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Innate lymphoid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789862/activating-and-inhibitory-receptors-expressed-on-innate-lymphoid-cells
#1
REVIEW
Sophie Guia, Aurore Fenis, Eric Vivier, Emilie Narni-Mancinelli
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells located in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. They are particularly abundant at mucosal and barrier surfaces. Three major ILC subsets are present in humans and mice: group 1 ILCs (comprising natural killer (NK) cells and ILC1s), ILC2s, and ILC3s. ILCs are involved in the maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of immunity. This review focuses on the extensive array of activating and inhibitory receptors expressed by ILCs for communication with other cell types and their environment in health and disease...
May 22, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788271/the-innate-immune-system-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-role-of-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-and-lamina-propria-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-intestinal-inflammation
#2
A Montalban-Arques, M Chaparro, Javier P Gisbert, D Bernardo
Background: The gastrointestinal tract harbors the largest microbiota load in the human body, hence maintaining a delicate balance between immunity against invading pathogens and tolerance toward commensal. Such immune equilibrium, or intestinal homeostasis, is conducted by a tight regulation and cooperation of the different branches of the immune system, including the innate and the adaptive immune system. However, several factors affect this delicate equilibrium, ultimately leading to gastrointestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783667/bone-marrow-defects-and-platelet-function-a-focus-on-mds-and-cll
#3
REVIEW
Sarah Luu, Elizabeth E Gardiner, Robert K Andrews
The bloodstream typically contains >500 billion anucleate circulating platelets, derived from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. This review will focus on two interesting aspects of bone marrow dysfunction and how this impacts on the quality of circulating platelets. In this regard, although megakaryocytes are from the myeloid lineage leading to granulocytes (including neutrophils), erythrocytes, and megakaryocytes/platelets, recent evidence has shown that defects in the lymphoid lineage leading to B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells also result in abnormal circulating platelets...
May 18, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780803/role-of-subclinical-gut-inflammation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-spondyloarthritis
#4
REVIEW
Aroldo Rizzo, Giuliana Guggino, Angelo Ferrante, Francesco Ciccia
Subclinical gut inflammation occurring in patients affected by spondyloarthritis (SpA) is correlated with the severity of spine inflammation. Several evidences indicate that dysbiosis occurs in SpA, and that may modulate intestinal permeability and intestinal immune responses. The presence of intestinal dysbiosis is accompanied in SpA patients with the presence of zonulin-dependent alterations of gut-epithelial and gut-vascular barriers. The leakage of epithelial and endothelial surface layers is followed by the translocation of bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharide and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, in the systemic circulation...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777027/t-cell-proliferation-and-colitis-are-initiated-by-defined-intestinal-microbes
#5
Pailin Chiaranunt, Justin T Tometich, Junyi Ji, Timothy W Hand
Inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with the dysregulation of T cells specific to Ags derived from the intestinal microbiota. How microbiota-specific T cells are regulated is not completely clear but is believed to be mediated by a combination of IgA, regulatory T cells, and type 3 innate lymphoid cells. To test the role of these regulatory components on microbiota-specific T cells, we bred CBir1 TCR transgenic (CBir1Tg) mice (specific to flagellin from common intestinal bacteria) onto a lymphopenic Rag1-/- background...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774240/mannan-induced-nos2-in-macrophages-enhances-il-17-driven-psoriatic-arthritis-by-innate-lymphocytes
#6
Jianghong Zhong, Tatjana Scholz, Anthony C Y Yau, Simon Guerard, Ulrike Hüffmeier, Harald Burkhardt, Rikard Holmdahl
Previous identification of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) gene as a risk allele for psoriasis (Ps) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) suggests a possible pathogenic role of nitric oxide (NO). Using a mouse model of mannan-induced Ps and PsA (MIP), where macrophages play a regulatory role by releasing reactive oxygen species (ROS), we found that NO was detectable before disease onset in mice, independent of a functional nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 complex. MIP was suppressed by either deletion of Nos2 or inhibition of NO synthases with NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, demonstrating that Nos2-derived NO is pathogenic...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770140/seventeen-year-journey-working-with-a-master
#7
Jinfang Zhu
It had been a great honor for me to work with the late Dr. William E. Paul for 17 years in the Laboratory of Immunology (LI) from 1998 until his passing in 2015. He was such a master in the immunology field. Under his outstanding guidance, my research has been focusing on transcriptional regulation of T helper (Th) cell differentiation, especially, on the role of a master transcription factor GATA3 during Th2 cell differentiation. Just as enormous scientific contributions of Dr. Paul (we all call him Bill) to the immunology community are far beyond his serving as the Chief of the LI, GATA3 also plays important roles in different lymphocytes at various developmental stages besides its critical functions in Th2 cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768165/human-innate-lymphoid-cell-subsets-possess-tissue-type-based-heterogeneity-in-phenotype-and-frequency
#8
