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hypothyroidism guidelines

Alfredo Campennì, Salvatore Giovinazzo, Salvatore Antonio Pignata, Francesca Di Mauro, Domenico Santoro, Lorenzo Curtò, Francesco Trimarchi, Rosaria Maddalena Ruggeri, Sergio Baldari
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy, which usually occurs as a sporadic disease, and less frequently in the setting of genetic syndromes. Despite the association of parathyroid and thyroid disorders being quite common, the coexistence of parathyroid carcinoma and thyroid disease is rare. We reviewed the pertinent literature. The terms "parathyroid carcinoma" and "thyroid disease, hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, thyroid nodule(s), Graves' disease, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules" were used both separately and in reciprocal conjunction to search MEDLINE for articles published from January 2007 to March 2016...
October 15, 2016: Endocrine
M Pfinder, S Dreger, L Christianson, S K Lhachimi, H Zeeb
A potential radiation protection method to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes in the case of accidental radioactive iodine release is the administration of potassium iodide (KI). Although KI administration is recommended by WHO's Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents, a systematic review of the scientific evidence for the guidelines is lacking. Therefore, this study aims to systematically review the effects of KI administration in the case of accidental radioactive iodine release on thyroid cancer, hypothyroidism and benign thyroid nodules...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Tee Wei Siah, Llorenia Muir-Green, Jerry Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a very common problem in women. The underlying pathophysiology remains unclear, and there are no universally agreed treatment guidelines. OBJECTIVE: We explored the clinical features, relevant medical and family history, laboratory evaluation, and treatment and compliance of 210 patients with FPHL. METHODS: Data analysis from case notes was performed on 210 patients with a diagnosis of FPHL seen from January 2011 to December 2011...
April 2016: International Journal of Trichology
Won Sang Yoo, Hyun Kyung Chung
Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) includes hyperthyroid Graves disease, hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis, and subtle subclinical thyroid dysfunctions. AITD is caused by interactions between genetic and environmental predisposing factors and results in autoimmune deterioration. Data on polymorphisms in the AITD susceptibility genes, related environmental factors, and dysregulation of autoimmune processes have accumulated over time. Over the last decade, there has been progress in the clinical field of AITD with respect to the available diagnostic and therapeutic methods as well as clinical consensus...
September 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism
D S A McLeod, H D McIntyre
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), thyroid autoimmunity and isolated maternal hypothyroxinaemia are diagnoses made on laboratory findings. The two former conditions are commonly identified in the general population, while the term isolated maternal hypothyroxinaemia was developed to highlight potential neurodevelopmental risks in progeny. Each entity has been associated with either obstetric, perinatal and/or child developmental harm in observational studies, although few interventional trials have been performed to guide diagnostic and therapeutic approaches...
December 2010: Obstetric Medicine
R Guglielmi, A Frasoldati, M Zini, F Grimaldi, H Gharib, J R Garber, E Papini
INTRODUCTION: Hypothyroidism requires life-long thyroid hormone replacement therapy in most patients. Oral levothyroxine (L-T4) is an established safe and effective treatment for hypothyroidism but some issues remain unsettled. METHODS: The Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AME) appointed a panel of experts to provide an updated statement for appropriate use of thyroid hormone formulations for replacement of hypothyroidism. The AACE protocol for standardized production of clinical practice guidelines was followed...
August 2, 2016: Endocrine Practice
Sogol Mostoufi-Moab, Kristy Seidel, Wendy M Leisenring, Gregory T Armstrong, Kevin C Oeffinger, Marilyn Stovall, Lillian R Meacham, Daniel M Green, Rita Weathers, Jill P Ginsberg, Leslie L Robison, Charles A Sklar
PURPOSE: The development of endocrinopathies in survivors of childhood cancer as they age remains understudied. We characterized endocrine outcomes in aging survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study on the basis of therapeutic exposures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed self-reported conditions in 14,290 5-year survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, with a median age 6 years (range, < 1 to 20 years) at diagnosis and 32 years (range, 5 to 58 years) at last follow-up...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Xin Fan, Shaoke Chen, Jiale Qian, Suren Sooranna, Jingi Luo, Chuan Li, Qin Tang, Caijuan Lin
Background. A newborn screening program (NSP) for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was carried out in Guangxi in order to understand the incidence of CH and the factors interrelated to major types of CH in this region of China. Methods. During 2009 to 2013, data from 930 612 newborns attending NSP in Guangxi were collected. Patients were classified with either permanent CH (PCH) or transient CH (TCH) after 2 years of progressive study. Results. A total of 1210 patients were confirmed with CH with an incidence of 1/769, including 68 PCH and 126 TCH cases with incidences of 1/6673 and 1/3385, respectively...
2015: Global Pediatric Health
Risa B Burns, Carol K Bates, Pamela Hartzband, Gerald W Smetana
In May 2015, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force issued a guideline on screening for thyroid disease that included a systematic evidence review and an update of its 2004 recommendations. The review assessed the effect of treating screen-detected subclinical thyroid dysfunction on health outcomes. It found adequate evidence that treating subclinical hypothyroidism does not provide clinically meaningful improvements in blood pressure, body mass index, bone mineral density, lipid levels, or quality-of-life measures...
June 7, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
David S Cooper, Blair Anton
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of the clinical thyroidology literature using bibliographic analysis. METHODS: The subject "clinical thyroidology" was divided into six broad topics: iodine deficiency/iodine nutrition, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis, thyroiditis/autoimmune thyroid disease, thyroid nodules/multinodular goiter, and thyroid cancer. Using Scopus, an online bibliographic searching tool, this study sought to examine the trends in the publication of clinical thyroid disease-related research articles over the decade from 2006 through the end of 2015...
