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Pravata K Pradhan, Neeraj Sood, Manoj K Yadav, Pooja Arya, Dharmendra K Chaudhary, Uday Kumar, Chandra Bhushan Kumar, T R Swaminathan, Gaurav Rathore
Infection with Aphanomyces invadans is one of the most destructive diseases of freshwater fishes. Indian major carps, the dominant cultured species in the Indian sub-continent are highly susceptible to this disease. Till date, there is no effective treatment for control of this disease and immunization can be one of the strategies to reduce disease-related losses. In the present study, inactivated germinated zoospores of A. invadans were evaluated as antigen in conjunction with and without adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 763 A VG, for assessing their efficacy in rendering protection against A...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Claudio Lamilla, Douglas Braga, Rui Castro, Carolina Guimarães, Livia V A de Castilho, Denise M G Freire, Leticia Barrientos
The present study aimed to identify novel microbial producers of bioemulsificant compounds from Antarctic soils. Fifty-nine microbial strains were isolated from five different locations at South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, and screened for biosurfactant production by β-hemolytic activity. Strain So 3.2 was determined as bioemulsifier-producer and identified by phenotypic and molecular characterization as Streptomyces luridus. Emulsification activity, oil displacement method and drop-collapsing test were performed to evaluate the biosurfactant activity with different oils and hydrocarbons using two different culture media (Luria Bertani and Bushnell Haas in the presence of different carbon sources: glucose, glycerol, olive oil and n-Hexadecane)...
2018: PloS One
Syeda Bushra Zafar, Tayyaba Asif, Shah Ali Ul Qader, Afsheen Aman
The current study reported the statistically designed experimental method to enhance the biocatalytic efficacy of dextransucrase from Weissella confusa. Various environmental and nutritional parameters were optimized using multiple responses under submerged fermentation environment. Statistical models were constructed to screen the influence of nine factors on the biocatalysis of dextransucrase. Among them, fermentation time, pH, sucrose and peptone exhibited significant probability (P < 0.05) and considered as substantial constituents in accordance with Plackett-Burman design...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Pei Zhang, Chunjun Chen, Xinchen Kang, Lujun Zhang, Congyi Wu, Jianling Zhang, Buxing Han
In this work, we developed a strategy to in situ synthesize sub-nanometer metal particle/hierarchically mesoporous metal-organic framework (MOF) composites in emulsion. In this route, water droplets in the emulsion acted as both a solvent of the metal precursors and a template for the hierarchical mesopores of MOFs, and the surfactant was an emulsifier and a reductant for generating metal particles. Au/Zn-MOFs (MOFs formed by Zn2+ and methylimidazole), Ru/Zn-MOFs, Pd/Zn-MOFs, and Au/Cu-MOFs (MOFs formed by Cu2+ and methylimidazole) were prepared using this method, in which ultrafine metal particles ( e...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Jianlong Ge, Qing Jin, Dingding Zong, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
Creating a porous membrane to effectively separate the emulsified oil-in-water emulsions with energy-saving property is highly desired but remains a challenge. Herein, a multilayer nanofibrous membrane was developed with the inspiration of the natural architectures of earth for gravity driving water purification. As a result, the obtained biomimetic multilayer nanofibrous membranes exhibited three individual layers with designed functions, those were the inorganic nanofibrous layer to block the seriously intrusion of oil to prevent the destructive fouling of the polymeric matrix; the submicron porous layer with designed honeycomb-like cavities to catch the smaller oil droplets and ensures a satisfactory water permeability; the high porous fibrous substrate with larger pore size provided a template support and allows water to pass through quickly...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Megumi Matsumoto, Kyosuke Araki, Sayaka Nishimura, Hideki Kuriyama, Teruyuki Nakanishi, Kazuhiro Shiozaki, Yutaka Takeuchi, Atsushi Yamamoto
Mycobacteriosis and nocardiosis in cultured fish caused by infections with acid-fast bacteria, are responsible for large economic losses globally. In this study, we suggest a novel adjuvant using glycolipids that activates host immune systems. The immune response to glycolipids stimulation was investigated using ginbuna crucian carp. Ginbuna vaccinated with FKC (formalin-killed cells) + glycolipids isolated from Mycobacterium sp., upregulated inflammatory- and Th1-related cytokines, and a DTH (delayed-type hypersensitivity) response was confirmed only in ginbuna vaccinated with FKC + glycolipids...
