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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646487/immunotoxic-effects-of-thymus-in-mice-following-exposure-to-nanoparticulate-tio2
#1
Fashui Hong, Yaoming Zhou, Yingjun Zhou, Ling Wang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been extensively used in industry, medicine, and daily life, and have shown potential toxic effects for animals or humans. We noted that the effects of TiO2 NPs on the immune system and its mechanism of action in animals or humans have not been elucidated. Thus, mice were exposed to the TiO2 NPs (0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 9 consecutive months. Exposure to TiO2 NPs was accumulated in the thymus, leading to a decrease in body weight and increases in the weight of the thymus or thymus indices...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641918/resistance-of-mice-to-leptospira-infection-and-correlation-with-chemokine-response
#2
R H Domingos, E B Pavanel, E Nakajima, L Schons-Fonseca, R M A Da Costa, M De Franco, E Carvalho, P L Ho, E A Martins, J B Da Silva
Leptospirosis is globally widespread neglected disease, affecting most mammalian species. Clinical signs can be confused with other diseases which make the diagnosis and treatment difficult. Chemokines and cytokines are known for their role in the inflammatory and immune response to infections. The profile determination of chemokines' expressions in the course of infection may elucidate the defense mechanisms of the host and support the search for effective treatment strategies. We investigated the mechanisms of innate immunity through the comparison of chemokines induced during infection with L...
May 26, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638068/microbiota-derived-butyrate-suppresses-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-terminal-ileal-peyer-s-patches
#3
Sae-Hae Kim, Byeol-Hee Cho, Hiroshi Kiyono, Yong-Suk Jang
The regional specialization of intestinal immune cells is affected by the longitudinal heterogeneity of environmental factors. Although the distribution of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) is well characterized in the lamina propria, it is poorly defined in Peyer's patches (PPs) along the intestine. Given that PP ILC3s are closely associated with mucosal immune regulation, it is important to characterize the regulatory mechanism of ILC3s. Here, we found that terminal ileal PPs of specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice have fewer NKp46(+) ILC3s than jejunal PPs, while there was no difference in NKp46(+) ILC3 numbers between terminal ileal and jejunal PPs in antibiotics (ABX)-treated mice...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630089/dynamic-balance-between-master-transcription-factors-determines-the-fates-and-functions-of-cd4-t-cell-and-innate-lymphoid-cell-subsets
#4
REVIEW
Difeng Fang, Jinfang Zhu
CD4 T cells, including T regulatory cells (Treg cells) and effector T helper cells (Th cells), and recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play important roles in host defense and inflammation. Both CD4 T cells and ILCs can be classified into distinct lineages based on their functions and the expression of lineage-specific genes, including those encoding effector cytokines, cell surface markers, and key transcription factors. It was first recognized that each lineage expresses a specific master transcription factor and the expression of these factors is mutually exclusive because of cross-regulation among these factors...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630073/new-insights-into-the-roles-of-lpf-and-stg-fimbriae-in-salmonella-interactions-with-enterocytes-and-m-cells
#5
Amanda M Gonzales, Shyra Wilde, Kenneth L Roland
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes the systemic disease typhoid fever. After ingestion, it adheres to and invades the host epithelium while evading the host innate immune response, causing little if any inflammation. Conversely, S Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans and thrives in the inflamed gut. Upon entering the host, S Typhimurium preferentially colonizes Peyer's patches, a lymphoid organ in which microfold cells (M cells) overlay an arrangement of B cells, T cells, and antigen presenting cells...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626924/group-2-ilcs-a-way-of-enhancing-immune-protection-against-human-helminths
#6
Norman Nausch, Francisca Mutapi
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play crucial roles in type 2 immune responses associated with allergic and autoimmune diseases, viral and helminth infections and tissue homeostasis. Experimental models show that in helminth infections ILC2s provide an early source of type 2 cytokines and therefore are essential for the induction of potentially protective type 2 responses. Much of our knowledge of ILC2s in helminth infections has come from experimental mouse models with very few studies analysing ILC2s in natural human infections...
June 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626064/monitoring-c3ar-expression-using-a-floxed-tdtomato-c3ar-reporter-knock-in-mouse
#7
Katharina M Quell, Christian M Karsten, Anna Kordowski, Larissa Nogueira Almeida, Daria Briukhovetska, Anna V Wiese, Jing Sun, Fanny Ender, Konstantina Antoniou, Torsten Schröder, Inken Schmudde, Johann L Berger, Peter König, Tillman Vollbrandt, Yves Laumonnier, Jörg Köhl
C3a exerts multiple biologic functions through activation of its cognate C3a receptor. C3(-/-) and C3aR(-/-) mice have been instrumental in defining important roles of the C3a/C3aR axis in the regulation of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, allergic asthma, autoimmune nephritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surprisingly little is known about C3aR expression and function in immune and stromal cells. To close this gap, we generated a floxed tandem-dye Tomato (tdTomato)-C3aR reporter knock-in mouse, which we used to monitor C3aR expression in cells residing in the lung, airways, lamina propria (LP) of the small intestine, brain, visceral adipose tissue, bone marrow (BM), spleen, and the circulation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624523/association-of-interleukin-22-polymorphisms-with-the-colon-cancer-a-case-control-study
#8
Lin Lin, Weili Xu, Guojian Zhang, Pengtao Ren, Jing Zhao, Qinghui Yan
INTRODUCTION: Interleukin-22 (IL-22), an IL-10 family cytokine produced by T cells and innate lymphoid cells, is implicated in inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of IL-22 polymorphisms with the colon cancer in a Chinese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred forty colon cancer cases and 540 healthy controls were recruited in the case-control study. The fluorogenic 5' exonuclease assays were used for genotype analysis of three common polymorphisms (-429C/T, +1046T/A and +1995A/C) of the IL-22 gene...