August 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Atsushi Uchiyama, Sigetaka Sugihara, Satoshi Kusuda
BACKGROUND: Recently, a revised version of the Guidelines for Mass Screening of Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH) was published in Japan. However, it is unknown whether the guidelines have been widely known and applied in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). METHODS: To clarify the current status and issues of newborn screening (NBS) for CH in Japanese NICUs, we sent a questionnaire by mail or email to neonatologists who were responsible for 100 tertiary NICUs in Japan and analyzed their responses...
May 18, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
V Eligar, P N Taylor, O E Okosieme, G P Leese, C M Dayan
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism affects 2-5% of the general population. Patients with uncorrected disease suffer significant morbidity and have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive impairment. Levothyroxine, the treatment of choice, is inexpensive, easy to administer and in most cases restores well-being while normalizing thyroid function. However, 30-50% of individuals on levothyroxine are either over-treated or under-treated and others remain dissatisfied with treatment despite achieving thyroid hormone concentrations within the laboratory reference interval...
July 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Noelle Whyte, Christopher Sullivan
When patients who are thin present with knee pain, it can be easy to overlook the possibility of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). Although 80% of patients with a "slip" are obese, thin children are not immune to this problem. Endocrinopathies, especially hypothyroidism, can be associated with SCFE. This article describes guidelines for evaluating patients for a slip and highlights some important considerations for the atypical SCFE. Patients with open growth plates with thigh or knee pain should routinely have a hip examination as part of the evaluation...
April 2016: Pediatric Annals
C Huchon, X Deffieux, G Beucher, P Capmas, X Carcopino, N Costedoat-Chalumeau, A Delabaere, V Gallot, E Iraola, V Lavoue, G Legendre, V Lejeune-Saada, J Leveque, S Nedellec, J Nizard, T Quibel, D Subtil, F Vialard, D Lemery
In intrauterine pregnancies of uncertain viability with a gestational sac without a yolk sac (with a mean of three orthogonal transvaginal ultrasound measurements <25mm), the suspected pregnancy loss should only be confirmed after a follow-up scan at least 14 days later shows no embryo with cardiac activity (Grade C). In intrauterine pregnancies of uncertain viability with an embryo <7mm on transvaginal ultrasound, the suspected pregnancy loss should only be confirmed after a follow-up scan at least 7 days later (Grade C)...
June 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Daniëlle C M van der Kaay, Jonathan D Wasserman, Mark R Palmert
Neonates born to mothers with Graves' disease are at risk for significant morbidity and mortality and need to be appropriately identified and managed. Because no consensus guidelines regarding the treatment of these newborns exist, we sought to generate a literature-based management algorithm. The suggestions include the following: (1) Base initial risk assessment on maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies. If levels are negative, no specific neonatal follow-up is necessary; if unavailable or positive, regard the newborn as "at risk" for the development of hyperthyroidism...
April 2016: Pediatrics
Yosuke Ono, Masanori Fujita, Sachiko Ono, Sho Ogata, Shoichi Tachibana, Yuji Tanaka
Myxedema coma (MC) is a life-threatening endocrine crisis caused by severe hypothyroidism. However, validated diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines for MC have not been established owing to its rarity. Therefore, a valid animal model is required to investigate the pathologic and therapeutic aspects of MC. The aim of the present study was to establish an animal model of MC induced by total thyroidectomy. We utilized 14 male New Zealand White rabbits anesthetized via intramuscular ketamine and xylazine administration...
June 30, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Margaret Andre, Andrew S Day
UNLABELLED: Although prolonged jaundice (PJ) commonly occurs in infancy, there is not yet agreement as to the appropriate extent of investigations, particularly in otherwise well children. Significant pathologies may present with PJ in this age group and need to be considered. AIM: The aim of this retrospective study was to ascertain the causes of PJ in infants referred to a single tertiary paediatric centre. METHODS: Infants referred with PJ over a 3-year period were identified...
January 29, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Alan R McNeil, Phoebe E Stanford
While there is agreement that overt maternal hypothyroidism (serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) >10 mIU/L) should be treated immediately, the evidence is mixed regarding the harm associated with subclinical hypothyroidism and the benefits of thyroxine replacement. The diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism rests on the recognition of an increased serum concentration of TSH which may be affected by many factors including gestational age, analytical method, the antibody status of the mother, ethnicity, iodine nutrition and even the time of day when the blood is collected...
November 2015: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
Zeeshan Javed, Thozhukat Sathyapalan
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). SCH is further classified into a milder condition with TSH levels between 4.0 and 10.0 milli-international units (mIU)/l (mild-SCH) and a severe form with TSH >10.0 mIU/l (severe-SCH). SCH is a common problem (prevalence is greater in women than men), which increases further with increasing age and TSH levels. Even though the risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is higher in patients with severe-SCH, the risk is also significant in patients having mild-SCH; it has been suggested that every twofold rise in serum TSH would increase the risk from 1 to 4%, which further increases to 38% if thyroid antibodies are positive...
February 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Alkistis Skalkidou, Marie Bixo, Ann-Charlotte Sköldebrand Sparre, Annika Strandell, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Helena Filipsson Nyström
Thyroid abnormalities are common during pregnancy and can affect pregnancy outcome. In 2012, the working group for endocrinology was assigned by SFOG to develop evidence based guidelines for their management. There is high quality evidence that untreated clinical hypothyroidism increases the risk of pregnancy and fetal complications. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with pregnancy complications. The presence of TPO-antibodies is linked to miscarriage and premature birth. It is uncertain whether subclinical hypothyroidism/maternal TPO-antibodies adversely affect the child's neurocognitive development...
2016: Läkartidningen
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