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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227834/development-of-semi-chronic-microdrive-system-for-large-scale-circuit-mapping-in-macaque-mesolimbic-and-basal-ganglia-systems
#1
Shaoyu Qiao, Kevin A Brown, Amy L Orsborn, Breonna Ferrentino, Bijan Pesaran, Shaoyu Qiao, Kevin A Brown, Amy L Orsborn, Breonna Ferrentino, Bijan Pesaran, Shaoyu Qiao, Amy L Orsborn, Breonna Ferrentino, Kevin A Brown, Bijan Pesaran
The development of novel neurotechnologies for treating refractory neuropsychiatry disorders depends on understanding and manipulating the dynamics of neural circuits across large-scale brain networks. The mesolimbic pathway plays an essential role in reward processing and mood regulation and disorders of this pathway underlie many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present the design of a customized semi-chronic microdrive array that precisely targets the anatomical structures of non-human primate (NHP) mesolimbic and basal ganglia systems...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227832/sinusoidal-stimulation-trains-suppress-epileptiform-spikes-induced-by-4-ap-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca1-region-in-vivo
#2
Zheshan Guo, Zhouyan Feng, Ying Yu, Wenjie Zhou, Zhaoxiang Wang, Xuefeng Wei, Zheshan Guo, Zhouyan Feng, Ying Yu, Wenjie Zhou, Zhaoxiang Wang, Xuefeng Wei, Ying Yu, Zhouyan Feng, Xuefeng Wei, Zhaoxiang Wang, Zheshan Guo, Wenjie Zhou
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) shows promises in the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Due to the complex causes of epilepsy, the mechanisms of DBS are still unclear. Depolarization block caused by the persistent excitation of neurons may be one of the possible mechanisms. To test the hypothesis, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) was injected in rat hippocampal CA1 region in-vivo to induce epileptiform activity. Sinusoidal stimulation trains were applied to the afferent pathway (Schaffer collaterals) of CA1 region to suppress the epileptiform spikes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226870/effect-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-neural-adaptation-in-thalamo-cortical-system-in-rats
#3
Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Rie Hitsuyu, Kenji Ibayashi, Ryohei Kanzaki, Kensuke Kawai, Hirokazu Takahashi, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Rie Hitsuyu, Kenji Ibayashi, Ryohei Kanzaki, Kensuke Kawai, Hirokazu Takahashi, Kenji Ibayashi, Kensuke Kawai, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hirokazu Takahashi, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Rie Hitsuyu
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapy on medically refractory epilepsy, and recently reported to improve cognitive function including learning and memory. The thalamo-cortical system may underlie such VNS-induced cognitive improvements. Thus, the present study targeted the auditory cortex and thalamus in rats, and investigated whether and how VNS modulates stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) of the neural activity in these nuclei. A depth electrode array recorded auditory evoked potentials from the auditory thalamus and cortex under an oddball paradigm either with or without VNS...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226462/effects-and-underlying-mechanisms-of-refractory-period-pacing-on-repolarization-dynamics-in-the-human-heart
#4
Diogo Santos, Michele Orini, Xin Zhou, Alfonso Bueno-Orovio, Ben Hanson, Peter Taggart, Martin Hayward, Blanca Rodriguez, Pier Lambiase, Diogo Santos, Michele Orini, Xin Zhou, Alfonso Bueno-Orovio, Ben Hanson, Peter Taggart, Martin Hayward, Blanca Rodriguez, Pier Lambiase, Ben Hanson, Diogo Santos, Martin Hayward, Pier Lambiase, Alfonso Bueno-Orovio, Blanca Rodriguez, Michele Orini, Xin Zhou, Peter Taggart
Repolarization alternans is related to the initiation of life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Experimental and computational studies suggest that the abolishment of alternans using dynamic pacing protocols may prevent abnormal heart rhythms. In a recent animal study, refractory period pacing (RPP) on every other beat has shown promising results in alternans reduction. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying this therapy and its efficiency in human patients remain unclear. In this study, in vivo unipolar electrograms acquired during RPP from 240 epicardial sites from one patient were analysed...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226274/mortality-morbidity-and-refractoriness-prediction-in-status-epilepticus-comparison-of-stess-and-emse-scores
#5
Giada Giovannini, Giulia Monti, Manuela Tondelli, Andrea Marudi, Franco Valzania, Markus Leitinger, Eugen Trinka, Stefano Meletti
PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency, characterized by high short-term morbidity and mortality. We evaluated and compared two scores that have been developed to evaluate status epilepticus prognosis: STESS (Status Epilepticus Severity Score) and EMSE (Epidemiology based Mortality score in Status Epilepticus). METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed on consecutive patients with SE admitted between September 2013 and August 2015...
February 7, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225999/radioactive-iodine-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-an-uncommon-but-challenging-situation
#6
Angelica Schmidt, Laura Iglesias, Michele Klain, Fabián Pitoia, Martin J Schlumberger
Radioiodine (RAI)-refractory thyroid cancer is an uncommon entity, occurring with an estimated incidence of 4-5 cases/year/million people. RAI refractoriness is more frequent in older patients, in those with large metastases, in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer, and in those tumors with high 18-fluordeoxyglucose uptake on PET/CT. These patients have a 10-year survival rate of less than 10%. In recent years, new therapeutic agents with molecular targets have become available, with multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) being the most investigated drugs...
