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Innate lymphoid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087665/nkg2d-promotes-b1a-cell-development-and-protection-against-bacterial-infection
#1
Maja Lenartić, Vedrana Jelenčić, Biljana Zafirova, Mateja Ožanič, Valentina Marečić, Slaven Jurković, Veronika Sexl, Marina Šantić, Felix M Wensveen, Bojan Polić
NKG2D is a potent activating receptor that is expressed on cytotoxic immune cells such as CD8 T and NK cells, where it promotes cytotoxicity after binding stress ligands on infected or transformed cells. On NK cell precursors NKG2D modulates proliferation and maturation. Previously, we observed that NKG2D deficiency affects peripheral B cell numbers. In this study, we show that NKG2D regulates B1a cell development and function. We find that mice deficient for NKG2D have a strong reduction of B1a cell numbers...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087226/pathways-to-limit-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-activation
#2
EDITORIAL
Taylor A Doherty, David H Broide
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086922/transcriptional-profiles-in-bursal-b-lymphoid-dt40-cells-infected-with-very-virulent-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#3
Rong Quan, Shanshan Zhu, Li Wei, Jing Wang, Xu Yan, Zixuan Li, Jue Liu
BACKGROUND: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious, immunosuppressive disease in chickens. The virus mainly infects immature B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Chicken B cell line DT40, an avian leukosis virus-induced B cell line, supports very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) infection in vitro and thereby serves as a good model for investigating the infection and pathogenesis of this virus. However, a transcriptome-wide understanding of the interaction between vvIBDV and B cells has not yet been achieved...
January 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077598/notch-ligand-delta-like-4-promotes-regulatory-t-cell-identity-in-pulmonary-viral-infection
#4
Hung-An Ting, Matthew A Schaller, Denise E de Almeida Nagata, Andrew J Rasky, Ivan P Maillard, Nicholas W Lukacs
Regulatory T (Treg) cells establish tolerance, prevent inflammation at mucosal surfaces, and regulate immunopathology during infectious responses. Recent studies have shown that Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) was upregulated on APC after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, and its inhibition leads to exaggerated immunopathology. In the present study, we outline the role of Dll4 in Treg cell differentiation, stability, and function in RSV infection. We found that Dll4 was expressed on CD11b(+) pulmonary dendritic cells in the lung and draining lymph nodes in wild-type BALB/c mice after RSV infection...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070196/airway-autoimmune-responses-in-severe-eosinophilic-asthma-following-low-dose-mepolizumab-therapy
#5
Manali Mukherjee, Hui Fang Lim, Sruthi Thomas, Douglas Miller, Melanie Kjarsgaard, Bruce Tan, Roma Sehmi, Nader Khalidi, Parameswaran Nair
BACKGROUND: Anti-interleukin (IL)-5 monoclonal antibodies as an eosinophil-depleting strategy is well established, with Mepolizumab being the first biologic approved as an adjunct treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year old woman diagnosed with severe eosinophilic asthma showed poor response to Mepolizumab therapy (100 mg subcutaneous dose/monthly) and subsequent worsening of symptoms. The treatment response to Mepolizumab was monitored using both blood and sputum eosinophil counts...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069067/end-stage-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-is-characterised-by-a-diverse-inflammatory-pattern-an-immunohistochemical-analysis
#6
Elise J Lammertyn, Elly Vandermeulen, Hannelore Bellon, Stephanie Everaerts, Stijn E Verleden, Kathleen Van Den Eynde, Ken R Bracke, Guy G Brusselle, Pieter C Goeminne, Erik K Verbeken, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Lieven J Dupont
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by vigorous airway inflammation eventually resulting in severe lung damage. This study aimed to describe the diversity of the inflammatory pattern in end-stage CF lungs by evaluating and quantifying which components of the innate and adaptive immunity are involved, and by assessing whether this is gender-specific. METHODS: CF explant lung tissue (n = 20) collected at time of transplantation and control tissue (n = 22) was sectioned (9 μm) and stained for neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4 T cells, cytotoxic T cells and B cells...
January 10, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065837/vagal-regulation-of-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-the-immunoresolvent-pctr1-controls-infection-resolution
#7
Jesmond Dalli, Romain A Colas, Hildur Arnardottir, Charles N Serhan
Uncovering mechanisms that control immune responses in the resolution of bacterial infections is critical for the development of new therapeutic strategies that resolve infectious inflammation without unwanted side effects. We found that disruption of the vagal system in mice delayed resolution of Escherichia coli infection. Dissection of the right vagus decreased peritoneal group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3) numbers and altered peritoneal macrophage responses. Vagotomy resulted in an inflammatory peritoneal lipid mediator profile characterized by reduced concentrations of pro-resolving mediators, including the protective immunoresolvent PCTR1, along with elevated inflammation-initiating eicosanoids...