Yannick Simoni, Michael Fehlings, Henrik N Kløverpris, Naomi McGovern, Si-Lin Koo, Chiew Yee Loh, Shawn Lim, Ayako Kurioka, Joannah R Fergusson, Choong-Leong Tang, Ming Hian Kam, Koh Dennis, Tony Kiat Hon Lim, Alexander Chung Yaw Fui, Chan Weng Hoong, Jerry Kok Yen Chan, Maria Curotto de Lafaille, Sriram Narayanan, Sonia Baig, Muhammad Shabeer, Sue-Anne Ee Shiow Toh, Henry Kun Kiaang Tan, Rosslyn Anicete, Eng-Huat Tan, Angela Takano, Paul Klenerman, Alasdair Leslie, Daniel S W Tan, Iain Beehuat Tan, Florent Ginhoux, Evan W Newell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764019/-the-role-of-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-eosinophilic-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#9
C L Geng, Z M Xing, L S Yu, M Wang, X P Yuan, Y Liu, G Zhang, Z J Wang
Objective: To investigate the type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in eosinophilic nasal polyps, non-eosinophilic nasal polyps and controls, and to compare the characteristics of ILC2s indifferent types of nasal polyp. Methods: Flow cytometric analysis was used to quantify the ILC2s and Th2 cells in tissues from 19 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp (CRSwNP) and 6 controls. The patients were classified into two groups as eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (ECRSwNP) and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (non-ECRSwNP) based on eosinophil counts under hematoxylin-eosin staining...
May 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762870/t-cells-and-ilc2s-are-major-effector-cells-in-influenza-induced-exacerbation-of-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#10
Bobby W S Li, Marjolein J W de Bruijn, Melanie Lukkes, Menno van Nimwegen, Ingrid M Bergen, Alex KleinJan, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel, Arno Andeweg, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Rudi W Hendriks
Influenza virus infection is an important cause of severe asthma exacerbations, but it remains unclear how a Th1-mediated antiviral response triggers a prototypical Th2 disease. We investigated CD4+ T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in influenza virus-infected mice. We found that ILC2s accumulated in the lung rapidly after influenza virus infection, but the induction of IL-5 and IL-13 secretion was delayed and concomitant with T cell activation. In an influenza-induced exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation model we noticed an initial reduction of ILC2 numbers and cytokine production in broncho-alveolar lavage compared to chronic house dust mite (HDM)-mediated airway inflammation alone...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760695/group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-pulmonary-immunity-and-tissue-homeostasis
#11
REVIEW
Barbara C Mindt, Jörg H Fritz, Claudia U Duerr
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) represent an evolutionary rather old but only recently identified member of the family of innate lymphoid cells and have received much attention since their detailed description in 2010. They can orchestrate innate as well as adaptive immune responses as they interact with and influence several immune and non-immune cell populations. Moreover, ILC2 are able to rapidly secrete large amounts of type 2 cytokines that can contribute to protective but also detrimental host immune responses depending on timing, location, and physiological context...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760540/ambiguous-roles-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-chronic-development-of-liver-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Yue Shen, Jing Li, Si-Qi Wang, Wei Jiang
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are defined as a distinct arm of innate immunity. According to their profile of secreted cytokines and lineage-specific transcriptional factors, ILCs can be categorized into the following three groups: group 1 ILCs (including natural killer (NK) cells and ILC1s) are dependent on T-bet and can produce interferon-γ; group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) are dependent on GATA3 and can produce type 2 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13; and, group 3 ILCs (including lymphoid tissue-like cells and ILC3s) are dependent on RORγt and can produce IL-22 and IL-17...
May 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760044/nk-cells-mediate-synergistic-antitumor-effects-of-combined-inhibition-of-hdac6-and-bet-in-a-sclc-preclinical-model
#13
Yan Liu, Yuyang Li, Shengwu Liu, Dennis O Adeegbe, Camilla L Christensen, Max M Quinn, Ruben Dries, Shiwei Han, Kevin Buczkowski, Xiaoen Wang, Ting Chen, Peng Gao, Hua Zhang, Fei Li, Peter S Hammerman, James E Bradner, Steven N Quayle, Kwok-Kin Wong
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has the highest malignancy among all lung cancers, exhibiting aggressive growth and early metastasis to distant sites. For 30 years, treatment options for SCLC have been limited to chemotherapy, warranting the need for more effective treatments. Frequent inactivation of TP53 and RB1 as well as histone dysmodifications in SCLC suggest that transcriptional and epigenetic regulations play a major role in SCLC disease evolution. Here we performed a synthetic lethal screen using the BET inhibitor JQ1 and an shRNA library targeting 550 epigenetic genes in treatment-refractory SCLC xenograft models and identified HDAC6 as a synthetic lethal target in combination with JQ1...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758102/purine-metabolism-controls-innate-lymphoid-cell-function-and-protects-against-intestinal-injury
#14
Siobhan Crittenden, Ashleigh Cheyne, Alexander Adams, Thorsten Forster, Calum T Robb, Jennifer Felton, Gwo-Tzer Ho, Dominik Ruckerl, Adriano G Rossi, Stephen M Anderton, Peter Ghazal, Jack Satsangi, Sarah E Howie, Chengcan Yao
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a condition of chronic inflammatory intestinal disorder with increasing prevalence but limited effective therapies. The purine metabolic pathway is involved in various inflammatory processes including IBD. However, the mechanisms through which purine metabolism modulates IBD remain to be established. Here we found that mucosal expression of genes involved in the purine metabolic pathway is altered in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC), which is associated with elevated gene expression signatures of the group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3)-interleukin (IL)-22 pathway...