February 13, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225518/refractory-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-associated-interstitial-lung-disease-could-abatacept-be-the-answer
#7
Weiyu Ye, Maeve C Fifield, Andrew J K Östör
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225458/prognostic-factors-and-outcome-of-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-in-phase-i-trials-the-gustave-roussy-scoring-system
#8
Lina Benajiba, Jean-Marie Michot, Capucine Baldini, Laura Faivre, Andrea Varga, Rastilav Balheda, Anas Gazzah, Ecaterina Ileana, Sophie Postel-Vinay, Christophe Massard, Stéphane de Botton, Jean-Charles Soria, Vincent Ribrag
Despite considerable progress in hematological malignancies (HM) biology during the last decades, translation into clinical benefit remains a major challenge. To improve patient selection and identify patients most likely to benefit from phase I trials, we designed and validated, in an independent cohort, a simple prognostic score. Treatment outcome, toxicity, and survival data from 82 consecutive patients enrolled in 14 phase I trials were reviewed (January 2008-February 2012). We validated these results on a prospectively collected cohort (17 phase I trials, February 2012-May 2014, 88 patients)...
February 20, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225369/long-term-outcomes-of-rituximab-therapy-in-patients-with-noninfectious-posterior-uveitis-refractory-to-conventional-immunosuppressive-therapy
#9
Andres F Lasave, Caiyun You, Lina Ma, Khawla Abusamra, Neerav Lamba, Manuel Valdes Navarro, Halea Meese, C Stephen Foster
PURPOSE: To assess long-term effectiveness of rituximab therapy for refractory noninfectious uveitis affecting the posterior segment. METHODS: Retrospective case series. Patients diagnosed with recalcitrant noninfectious posterior uveitis who were treated with rituximab intravenous infusions between 2010 and 2015 were included. Patients underwent best-corrected visual acuity testing and fluorescein angiography evidence of disk or vascular staining at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months...
February 20, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225161/treatment-of-experimental-status-epilepticus-with-synergistic-drug-combinations
#10
Jerome Niquet, Roger Baldwin, Lucie Suchomelova, Lucille Lumley, Roland Eavey, Claude G Wasterlain
During status epilepticus (SE), synaptic γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors (GABAA Rs) become internalized and inactive, whereas spare N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) assemble, move to the membrane, and become synaptically active. When treatment of SE is delayed, the number of synaptic GABAA Rs is drastically reduced, and a GABAA agonist cannot fully restore inhibition. We used a combination of low-dose diazepam (to stimulate the remaining GABAA Rs), ketamine (to mitigate the effect of the NMDAR increase), and valproate (to enhance inhibition at a nonbenzodiazepine site) to treat seizures in a model of severe cholinergic SE...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224502/pyoderma-gangrenosum-an-update-on-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Afsaneh Alavi, Lars E French, Mark D Davis, Alain Brassard, Robert S Kirsner
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory neutrophilic disorder with prototypical clinical presentations. Its pathophysiology is complex and not fully explained. Recent information regarding the genetic basis of PG and the role of auto-inflammation provides a better understanding of the disease and new therapeutic targets. PG equally affects patients of both sexes and of any age. Uncontrolled cutaneous neutrophilic inflammation is the cornerstone in a genetically predisposed individual. Multimodality management is often required to reduce inflammation, optimize wound healing, and treat underlying disease...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224486/human-herpes-virus-6-encephalitis-causing-severe-anterograde-amnesia-associated-with-rituximab-azathioprine-and-prednisolone-combination-therapy-for-dermatomyositis
#12
Thomas Baumer, Charlie Fry, Sebastian Luppe, Harsha Gunawardena, Kasia Sieradzan
Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) reactivation is a well-recognised complication following haematological stem cell transplantation, but it is novel in the context of combination immunomodulatory therapy for autoimmune disease. We report a case of severe anterograde amnesia caused by HHV-6 encephalitis in a young female patient on rituximab, azathioprine and prednisolone for dermatomyositis (DM). The use of targeted biologic treatments for systemic autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs) is increasing, particularly when refractory to conventional management...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224320/forward-masking-in-cochlear-implant-users-electrophysiological-and-psychophysical-data-using-pulse-train-maskers
#13
Youssef Adel, Gaston Hilkhuysen, Arnaud Noreña, Yves Cazals, Stéphane Roman, Olivier Macherey
Electrical stimulation of auditory nerve fibers using cochlear implants (CI) shows psychophysical forward masking (pFM) up to several hundreds of milliseconds. By contrast, recovery of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) from forward masking (eFM) was shown to be more rapid, with time constants no greater than a few milliseconds. These discrepancies suggested two main contributors to pFM: a rapid-recovery process due to refractory properties of the auditory nerve and a slow-recovery process arising from more central structures...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223846/prospect-of-the-use-of-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-hepatocellular-cancer-treatments
#14
REVIEW
Ali Raufi, Maria Tria Tirona
Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is a very fatal disease due to limited therapeutic options as well as due to its association with underlying chronic liver disease in the majority of cases. The immune evasion in HCC signifies a major barrier to the delivery of effective immunotherapy. Sorafenib is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved drug available with an overall response rate of 2%-3% and overall survival of 2.8 months. Chemotherapy has not been used routinely because of the relative refractoriness of advanced HCC...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223839/ultrasound-guided-alcohol-neurolysis-and-radiofrequency-ablation-of-painful-stump-neuroma-effective-treatments-for-post-amputation-pain
#15
Xin Zhang, Yongming Xu, Jin Zhou, Shaofeng Pu, Yingying Lv, Yueping Chen, Dongping Du
BACKGROUND: Post-amputation pain (PAP) is highly prevalent after limb amputation, and stump neuromas play a key role in the generation of the pain. Presently, PAP refractory to medical management is frequently treated with minimally invasive procedures guided by ultrasound, such as alcohol neurolysis and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). OBJECTIVE: To record the immediate and long-term efficacy of alcohol neurolysis and RFA. We first used alcohol neurolysis and then, when necessary, we performed RFA on PAP patients...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223822/profile-of-venetoclax-and-its-potential-in-the-context-of-treatment-of-relapsed-or-refractory-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#16
REVIEW
Henriette Huber, Simone Edenhofer, Sven Estenfelder, Stephan Stilgenbauer
Over the last few years, dramatic changes have occurred in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The current standard for young and fit patients with CLL remains chemoimmunotherapy, namely the fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) regimen. However, novel oral therapies are presently being introduced and represent a considerable breakthrough concerning effectiveness and safety profile. In particular, the very high-risk group of CLL patients, defined by the genetic aberration del(17p) and/or TP53 mutation, benefit from the new agents...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223156/electrophysiological-properties-of-computational-human-ventricular-cell-action-potential-models-under-acute-ischemic-conditions
#17
REVIEW
Sara Dutta, Ana Mincholé, T Alexander Quinn, Blanca Rodriguez
Acute myocardial ischemia is one of the main causes of sudden cardiac death. The mechanisms have been investigated primarily in experimental and computational studies using different animal species, but human studies remain scarce. In this study, we assess the ability of four human ventricular action potential models (Tentusscher et al., 2006; Grandi et al., 2010; Carro et al., 2011; O'Hara et al., 2011) to simulate key electrophysiological consequences of acute myocardial ischemia in single cell and tissue simulations...
February 18, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223090/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-for-the-treatment-of-severe-complications-after-omega-loop-gastric-bypass
#18
Tigran Poghosyan, Clementine Caille, David Moszkowicz, Mouna Hanachi, Claire Carette, Jean-Luc Bouillot
BACKGROUND: Omega-loop gastric bypass (OLGB) may be associated with severe complications, including anastomotic leak, refractory ulcer or stenosis, undernutrition, and disabling digestive disorders (chronic diarrhea, steatorrhea, bile reflux, and vomiting). OLGB conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was suggested to treat these complications. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and risk of severe complications after OLGB conversion to RYGB. SETTING: University hospital...
December 9, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223062/nivolumab-for-previously-treated-unresectable-metastatic-anal-cancer-nci9673-a-multicentre-single-arm-phase-2-study
#19
Van K Morris, Mohamed E Salem, Halla Nimeiri, Syma Iqbal, Preet Singh, Kristen Ciombor, Blase Polite, Dustin Deming, Emily Chan, James L Wade, Lianchun Xiao, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Luis Vence, Jorge Blando, Armeen Mahvash, Wai Chin Foo, Chimela Ohaji, Manolo Pasia, Gail Bland, Aki Ohinata, Jane Rogers, Amir Mehdizadeh, Kimberly Banks, Richard Lanman, Robert A Wolff, Howard Streicher, James Allison, Padmanee Sharma, Cathy Eng
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is a rare malignancy associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). No consensus treatment approach exists for the treatment of metastatic disease. Because intratumoral HPV oncoproteins upregulate immune checkpoint proteins such as PD-1 to evade immune-mediated cytotoxicity, we did a trial of the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab for patients with metastatic SCCA. METHODS: We did this single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial at ten academic centres in the USA...
February 17, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222435/extracorporal-shock-waves-activate-migration-proliferation-and-inflammatory-pathways-in-fibroblasts-and-keratinocytes-and-improve-wound-healing-in-an-open-label-single-arm-study-in-patients-with-therapy-refractory-chronic-leg-ulcers
#20
Ilknur Aschermann, Seema Noor, Sascha Venturelli, Tobias Sinnberg, Christian Busch, Christian D Mnich
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic leg ulcers (CLUs) are globally a major cause of morbidity and mortality with increasing prevalence. Their treatment is highly challenging, and many conservative, surgical or advanced therapies have been suggested, but with little overall efficacy. Since the 1980s extracorporal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has gained interest as treatment for specific indications. Here, we report that patients with CLU showed wound healing after ESWT and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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