January 4, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063049/isolation-and-flow-cytometry-analysis-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-from-the-intestinal-lamina-propria
#8
Konrad Gronke, Michael Kofoed-Nielsen, Andreas Diefenbach
The intestinal mucosa constitutes the biggest surface area of the body. It is constantly challenged by bacteria, commensal and pathogenic, protozoa, and food-derived irritants. In order to maintain homeostasis, a complex network of signaling circuits has evolved that includes contributions of immune cells. In recent years a subset of lymphocytes, which belong to the innate immune system, has caught particular attention. These so-called innate lymphoid cells (ILC) reside within the lamina propria of the small and large intestines and rapidly respond to environmental challenges...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063044/characterization-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-allergic-airway-inflammation-models-in-the-mouse
#9
Bobby W S Li, Dior M J M Beerens, Maarten D Brem, Rudi W Hendriks
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease mediated by type 2 cytokines produced by T helper 2 (Th2) cells as well as the recently discovered group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2). Due to a lack of unique markers, the accurate phenotypic characterization and quantification of ILC2 requires a comprehensive panel of fluorescently labeled antibodies. The markers that are currently used to characterize ILC2 have not been standardized and often vary between research groups, which poses significant challenges when comparing data...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063043/subcutaneous-and-sublingual-immunotherapy-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-asthma
#10
Laura Hesse, Martijn C Nawijn
Allergic asthma, caused by inhaled allergens such as house dust mite or grass pollen, is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, associated with an eosinophilic inflammation of the airways, as well as airway hyper responsiveness and remodeling. The inhaled allergens trigger a type-2 inflammatory response with involvement of innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and Th2 cells, resulting in high production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Consequently, renewed allergen exposure results in a classic allergic response with a distinct early and late phase, both resulting in bronchoconstriction and shortness of breath...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057804/cell-cycle-progression-dictates-the-requirement-for-bcl2-in-natural-killer-cell-survival
#11
Charlotte Viant, Sophie Guia, Robert J Hennessy, Jai Rautela, Kim Pham, Claire Bernat, Wilford Goh, Yuhao Jiao, Rebecca Delconte, Michael Roger, Vanina Simon, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Stephanie Grabow, Gabrielle T Belz, Benjamin T Kile, Andreas Strasser, Daniel Gray, Phillip D Hodgkin, Bruce Beutler, Eric Vivier, Sophie Ugolini, Nicholas D Huntington
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells with antitumor functions. Using an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutagenesis screen in mice, we identified a strain with an NK cell deficiency caused by a hypomorphic mutation in the Bcl2 (B cell lymphoma 2) gene. Analysis of these mice and the conditional deletion of Bcl2 in NK cells revealed a nonredundant intrinsic requirement for BCL2 in NK cell survival. In these mice, NK cells in cycle were protected against apoptosis, and NK cell counts were restored in inflammatory conditions, suggesting a redundant role for BCL2 in proliferating NK cells...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054442/markers-and-function-of-human-nk-cells-in-normal-and-pathological-conditions
#12
REVIEW
Genny Del Zotto, Emanuela Marcenaro, Paola Vacca, Simona Sivori, Daniela Pende, Mariella Della Chiesa, Francesca Moretta, Tiziano Ingegnere, Maria Cristina Mingari, Alessandro Moretta, And Lorenzo Moretta
Natural killer (NK) cells, the most important effectors of the Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs), play a fundamental role in tumor immune-surveillance, defense against viruses and, in general, in innate immune responses. NK cell activation is mediated by several activating receptors and co-receptors able to recognize ligands on virus-infected or tumor cells. To prevent healthy cells from auto-aggression, NK cells are provided with strong inhibitory receptors (KIRs and NKG2A) which recognize HLA class I molecules on target cells and, sensing their level of expression, allow killing of targets underexpressing HLA-class I...
January 5, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045397/role-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-in-obesity-associated-metabolic-disease
#13
Tracey McLaughlin, Shelley E Ackerman, Lei Shen, Edgar Engleman
Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, possibly related to adipose cell hypertrophy, hypoxia, and/or intestinal leakage of bacteria and their metabolic products, likely plays a critical role in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR). Cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system residing in adipose tissues, as well as in the intestine, participate in this process. Thus, M1 macrophages, IFN-γ-secreting Th1 cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells promote IR, in part through secretion of proinflammatory cytokines...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035684/homeostatic-migration-and-distribution-of-innate-immune-cells-in-primary-and-secondary-lymphoid-organs-with-aging
#14
REVIEW
Janko Nikolich-Žugich, John S Davies
Aging of the innate and adaptive immune system, collectively termed immune senescence, is a complex process. One method to understand the components of aging involves dissociating the effects of aging on the cells of the immune system, on the microenvironment in lymphoid organs and tissues where immune cells reside, and on the circulating factors that interact with both immune cells and their microenvironment. Heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical union of two organisms of disparate ages, is ideal for this type of studies, as it has the power to dissociate the age of the cell and the age of the microenvironment in which the cell resides or is migrating into...