June 14, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623714/can-the-co-dependence-of-the-immune-system-and-angiogenesis-facilitate-pharmacological-targeting-of-tumours
#9
REVIEW
Lorenzo Mortara, Andrew V Benest, David O Bates, Douglas M Noonan
Tumours elicit a number of mechanisms to induce a reprogramming of innate and adaptive immune cells to their advantage, inducing a pro-angiogenic phenotype. Investigation of these events is now leading to the identification of specific myeloid and lymphoid cell-targeted therapies, as well as of unexplored off-target activities of clinically relevant chemotherapeutic and metabolic drugs. It is also leading to an enhanced understanding of the interplay between angiogenesis and the immune system, and the value of novel co-targeting approaches using both immunotherapy and anti-angiogenic therapy...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615725/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-similarities-between-human-blood-cd3-cd56-bright-cells-and-mouse-cd127-innate-lymphoid-cells
#10
David S J Allan, Ana Sofia Cerdeira, Anuisa Ranjan, Christina L Kirkham, Oscar A Aguilar, Miho Tanaka, Richard W Childs, Cynthia E Dunbar, Jack L Strominger, Hernan D Kopcow, James R Carlyle
For many years, human peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells have been divided into functionally distinct CD3(-) CD56(bright) CD16(-) and CD3(-) CD56(dim) CD16(+) subsets. Recently, several groups of innate lymphoid cells (ILC), distinct from NK cells in development and function, have been defined in mouse. A signature of genes present in mouse ILC except NK cells, defined by Immunological Genome Project studies, is significantly over-represented in human CD56(bright) cells, by gene set enrichment analysis...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615106/-enhanced-ilc2-activity-contributes-to-metabolic-syndrome-multicomponent-aggregation-state-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetic-nephropathy
#11
Ping Lu, Yunyun Xu, Zhaoliang Su, Huaxi Xu
Objective To study the relationship between the activity of group II innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) in maintenance hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN) and metabolic syndrome (MS) multicomponent aggregation state. Methods The study enrolled 30 DN patients of stable condition treated with maintenance hemodialysis over 3 months, 30 newly diagnosed untreated type 2 diabetes patients and 30 healthy volunteers as controls. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα), interleukin 17 receptor B (IL-17RB), IL-33 receptor T1/ST2, IL-5 and IL-13 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
June 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614389/immunological-dynamics-associated-with-rapid-virological-response-during-the-early-phase-of-type-i-interferon-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#12
Jae-Won Lee, Won Kim, Eun-Kyung Kwon, Yuri Kim, Hyun Mu Shin, Dong-Hyun Kim, Chan-Ki Min, Ji-Yeob Choi, Won-Woo Lee, Myung-Sik Choi, Byeong Gwan Kim, Nam-Hyuk Cho
Type I interferons (IFNs) play an important role in antiviral immunity as well as immunopathogenesis of diverse chronic viral infections. However, the precise mechanisms regulating the multifaceted effects of type I IFNs on the immune system and pathological inflammation still remain unclear. In order to assess the immunological dynamics associated with rapid viral clearance in chronic hepatitis C patients during the acute phase of type I IFN therapy, we analyzed multiple parameters of virological and immunological responses in a cohort of 59 Korean hepatitis C patients who received pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin (IFN/RBV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613415/composition-and-functionality-of-the-intrahepatic-innate-lymphoid-cell-compartment-in-human-non-fibrotic-and-fibrotic-livers
#13
Marianne Forkel, Lena Berglin, Eliisa Kekäläinen, Adrian Carlsson, Emma Svedin, Jakob Michaëlsson, Maho Nagasawa, Jonas S Erjefält, Michiko Mori, Malin Flodström-Tullberg, Annika Bergquist, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Magnus Westgren, Ulrik Lindforss, Danielle Friberg, Carl Jorns, Ewa Ellis, Niklas K Björkström, Jenny Mjösberg
Human innate lymphoid cells have been described to exist in different organs, with functional deregulation of these cells contributing to several disease states. Here, we performed the first detailed characterization of the phenotype, tissue-residency properties and functionality of ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s in the human adult and fetal liver. In addition, we investigated changes in the ILC compartment in liver fibrosis. A unique composition of tissue-resident ILCs was observed in non-fibrotic livers as compared with that in mucosal tissues, with NKp44(-) ILC3s accounting for the majority of total intrahepatic ILCs...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612730/-innate-lymphoid-cells
#14
Adeline Crinier, Charlotte Viant, Mathilde Girard-Madoux, Éric Vivier
Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILC) are tissue-resident effector lymphocytes that differ from the B and T lymphocytes subsets since they lack specific antigen receptors derived from gene rearrangements. They can be divided into two groups, cytotoxic ILC (NK cells) which are dependent on the transcription factors Eomes and T-bet and produce IFN-γ, and helper-like ILC (ILC1, ILC2, ILC3) which are dependent on T-bet, GATA-3 or RORγT and produce IFN-γ, IL-5/IL-13 or IL-17/IL-22 respectively. Although they were described recently, ILC are the subject of a large number of studies that characterize their role as one of the first effectors of the innate immune response as well as in the development of a wide number of inflammatory disorders...
