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pulmonary embolism guidelines

Sam Schulman
During the past 7 years, results from phase III trials comparing nonvitamin antagonist K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or with placebo, including 34,900 patients, have been published. Recent guidelines have been updated and now suggest treatment with NOACs rather than with VKA. Other updates in the guidelines concern the initial thrombolytic treatment for selected patients with deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism as well as the possibility of withholding anticoagulation for minimal venous thromboembolism...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Evangelos Giannitsis, Hugo A Katus
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high all-cause and PE-related mortality and requires individualized management. After confirmation of PE, a refined risk stratification is particularly warranted among normotensive patients. Previous prognostic models favored combinations of echocardiography or computed tomography suggestive of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction together with biomarkers of RV dysfunction (natriuretic peptides) or myocardial injury (cardiac troponins) to identify candidates for thrombolysis or embolectomy...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Adam J Singer, Henry C Thode, W Frank Peacock
OBJECTIVE: Introduction of target specific anticoagulants and recent guidelines encourage outpatient management of low risk patients with venous thromboembolism. We describe hospital admission rates over time for patients presenting to US emergency departments (EDs) with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) and estimate the proportion of low-risk PE patients who could potentially be managed as outpatients. METHODS: We performed a structured analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (a nationally representative weighted sampling of US ED visits) database for the years 2006-2010 including all adult patients with a primary diagnosis of DVT or PE...
September 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
L M Van der Pol, A T A Mairuhu, C Tromeur, F Couturaud, M V Huisman, F A Klok
Because pregnant women have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and at the same time normal pregnancy is associated with symptoms, mimicking those present in the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), the latter diagnosis is frequently suspected in this patient category. Since imaging tests expose both mother and foetus to ionizing radiation, the ability to rule out PE based on non-radiological diagnostic tests is of paramount importance. However, clinical decision rules have only been scarcely evaluated in the pregnant population with suspected PE, while D-dimer levels lose diagnostic accuracy due to a physiological increase during normal pregnancy...
September 29, 2016: Blood Reviews
Eric J Gartman
The relative hypercoagulable state of pregnancy leads to an increased risk of thrombotic complications, of which some may be life-threatening or medically devastating. In the non-pregnant patient, the current guidelines suggest thrombolysis as the primary treatment in acute ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction when percutaneous intervention is unavailable, certain cases of mechanical valve thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism with hemodynamic compromise or shock. Given that clinical trial data regarding thrombolytic use in pregnant women are absent due to exclusion, the goal of this review is to summarize the available published data regarding the use of thrombolytic agents and subsequent outcomes and complications in pregnant women...
September 2013: Obstetric Medicine
Marijan Bosevski, Elizabeta Srbinovska-Kostovska
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis, known as venous thromboembolism (VTE), are associated with a high proportion of morbidity and mortality. AIM: Aim of this review is to emphasise current diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for VTE. RESULTS: No differences have been noticed in European and American guidelines in diagnostic approach of this disorder. Today there is enough clinical information for the use of heparin (either, unfractionated or low molecular) and vitamin K antagonists in the treatment of acute and chronic phases of VTE...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Khalid Al-Ebrahim
Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version.
May 1998: Saudi Medical Journal
Seung-Kee Min, Young Hwan Kim, Jin Hyun Joh, Jin Mo Kang, Ui Jun Park, Hyung-Kee Kim, Jeong-Hwan Chang, Sang Jun Park, Jang Yong Kim, Jae Ik Bae, Sun Young Choi, Chang Won Kim, Sung Il Park, Nam Yeol Yim, Yong Sun Jeon, Hyun-Ki Yoon, Ki Hyuk Park
Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis is a serious medical condition that can result in death or major disability due to pulmonary embolism or post-thrombotic syndrome. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are required to improve symptoms and salvage the affected limb. Early thrombus clearance rapidly resolves symptoms related to venous obstruction, restores valve function and reduces the incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome. Recently, endovascular treatment has been established as a standard method for early thrombus removal...
September 2016: Vascular Specialist International
J J Dalal, P Amin, A S Ansari, A Bhave, R G Bhagwat, A Challani, A V Ganeshkumar, R Gupta, A Hegde, P Karnik, Z Khan, S Mehta, H Ravat, S Rajan, C Tulsigiri
: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Although the exact epidemiology of PE is not known in India, Some of the studies show that more frequently it is missed and not managed appropriately leading to significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Justification and purpose: Indian guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute PE are not yet formulated. The objective of this consensus statement is to propose a diagnostic and management approach for acute PE in India...
December 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Marisa Peris, David Jiménez, Ana Maestre, Carme Font, Alfonso J Tafur, Lucia Mazzolai, Belén Xifre, Andris Skride, Francesco Dentali, Manuel Monreal
Current guidelines suggest treating cancer patients with incidental pulmonary embolism comparably to patients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism.We used the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) registry to compare the rate of major bleeding and symptomatic pulmonary embolism during the course of anticoagulation and after its discontinuation in cancer patients with incidental pulmonary embolism.As of March 2016, 715 cancer patients with incidental pulmonary embolism had been enrolled in RIETE...