April 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Li Jinfeng, Fayin Ye, Lin Lei, Yun Zhou, Guohua Zhao
The granules of sweet potato starch were size-fractionated into three portions with significantly different median diameters (D50) of 6.67 (small-sized), 11.54 (medium-sized) and 16.96 µm (large-sized), respectively. Each portion was hydrophobized at the mass-based degrees of substitution (DSm) of approximately 0.0095 (low), 0.0160 (medium) and 0.0230 (high). The Pickering emulsion stabilizing capacities of modified granules were tested, and the resultant emulsions were characterized. The joint effects of granule size and DSm on emulsifying capacity (EC) were investigated by response surface methodology...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xin-Sheng Qin, Zhigang Luo, Xichun Peng
The natural quinoa protein isolate (QPI) was largely reflected in the nanoparticle form at pH 7.0 (about 401 nm), and the ultrasound at 20 min progressively improved the contact angle (wettability) and surface hydrophobicity of the nanoparticles. Ultrasound process also modified the type of intra-particle interaction, and the internal forces of sonicated particles were largely maintained by both disulfide bonds and hydrophobic interaction forces. In emulsion system, the ultrasound progressively increased the emulsification efficiency of the QPI nanoparticles, particularly at high protein concentration (c>1%, w/v), and higher emulsion stability against coalescence...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jairo A Fonseca, Jessica N McCaffery, Juan Caceres, Elena Kashentseva, Balwan Singh, Igor P Dmitriev, David T Curiel, Alberto Moreno
INTRODUCTION: Cellular and humoral immune responses are both involved in protection against Plasmodium infections. The only malaria vaccine available, RTS,S, primarily induces short-lived antibodies and targets only a pre-erythrocytic stage antigen. Inclusion of erythrocytic stage targets and enhancing cellular immunogenicity are likely necessary for developing an effective second-generation malaria vaccine. Adenovirus vectors have been used to improve the immunogenicity of protein-based vaccines...
April 12, 2018: Vaccine
Rune E Kuhre, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Olav Larsen, Sara L Jepsen, Emilie Balk-Møller, Daniel B Andersen, Carolyn F Deacon, Kristina Schoonjans, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Reidar Albrechtsen, Bolette Hartmann, Mette M Rosenkilde, Jens J Holst
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids (BAs) facilitate fat absorption and may play a role in glucose and metabolism regulation, stimulating the secretion of gut hormones. The relative importance and mechanisms involved in BA-stimulated secretion of appetite and metabolism regulating hormones from the gut and pancreas is not well described and was the purpose of this study. METHODS: The effects of bile acids on the secretion of gut and pancreatic hormones was studied in rats and compared to the most well described nutritional secretagogue: glucose...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Ali Sedaghat Doost, Koen Dewettinck, Frank Devlieghere, Paul Van der Meeren
Cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsions were formulated to enable its application in an aqueous environment. The pure cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsions, stabilized by polysorbate 80 (at concentrations >0.5%), had both a higher stability and smaller droplet size, whereas the emulsions containing hydrophobically modified inulin (HMI) formed a colloidal dispersion with larger particle size. Incorporation of sunflower oil (SO) allowed postponement of Ostwald ripening for a sufficiently long period of time (at least 60 days)...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Tene Hippolyte Mouafo, Augustin Mbawala, Robert Ndjouenkeu
The potential of three indigenous bacterial strains ( Lactobacillus delbrueckii N2, Lactobacillus cellobiosus TM1, and Lactobacillus plantarum G88) for the production of biosurfactants using sugar cane molasses or glycerol as substrates was investigated through emulsifying, surface tension, and antimicrobial activities. The different biosurfactants produced with molasses as substrate exhibited high surface tension reduction from 72 mN/m to values ranged from 47.50 ± 1.78 to 41.90 ± 0.79 mN/m and high emulsification index ranging from 49...
