, Saka O Gbadamosi, Meshach M Ige, Oseni Kadiri
The effects of natural fermentation and cooking on kariya seeds functional properties, chemical composition, and antinutritional properties were evaluated. Result showed a reduction in antinutritional properties and improvement in protein content which were observed to increase with cooking (at 100°C) and fermentation period (24-96 hr). Functional analyses showed an increase in foaming and emulsion properties, while water absorption capacity and swelling power were observed to likewise increase with an increasing temperature between 60°C and 90°C...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Xiaoyan Wu, Lin Wang, Yining Qiu, Bingyu Zhang, Zhenhua Hu, Runming Jin
T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is caused by clonal expansion of variant T cell progenitors and is considered as a high risk leukemia. Contemporary single chemotherapy has a limited effect due to dynamic and versatile properties of T-ALL. Here IRAK1/4 inhibitor and ABT-737 were co-encapsulated into polyethylene glycol modified poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (IRAK/ABT-NP) to enhance synergistic therapy of T-ALL. The formulation was optimized to achieve high drug loading using Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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