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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523609/cardiorespiratory-responses-and-myocardial-function-within-incremental-exercise-in-healthy-unmedicated-older-vs-young-men-and-women
#1
Paulo Farinatti, Walace Monteiro, Ricardo Oliveira, Antonio Crisafulli
BACKGROUND: Age-related differences concerning cardiorespiratory responses and myocardial function during exercise have not been extensively investigated in healthy populations. AIMS: To compare cardiorespiratory performance and myocardial function during maximal exercise in healthy/unmedicated men (older, n = 24, 63-75 years; young, n = 22, 19-25 years) and women (older, n = 18, age = 63-74 years; young, n = 23, 19-25 years). METHODS: Oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation minute (V E), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Q), O2 pulse (O2p), preejection period (PEP), and left ventricular ejection time (LVET) were assessed during cycle incremental exercise...
May 18, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522762/postmeal-exercise-blunts-postprandial-glucose-excursions-in-people-on-metformin-monotherapy
#2
Melissa Lynn Erickson, Jonathan Peter Little, Jennifer L Gay, Kevin K McCully, Nathan T Jenkins
Metformin is used clinically to reduce fasting glucose with minimal effects on postprandial glucose. Postmeal exercise reduces postprandial glucose and may offer additional glucose-lowering benefit beyond that of metformin alone, yet controversy exists surrounding exercise and metformin interactions. It is currently unknown how postmeal exercise and metformin monotherapy in combination will affect postprandial glucose. Thus, we examined the independent and combined effects of postmeal exercise and metformin monotherapy on postprandial glucose...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522658/effect-of-fontan-geometry-on-exercise-haemodynamics-and-its-potential-implications
#3
Elaine Tang, Zhenglun Alan Wei, Kevin K Whitehead, Reza H Khiabani, Maria Restrepo, Lucia Mirabella, James Bethel, Stephen M Paridon, Bradley S Marino, Mark A Fogel, Ajit P Yoganathan
OBJECTIVE: Exercise intolerance afflicts Fontan patients with total cavopulmonary connections (TCPCs) causing a reduction in quality of life. Optimising TCPC design is hypothesised to have a beneficial effect on exercise capacity. This study investigates relationships between TCPC geometries and exercise haemodynamics and performance. METHODS: This study included 47 patients who completed metabolic exercise stress test with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Phase-contrast CMR images were acquired immediately following supine lower limb exercise...
May 18, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515841/demands-of-simulated-commuting-using-an-electrically-assisted-bicycle
#4
D Taylor LA Salle, Robert Shute, Matthew Heesch, Dustin Slivka
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends adults participate in weekly aerobic activity for a minimum of 30 minutes moderate intensity exercise 5 days per week or 20 minutes of vigorous activity 3 days per week. The electrically assisted bicycle may help individuals achieve the ACSM's aerobic recommendations and introduce inactive individuals to physical activity. To compare the physiological requirements of riding a bicycle with electric pedal assist versus non-assist among healthy active young adults...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515830/how-different-respiratory-rate-patterns-affect-cardiorespiratory-variables-and-performance
#5
Minas Nalbandian, Zsolt Radak, Jun Taniguchi, Takeda Masaki
This study aims to elucidate how respiratory rate (RR) patterns may affect respiratory gas exchange variables and performance during incremental intensity- exercise. 10 healthy young men (mean ± SD, age: 20.7 ± 0.5 years, height: 174.3 ± 5.7 cm, and body mass: 72.6 ± 10.4 kg) performed three incremental tests on a cycle ergometer at three different RR (60, 45 and 30 breaths per min) in each trial. During the tests, tidal volume (TV), minute ventilation (VE), fractional content of oxygen (FeO2), fractional content of carbon dioxide (FeCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), expiratory carbon dioxide (VCO2), equivalent of oxygen (EqO2), VE/VCO2, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were determinate breath-by-breath...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513694/atomic-scale-observation-of-a-defect-mediated-first-order-phase-transition-in-vo2-a
#6
Chao Jiang, Lu Chen, Shidong Ji, Jun Liu, Zhengfei Zhang, Ping Jin, Yong Wang, Ze Zhang
The study of first-order structural transformations has attracted extensive attention due to their significant scientific and industrial importance. However, it remains challenging to exactly determine the nucleation sites at the very beginning of the transformation. Here, we report the atomic scale real-time observation of a unique defect-mediated reversible phase transition between the low temperature phase (LTP) and the high temperature phase (HTP) of VO2(A). In situ Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images clearly indicate that both phase transitions (from the HTP to the LTP and from the LTP to the HTP) start at the defect sites in parent phases...