December 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034757/vancomycin-pre-treatment-impairs-tissue-healing-in-experimental-colitis-importance-of-innate-lymphoid-cells
#15
Di Zhao, Chenwen Cai, Qing Zheng, Shuang Jin, Dongjuan Song, Jun Shen, Zhihua Ran
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interplay between luminal microbes and innate immunity during colonic epithelial repair has been well noted. At the same time, antibiotic has widely been used during flare-ups of ulcerative colitis. The possible effects of luminal microbiota disruption caused by antibiotics usage on epithelial repairing have been scarcely discussed. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) embedded in the lamina propria can be modulated by gut microbes, resulting in altered colonic IL-22/pSTAT3 levels, which is considered a prominent molecular axis in tissue repairing after epithelium damage...
December 27, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017833/protein-palmitoylation-by-zdhhc13-protects-skin-against-microbial-driven-dermatitis
#16
Li-Ying Chen, Hsin-Fang Yang-Yen, Chun-Chou Tsai, Christina Li-Ping Thio, Hsiao-Li Chuang, Liang-Tung Yang, Li-Fen Shen, I-Wen Song, Kai-Ming Liu, Yen-Te Huang, Fu-Tong Liu, Ya-Jen Chang, Yuan-Tsong Chen, Jeffrey J Y Yen
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex chronic inflammatory skin disorder that results from intimate interactions between genetic predisposition, host environment, skin barrier defects, and immunological factors. However, a clear genetic roadmap leading to AD remains to be fully explored. From a genome-wide mutagenesis screen, deficiency of ZDHHC13, a palmitoylacyl transferase, has previously been associated with skin and multi-tissue inflammatory phenotypes. Here, we report that ZDHHC13 is required for skin barrier integrity and that deficiency of ZDHHC13 renders mice susceptible to environmental bacteria, resulting in persistent skin inflammation and an AD-like disease...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017508/sex-differences-in-activation-of-lung-related-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-experimental-asthma
#17
Kristi J Warren, Jenea M Sweeter, Jacqueline A Pavlik, Amy J Nelson, Jane M Devasure, John D Dickinson, Joseph H Sisson, Todd A Wyatt, Jill A Poole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012987/characterization-of-non-lethal-west-nile-virus-wnv-infection-in-horses-subclinical-pathology-and-innate-immune-response
#18
Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Angela Bosco-Lauth, Airn-Elizabeth Hartwig, M Jasim Uddin, Jean Barcelon, Willy W Suen, Wenqi Wang, Roy A Hall, Richard A Bowen
Most natural West Nile virus (WNV) infections in humans and horses are subclinical or sub-lethal and non-encephalitic. Yet, the main focus of WNV research remains on the pathogenesis of encephalitic disease, mainly conducted in mouse models. We characterized host responses during subclinical WNV infection in horses and compared outcomes with those obtained in a novel rabbit model of subclinical WNV infection (Suen et al. 2015. Pathogens, 4: 529). Experimental infection of 10 horses with the newly emerging WNV-strain, WNVNSW2011, did not result in neurological disease in any animal but transcriptional upregulation of both type I and II interferon (IFN) was seen in peripheral blood leukocytes prior to or at the time of viremia...
December 21, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011865/leukotrienes-provide-an-nfat-dependent-signal-that-synergizes-with-il-33-to-activate-ilc2s
#19
Jakob von Moltke, Claire E O'Leary, Nora A Barrett, Yoshihide Kanaoka, K Frank Austen, Richard M Locksley
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and type 2 helper T cells (Th2 cells) are the primary source of interleukin 5 (IL-5) and IL-13 during type 2 (allergic) inflammation in the lung. In Th2 cells, T cell receptor (TCR) signaling activates the transcription factors nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and activator protein 1 (AP-1) to induce type 2 cytokines. ILC2s lack a TCR and respond instead to locally produced cytokines such as IL-33. Although IL-33 induces AP-1 and NF-κB, NFAT signaling has not been described in ILC2s...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011639/loss-of-functionally-redundant-p38-isoforms-in-t-cells-enhances-regulatory-t-cell-induction
#20
Morisada Hayakawa, Hiroko Hayakawa, Tsvetana Petrova, Patcharee Ritprajak, Ruhcha V Sutavani, Guillermina Yanek Jiménez-Andrade, Yasuyo Sano, Min-Kyung Choo, John Seavitt, Ram K C Venigalla, Kinya Otsu, Katia Georgopoulos, J Simon C Arthur, Jin Mo Park
The evolutionarily conserved protein kinase p38 mediates innate resistance to environmental stress and microbial infection. Four p38 isoforms exist in mammals and may have been co-opted for new roles in adaptive immunity. Murine T cells deficient in p38α, the ubiquitously expressed p38 isoform, showed no readily apparent cell-autonomous defects while expressing elevated amounts of another isoform, p38β. Mice with T cells simultaneously lacking p38α and p38β displayed lymphoid atrophy and elevated Foxp3+ regulatory T cell frequencies...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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