May 14, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747123/hiv-aspartyl-protease-inhibitors-modify-the-percentage-of-activated-leukocytes-as-well-as-serum-levels-of-il-17a-and-no-during-experimental-leishmaniasis
#15
Daniele Luísa Ribeiro Alvarenga, Amanda Helen Dos Santos Silva, Jacqueline Araújo Fiuza, Soraya Torres Gaze, Jaquelline Germano de Oliveira, Rodrigo Corrêa Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Calzavara-Silva, Marcelo Antônio Pascoal-Xavier, Érica Alessandra Rocha Alves
HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors are able to modulate multiple defense mechanisms. However, their influence on the immune response against Leishmania has rarely been investigated. The aim of our study was to investigate whether in vivo treatment with HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors is able to modulate the immune response during Leishmania infection. Using Leishmania (L.) amazonensis-infected mice, we analyzed the disease evolution and parasite load, immunophenotypic profiles of splenic T and B lymphocytes, numbers of lymphoid aggregates in the spleen, percentages of circulating atypical lymphocytes and reactive monocytes, and serum levels of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) after 30 days of oral treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) or atazanavir (ATV)...
May 7, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744361/the-role-of-the-immune-response-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bronchiectasis
#16
REVIEW
Paul T King
Bronchiectasis is a prevalent respiratory condition characterised by permanent and abnormal dilation of the lung airways (bronchi). There are a large variety of causative factors that have been identified for bronchiectasis; all of these compromise the function of the immune response to fight infection. A triggering factor may lead to the establishment of chronic infection in the lower respiratory tract. The bacteria responsible for the lower respiratory tract infection are usually found as commensals in the upper respiratory tract microbiome...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742315/solitary-chemosensory-cells-producing-interleukin-25-and-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-enriched-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#17
Neil N Patel, Michael A Kohanski, Ivy W Maina, Vasiliki Triantafillou, Alan D Workman, Charles C L Tong, Edward C Kuan, John V Bosso, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, De'Broski R Herbert, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is commonly characterized by type-2 inflammation. It is established that group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a subset of immune cells important in orchestrating mucosal type-2 response. IL-25 is an epithelial-derived cytokine that is a critical activator of ILC2s. Recent evidence demonstrates that specialized taster epithelial cells, such as solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs), may be producers of IL-25. To elucidate the relationship between SCCs and ILC2s in CRSwNP, we sought to quantify ILC2s and SCCs to determine if these cell types are enriched in nasal polyps compared to healthy sinonasal mucosa...
May 9, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740438/the-nkg2d-nkg2dl-axis-in-the-crosstalk-between-lymphoid-and-myeloid-cells-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ana Stojanovic, Margareta P Correia, Adelheid Cerwenka
Natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor is a type II transmembrane protein expressed by both innate and adaptive immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T cells, invariant NKT cells, γδ T cells, and some CD4+ T cells under certain pathological conditions. NKG2D is an activating NK receptor that induces cytotoxicity and production of cytokines by effector cells and supports their proliferation and survival upon engagement with its ligands. In both innate and T cell populations, NKG2D can costimulate responses induced by other receptors, such as TCR in T cells or NKp46 in NK cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738732/gut-immunity-passing-on-the-baton-from-innate-to-adaptive-immunity
#19
Nora Branzk, Andreas Diefenbach
Innate and adaptive immunity are two complementary systems that work together to protect the host organism. A new study unravels how innate lymphoid cells and adaptive T lymphocytes act sequentially to establish microbial commensalism and ensure tissue and metabolic homeostasis.
May 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737384/orchestration-of-intestinal-homeostasis-and-tolerance-by-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells
#20
REVIEW
Hugo A Penny, Suzanne H Hodge, Matthew R Hepworth
The gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of exposure to a multitude of microbial, environmental, and dietary challenges. As a result, immune responses in the intestine need to be tightly regulated in order to prevent inappropriate inflammatory responses to exogenous stimuli. Intestinal homeostasis and tolerance are mediated through a multitude of immune mechanisms that act to reinforce barrier integrity, maintain the segregation and balance of commensal microbes, and ensure tissue health and regeneration...
May 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
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