May 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502493/the-effect-of-maximal-vs-submaximal-exertion-on-postprandial-lipid-levels-in-individuals-with-and-without-coronary-heart-disease
#7
David M Aronov, Marina G Bubnova, Natalia V Perova, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
BACKGROUND: Decisions about fat consumption and levels of physical activity are among the everyday choices we make in life and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) can be affected by those choices. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a standard fat load combined with physical exertion of different intensities on the plasma lipid profile of CHD patients and CHD-free individuals. METHODS: This study looked at the influence of different intensities of physical exercise on postprandial lipid metabolism in 20 healthy men and 36 men with diagnosis of CHD...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500413/impaired-pulmonary-function-is-an-additional-potential-mechanism-for-the-reduction-of-functional-capacity-in-clinically-stable-fontan-patients
#8
Aída L R Turquetto, Luiz F Canêo, Daniela R Agostinho, Patrícia A Oliveira, Maria Isabel C S Lopes, Patrícia F Trevizan, Frederico L A Fernandes, Maria A Binotto, Gabriela Liberato, Glaucia M P Tavares, Rodolfo A Neirotti, Marcelo B Jatene
Central factors negatively affect the functional capacity of Fontan patients (FP), but "non-cardiac" factors, such as pulmonary function, may contribute to their exercise intolerance. We studied the pulmonary function in asymptomatic FP and its correlations with their functional capacity. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed in a prospective study of 27 FP and 27 healthy controls (HC). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance was used to evaluate the Fontan circulation. The mean age at tests, the mean age at surgery, and the median follow-up time of FP were 20(±6), 8(±3), and 11(8-17) years, respectively...
May 12, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499979/inspiratory-muscle-training-improves-intercostal-and-forearm-muscle-oxygenation-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-evidence-of-the-origin-of-the-respiratory-metaboreflex
#9
Adalgiza M Moreno, Alessandra C Toledo-Arruda, Jéssica S Lima, Carolina S Duarte, Humberto Vilacortta-Junior, Antonio C L Nóbrega
BACKGROUND: The impact of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory and peripheral muscle oxygenation and perfusion during inspiratory muscle fatigue in patients with chronic heart failure has not been established. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with chronic heart failure were randomly assigned to either 8 weeks of IMT or to a control group. Inspiratory fatigue was induced by a progressive inspiratory resistive loading protocol until there was an inability to sustain inspiratory pressure, when the inspiratory muscle metaboreflex should be activated...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496549/phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors-improve-clinical-outcomes-exercise-capacity-and-pulmonary-hemodynamics-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-a-meta-analysis
#10
Renato De Vecchis, Arturo Cesaro, Carmelina Ariano, Anna Giasi, Carmela Cioppa
BACKGROUND: Several studies have compared the use of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors sildenafil or udenafil with the placebo in patients suffering from pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left chronic heart failure (CHF), corresponding to group 2 (PH due to left heart disease) of the PH classification (according to 2015 ESC/ERS guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PH). The results of the use of PDE5 inhibitors in the PH due to left heart disease were inconsistent and heterogeneous...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495061/high-risk-cardiac-surgery-as-an-alternative-to-transplant-or-mechanical-support-in-patients-with-end-stage-heart-failure
#11
Hiroyuki Kawajiri, Cedric Manlhiot, Heather Ross, Diego Delgado, Filio Billia, Michael McDonald, Vivek Rao
OBJECTIVE: Although the results of cardiac surgery in patients with poor left ventricular function have been widely published, the outcomes in patients with end-stage heart failure who meet criteria for advanced therapies are not well investigated. As access to transplantation and ventricular assist device therapy remains limited, we explored the possibility of conventional surgery as an alternative option for highly selected patients with end-stage heart failure. METHODS: We identified patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <20% and VO2 max <14 mL/min/m(2), who were initially referred for advanced therapies but were instead offered a conventional procedure from 2002 to 2012...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488828/effects-of-active-recovery-during-interval-training-on-plasma-catecholamines-and-insulin
#12
Harutiun M Nalbandian, Zsolt Radak, Masaki Takeda
BACKGROUND: Active recovery has been used as a method to accelerate the recovery during intense exercise. It also has been shown to improve performance in subsequent exercises, but little is known about its acute effects on the hormonal and metabolic profile. The aim of this research was to study the effects of active recovery on plasma catecholamines and plasma insulin during a high-intensity interval exercise. METHODS: 7 subjects performed two high-intensity interval training protocols which consisted of three 30 s high-intensity bouts (constant intensity), separated by a recovery of 4 minutes...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487387/different-determinants-of-ventilatory-inefficiency-at-different-stages-of-reduced-ejection-fraction-chronic-heart-failure-natural-history
#13
Alessandro Mezzani, Andrea Giordano, Klara Komici, Ugo Corrà