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611768/innate-immunity-and-breast-milk
#15
REVIEW
Nicole Theresa Cacho, Robert M Lawrence
Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611297/endogenous-il-33-has-no-effect-on-the-progression-of-fibrosis-during-experimental-steatohepatitis
#16
Philippe Vasseur, Sarah Dion, Aveline Filliol, Valentine Genet, Catherine Lucas-Clerc, Girard Jean-Philippe, Christine Silvain, Jean-Claude Lecron, Claire Piquet-Pellorce, Michel Samson
Interleukin (IL)-33 has been recently reported to be strongly pro-fibrogenic in various models of liver disease. Our aim was to study the role of endogenous IL-33 in a diet-induced model of steatohepatitis. IL-33 deficient mice and wild type (WT) littermates received a high-fat diet (HFD), or a standard diet for 12 weeks. The HFD-induced steatohepatitis was associated with an upregulation of IL-33 transcripts and protein. An insulin tolerance test revealed lower systemic insulin sensitivity in IL-33-/-HFD mice than in WT-HFD mice...
June 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607133/loss-of-thymic-innate-lymphoid-cells-leads-to-impaired-thymopoiesis-in-experimental-graft-vs-host-disease
#17
Jarrod A Dudakov, Anna M Mertelsmann, Margaret H O'Connor, Robert R Jenq, Enrico Velardi, Lauren F Young, Odette M Smith, Richard L Boyd, Marcel R M van den Brink, Alan M Hanash
Graft vs. host disease (GVHD) and post-transplant immunodeficiency are frequently related complications of allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation. Alloreactive donor T cells can damage thymic epithelium, thus limiting new T cell development. While the thymus has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury, endogenous thymic regeneration is impaired in GVHD. The mechanisms leading to this regenerative failure are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate in experimental mouse models that GVHD results in depletion of intrathymic group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) necessary for thymic regeneration...
June 12, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600003/novel-insights-into-the-expression-pattern-of-anaphylatoxin-receptors-in-mice-and-men
#18
Yves Laumonnier, Christian M Karsten, Jörg Köhl
The anaphylatoxins (AT) C3a and C5a play important roles as mediators of inflammation. Further, they regulate and control multiple innate and adaptive immune responses through binding and activation of their cognate G protein-coupled receptors, i.e. C3a receptor (C3aR), C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) and C5a receptor 2 (C5aR2), although the latter lacks important sequence motifs for G protein-coupling. Based on their pleiotropic functions, they contribute not only to tissue homeostasis but drive, perpetuate and resolve immune responses in many inflammatory diseases including infections, malignancies, autoimmune as well as allergic diseases...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589939/wash-maintains-nkp46-ilc3-cells-by-promoting-ahr-expression
#19
Pengyan Xia, Jing Liu, Shuo Wang, Buqing Ye, Ying Du, Zhen Xiong, Ze-Guang Han, Liang Tong, Zusen Fan
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) communicate with other haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells to regulate immunity, inflammation and tissue homeostasis. How these ILC lineages develop and are maintained is not clear. Here we show that WASH is highly expressed in the nucleus of group 3 ILCs (ILC3s). WASH deletion impairs the cell pool of NKp46(+) ILC3s. In NKp46(+) ILC3s, WASH recruits Arid1a to the Ahr promoter thus activating AHR expression. WASH deletion in ILC3s decreases the number of NKp46(+) ILC3s. Moreover, Arid1a deletion impedes AHR expression and impairs the maintenance of NKp46(+) ILC3s...
June 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589929/type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-control-the-development-of-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#20
Stephen A Newland, Sarajo Mohanta, Marc Clément, Soraya Taleb, Jennifer A Walker, Meritxell Nus, Andrew P Sage, Changjun Yin, Desheng Hu, Lauren L Kitt, Alison J Finigan, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Christoph J Binder, Andrew N J McKenzie, Andreas J Habenicht, Ziad Mallat
Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are a prominent source of type II cytokines and are found constitutively at mucosal surfaces and in visceral adipose tissue. Despite their role in limiting obesity, how ILC2s respond to high fat feeding is poorly understood, and their direct influence on the development of atherosclerosis has not been explored. Here, we show that ILC2 are present in para-aortic adipose tissue and lymph nodes and display an inflammatory-like phenotype atypical of adipose resident ILC2. High fat feeding alters both the number of ILC2 and their type II cytokine production...
June 7, 2017: Nature Communications
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