September 22, 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Mohamed Shokr, Ramanjit Kaur, Kevin Belgrave, Arshad Javed, Mahir Elder, Shaun Cardozo, Luis Afonso, Amir Kaki
Catheter related thrombosis (CRT) is a commonly encountered entity fraught with substantial risk for mortality secondary to various complications including pulmonary embolism (PE), tricuspid regurgitation, endocarditis, right sided heart failure, and cardiogenic and septic shock. CRT carries a mortality rate of 18% in hemodialysis patients and more than 40% in nonhemodialysis patients. Management strategies include systemic anticoagulation, systemic thrombolysis, surgical evacuation, and percutaneous retrieval with no established guidelines...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
Christian Lilje, Aman Chauhan, Jason P Turner, Thomas H Carson, Maria C Velez, Christopher Arcement, Joseph Caspi
A rare case of massive pulmonary embolism is presented in an oligosymptomatic teenager with predisposing factors. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography supported by three-dimensional reconstruction was diagnostic. The embolus qualified as massive by conventional anatomical guidelines, but as low risk by more recent functional criteria. Functional assessment has complemented morphologic assessment for risk stratification in adult patients. Such evidence is scarce in pediatrics. The patient underwent surgical embolectomy, followed by prophylactic anticoagulation, without further events...
September 12, 2016: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Aaron Samuel Weinberg, Suhail Dohad, Danny Ramzy, Hooman Madyoon, Victor F Tapson
Clinical guidelines support the use of systemic thrombolytic therapy for acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE). When anticoagulation and thrombolysis fail or are contraindicated, options become limited. We report an acute PE case in which treatment options were limited, and a novel device, the FlowTriever (Inari Medical, Irvine, California), was successfully used. This is the first case report of the use of this device that we are aware of.
September 6, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Stavros K Kakkos, Joseph A Caprini, George Geroulakos, Andrew N Nicolaides, Gerard Stansby, Daniel J Reddy, Ioannis Ntouvas
BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed by practitioners and guideline authors that combined modalities (methods of treatment) are more effective than single modalities in preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE), defined as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), or both. This is an update of the review first published in 2008. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of combined intermittent pneumatic leg compression (IPC) and pharmacological prophylaxis versus single modalities in preventing venous thromboembolism...
September 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hem Desai, Bhupinder Natt, Christian Bime, Joshua Dill, James E Dalen, Joseph S Alpert
BACKGROUND: Appropriate management of pulmonary embolism patients with right ventricular dysfunction is uncertain. Recent guidelines have stressed the need for more data on the use of thrombolytic agents in the stable pulmonary embolism patient with right ventricular dysfunction. The objective of this study is to investigate the hypothesis that thrombolytic therapy in hemodynamically stable pulmonary embolism patients with right ventricular dysfunction is not associated with improved mortality...
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Letizia Marconi, Laura Carrozzi, Ferruccio Aquilini, Alessandro Celi, Francesco Pistelli, Antonio Palla
Benefits and harms of long-term anticoagulant therapy (AT) after acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of patients with PE treated with AT for 5 years according to American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines.Patients with both unprovoked and secondary PE were consecutively enrolled in a "real life" study. After a 12-month AT, they continued or stopped the treatment according to ACCP guidelines, and were followed-up for 5 years. Outcomes were all-cause mortality, recurrence, and fatal recurrence under AT...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Raveesh D Richard, Brooke E Maloney, Glen T Feltham
As hip arthroscopy becomes more prevalent, it is imperative to identify potential risks associated with this procedure. In this article, we report a case of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism that developed after hip arthroscopy in a moderate-risk patient with heterozygous factor V Leiden deficiency. The patient concomitantly developed DVT and pulmonary embolism during a 5-day course of treatment with subcutaneous enoxaparin. The American College of Chest Physicians and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons guidelines on postarthroplasty DVT prophylaxis do not address thromboprophylaxis in hip arthroscopy...
July 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
E Ryan, H K Kok, M J Lee
Venous thromboembolism is a common condition with widely varied outcomes. Pulmonary embolism is associated with a case-fatality rate of up to 8%, increasing up to 18-fold in massive PE. Pharmacological treatment of VTE with anticoagulant medication (AC) is the first line therapy of choice. Retrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCF) are indicated as a short-term replacement for AC in certain circumstances. Most of the evidence concerning IVCF pertains to permanent filters and older filter models. Limited evidence for retrievable IVCF results in poor consensus regarding indications, follow-up and retrieval...
August 9, 2016: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Sergio Hernandez, Jorge Valdes, Moises Salama
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health concern because it increases morbidity and mortality after a surgical procedure. A number of well-defined, evidence-based guidelines are available delineating suitable use of prophylaxis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Despite the available literature, there are clear gaps between recommendations and clinical practice, affecting the incidence of VTE. Plastic surgeons underuse the substantiated literature and risk stratification tools that are available to decrease the incidence of VTE in the office-based surgical setting because of fear of bleeding or hematoma complications postoperatively...
June 2016: AANA Journal
Stefano Barco, Jasper J Atema, Michiel Coppens, Mireille J Serlie, Saskia Middeldorp
BACKGROUND: Patients on parenteral nutrition require a central venous access and are at risk of catheter-related thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and vena cava syndrome. Parenteral nutrition guidelines suggest anticoagulation for the primary prevention of catheter-related thrombosis during long-term parenteral nutrition. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy, safety and feasibility of anticoagulant use for preventing and treating catheter-related thrombosis during parenteral nutrition...
July 21, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
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