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether determinants of ventilation (VE)/volume of exhaled carbon dioxide (VCO2) slope during incremental exercise may differ at different stages of reduced ejection fraction chronic heart failure natural history. METHODS AND RESULTS: VE/VCO2 slope was fitted up to lowest VE/VCO2 ratio, that is, a proxy of the VE/perfusion ratio devoid of nonmetabolic stimuli to ventilatory drive. VE/VCO2 slope tertiles were generated from our database (<27...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486334/aerobic-exercise-supplemented-with-muscular-endurance-training-improves-onset-of-blood-lactate-accumulation
#14
John W Farrell, David J Lantis, Carl J Ade, Greg S Cantrell, Rebecca D Larson
Studies have shown that when aerobic exercise is supplemented with muscular endurance training metabolic adaptions occur that result in the delay of the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). However, previous studies have not explored any submaximal cardiorespiratory adaptations that may result from this training protocol. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with a muscular endurance training program on various cardiorespiratory and metabolic measurements...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486086/the-effect-of-two-different-interval-training-programmes-on-physiological-and-performance-indices
#15
Mahmood Sindiani, Alon Eliakim, Daria Segev, Yoav Meckel
The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of an increasing-distance, interval-training programme and a decreasing-distance, interval-training programme, matched for total distance, on aerobic and anaerobic physiological indices. Forty physical education students were randomly assigned to either the increasing- or decreasing-distance, interval-training group (ITG and DTG), and completed two similar relevant sets of tests before and after six weeks of training. One training programme consisted of increasing-distance interval-training (100-200-300-400-500 m) and the other decreasing-distance interval training (500-400-300-200-100 m)...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486060/aerobic-fitness-and-moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-in-children-and-adolescents-living-with-hiv
#16
Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Kelly Samara da Silva, Andreia Pelegrini, Isabela de Carlos Back, Edio Luiz Petroski
AIMS: To examine aerobic fitness, total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and also patterns in terms of MVPA between children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and controls, and to determine whether differences, if any, are associated with HIV, sex and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out with 130 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 15 years, divided into two groups (HIV group= 65 patients, control group= 65 healthy participants)...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482368/validity-of-postexercise-measurements-to-estimate-peak-vo2-in-200-m-and-400-m-maximal-swims
#17
Ferran A Rodríguez, Diego Chaverri, Xavier Iglesias, Thorsten Schuller, Uwe Hoffmann
To assess the validity of postexercise measurements to estimate oxygen uptake (V˙O2) during swimming, we compared V˙O2 measured directly during an all-out 200-m swim with measurements estimated during 200-m and 400-m maximal tests using several methods, including a recent heart rate (HR)/V˙O2 modelling procedure. 25 elite swimmers performed a 200-m maximal swim where V˙O2 was measured using a swimming snorkel connected to a gas analyzer. The criterion variable was V˙O2 in the last 20 s of effort, which was compared with the following V˙O2peak estimates: 1) first 20-s average; 2) linear backward extrapolation (BE) of the first 20 and 30 s, 3×20-s, 4×20-s, and 3×20-s or 4×20-s averages; 3) semilogarithmic BE at the same intervals; and 4) predicted V˙O2peak using mathematical modelling of 0-20 s and 5-20 s during recovery...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482363/acute-hematological-and-inflammatory-responses-to-high-intensity-exercise-tests-impact-of-duration-and-mode-of-exercise
#18
L G Minuzzi, H M Carvalho, D T Brunelli, F Rosado, C R Cavaglieri, C E Gonçalves, J M Gaspar, L M Rama, A M Teixeira
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hematological and inflammatory responses to 4 maximal high-intensity protocols, considering energy expenditure in each test. 9 healthy volunteers performed 4 high-intensity exercise tests of short [Wingate (WANT); Repeated-sprints (RSA)] and long durations [Continuous VO2 test (VCONT); intermittent VO2 test (VINT)] in a cycle-ergometer, until exhaustion. Hematological parameters and IL-6, IL-10 and creatine kinase (CK) levels were determined before (PRE), POST, 30 min, 1, 2, 12 and 24 h after the end of the protocols...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479967/maximal-oxygen-consumption-respiratory-volume-and-some-related-factors-in-fire-fighting-personnel
#19
Touraj Khazraee, Mohammad Fararouei, Hadi Daneshmandi, Farzane Mobasheri, Zahra Zamanian
BACKGROUND: Firefighters for difficult activities and rescue of damaged people must be in appropriate physical ability. Maximal oxygen capacity is an indicator for diagnosis of physical ability of workers. This study aimed to assess the cardiorespiratory system and its related factors in firefighters. METHODS: This study was conducted on 110 firefighters from various stations. An self-administered questionnaire (respiratory disorders questionnaire, Tuxworth-Shahnavaz step test, and pulmonary function test) was used to collection of required data...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479964/relationship-between-academic-performance-with-physical-psychosocial-lifestyle-and-sociodemographic-factors-in-female-undergraduate-students
#20
Marie-Maude Dubuc, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Antony D Karelis
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. METHODS: One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old). All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
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