2018: BioMed Research International
Soraya Ghayempour, Majid Montazer
Tragacanth is a nontoxic, biodegradable and biocompatible polymer applied as a nanostructure form in various fields such as biomedicine and food industry. Here, hydrogel Tragacanth nanofibers were fabricated using a modified microemulsion method. The effective parameters on the fabrication of nanofibers such as emulsifier type, stirrer type, processing time and concentrations of emulsifier, Tragacanth and aluminum chloride were studied and the conditions were optimized for high quality nanofibers. SEM images indicated uniform distribution of the successfully produced Tragacanth nanofibers with the average diameter of 50 nm...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Norbert Pallua, Justinas Grasys, Bong-Sung Kim
BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and soluble factors jointly contribute to the regenerative effect of fat grafts. The nanofat grafting technique is a simple method to mechanically emulsify the lipoaspirate and increase the ASC yield in the lipoaspirate. In the present study, we evaluated our extended nanofat grafting method that includes two additional centrifugation steps and results in a lipoaspirate of low volume that we termed "lipoconcentrate"...
March 29, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Zhenbao Zhu, Cui Zhao, Jianhua Yi, Ning Liu, Yungang Cao, Eric A Decker, David Julian McClements
The impact of interfacial composition on lipid and protein co-oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions containing a mixture of proteins and surfactants was investigated. The emulsions consisted of 5% v/v walnut oil, 0.5% w/v whey protein isolate (WPI), and 0 to 0.4% w/v Tween 20 (pH 3 and 7). The protein surface load, magnitude of the ξ-potential, and mean particle diameter of the emulsions decreased as the Tween 20 concentration was increased, indicating the whey proteins were displaced by this non-ionic surfactant...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Guan-Wen Chen, Yu-Hsin Lin, Chia-Hua Lin, Hsiao-Chin Jen
This study utilized pomelo steam distillation to isolate pomelo peel essential oil. The constituents were then analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the antibacterial activity of the essential oil emulsions at different homogenizer speed conditions and concentrations of water-soluble chitosan (degree of acetylation, DA = 54.8%) against S. aureus and E. coli was examined. Analysis of the essential oil composition identified a total of 33 compounds with the main constituent, limonene accounting for 87...
April 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lakshmi Maurya, Vijayakumar Mahalingam Rajamanickam, Gopeshwar Narayan, Sanjay Singh
BACKGROUND: Vinorelbine bitartrate (VRL), a semi synthetic vinca alkaloid approved for breast cancer, has been proved to beneficial as first line and subsequent therapies. However, it's hydrophilic and thermo labile nature provides hindrance to oral clinical translation. OBJECTIVES: The current work focused on the application of DOE a modern statistical optimization tool for the development and optimization of a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulation that can encapsulate hydrophilic and thermolabile Vinorelbine bitartrate (VRL) to a maximum extent without compromising integrity and anticancer activity of the drug...
April 8, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Gautam K Samdani, D Julian McClements, Eric A Decker
Phospholipids have been shown to act synergistically with tocopherols and delay lipid oxidation in bulk oil. The synergistic activity between phospholipids and tocopherols is due to the ability of amino-group-containing phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS)) to convert oxidized tocopherol back into tocopherols. This study shows the effect of PE and PS on the antioxidant activity of different tocopherol homologues in oil-in-water emulsions. Effect of emulsifier type on the interaction between tocopherols and phospholipids was also studied...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Khaled AboulFotouh, Ayat A Allam, Mahmoud El-Badry, Ahmed M El-Sayed
Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) have been widely employed to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In the past few years, SEDDS were extensively investigated to overcome various barriers encountered in the oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules (e.g., protein/peptide therapeutics and plasmid DNA (pDNA)), as well as in lowering the effect of food on drugs' bioavailability. However, the main mechanism(s) by which SEDDS could achieve such promising effects remains not fully understood...
March 26, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Liping Feng, Xiaona Niu, Wen Mei, Weitian Li, Yuan Liu, Stephan P Willias, Chao Yuan, Weicheng Bei, Xiaohong Wang, Jinquan Li
Vaccine development efforts against Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) are often constrained by strain/serotype antigen variability. Bioinformatics analyses revealed two highly conserved S. suis 2 factors, EF-Tu and FtsZ. Murine immunization with recombinant proteins emulsified in white oil adjuvant or eukaryotic DNA vaccine vectors provided significant protection against lethal S. suis 2 challenge. Immune responses elicited by recombinant protein immunization revealed the robust generation of humoral immune responses, with a mixed induction of Th1-type and Th2-type responses...
April 4, 2018: Vaccine
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