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C D C Neves, A C R Lacerda, V K S Lage, L P Lima, R Tossige-Gomes, S F Fonseca, E Rocha-Vieira, M M Teixeira, V A Mendonça
Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke seems to be related to an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and changes in muscular and physical performances of healthy smokers. However, these parameters have not yet been evaluated simultaneously in previous studies. The participants of this study were healthy males divided into two groups: smokers (n=20) and non-smokers (n=20). Inflammation was evaluated by measuring plasma levels of the cytokines IL-10, IL-6 e TNF-α, and of the soluble receptors sTNFR1 and sTNFR2...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Andrée Dionne, Louis Pérusse, Alain-Steve Comtois, Mario Leone
Physical activity is often avoided or practised at a low-intensity level because of the limited ability of patients with heart disease (HD) to provide sustained effort. Immersible training has been suggested as a possible alternative as hydrostatic pressure can modify some hemodynamic parameters in healthy patients and potentially increase the exercise capacity in patients with HD. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute cardiorespiratory adaptations at different levels of immersion using an immersible ergometer (IE) in patients with HD...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Fabio A Labra, Jose M Bogdanovich, Francisco Bozinovic
Complex physiological dynamics have been argued to be a signature of healthy physiological function. Here we test whether the complexity of metabolic rate fluctuations in small endotherms decreases with lower environmental temperatures. To do so, we examine the multifractal temporal scaling properties of the rate of change in oxygen consumption r(VO2), in the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, assessing their long range correlation properties across seven different environmental temperatures, ranging from 0 °C to 30 °C...
2016: PeerJ
Yu-Chuan Lin, Kursti DeLello, Hai-Tian Zhang, Kehao Zhang, Zhong Lin, Mauricio Terrones, Roman Engel-Herbert, Joshua A Robinson
Integrating a phase transition material with two-dimensional semiconductors can provide a route towards tunable opto-electronic metamaterials. Here, we integrate monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides with vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films grown via molecular beam epitaxy to form a 2D/3D heterostructure. Vanadium dioxide undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition at 60-70 °C, which changes the band alignment between MoS2 and VO2 from a semiconductor-insulator junction to a semiconductor-metal junction...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Joshua H F Cooper, Blake E G Collins, David R Adams, Robert A Robergs, Cheyne E Donges
Purpose. Limited data exists for the effects of sprint-interval training (SIT) and endurance training (ET) on total body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue, and plasma inflammation. Moreover, whether "active" or "passive" recovery in SIT provides a differential effect on these measures remains uncertain. Methods. Sedentary middle-aged men (n = 62; 49.5 ± 5.8 y; 29.7 ± 3.7 kg·m(2)) underwent abdominal computed tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, venepuncture, and exercise testing before and after the interventions, which included the following: 12 wks 3 d·wk(-1) ET (n = 15; 50-60 min cycling; 80% HRmax), SIT (4-10 × 30 s sprint efforts) with passive (P-SIT; n = 15) or active recovery (A-SIT; n = 15); or nonexercise control condition (CON; n = 14)...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Andrew D Townshend, Melinda M Franettovich Smith, Mark W Creaby
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute effect of gait retraining aimed at reducing tibial peak positive acceleration (PPA) on energetic cost (VO2). DESIGN: Intervention with a pre/post-test design. SETTING: University biomechanics laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: 12 healthy male runners (23.4 ± 5.3 years, 179.7 ± 4.3 cm, 75.6 ± 9.2 kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tibial PPA and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured after a five minute baseline run and at the end of a gait retraining session aimed at minimizing tibial PPA...
August 21, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Wenyue Li, Zhenyu Zhang, Yongbing Tang, Haidong Bian, Tsz-Wai Ng, Wenjun Zhang, Chun-Sing Lee
3D graphene-nanowall-decorated carbon felts (CF) are synthesized via an in situ microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method and used as positive electrode for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The carbon fibers in CF are successfully wrapped by vertically grown graphene nanowalls, which not only increase the electrode specific area, but also expose a high density of sharp graphene edges with good catalytic activities to the vanadium ions. As a result, the VRFB with this novel electrode shows three times higher reaction rate toward VO2(+)/VO(2+) redox couple and 11% increased energy efficiency over VRFB with an unmodified CF electrode...
April 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Kurt A Escobar, Jacobo Morales, Trisha A Vandusseldorp
CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of <6 g/kg/day were randomly assigned into a CHO (n = 9) or control (C) group (n =9) and underwent a 9-day training protocol. During days 1, 5, and 9, performance was measured as repetitions completed during a 12 minute CrossFit workout...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Wojciech Kosmala, Aleksandra Rojek, Monika Przewlocka-Kosmala, Leah Wright, Andrzej Mysiak, Thomas H Marwick
BACKGROUND: Impaired functional capacity is a hallmark of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Despite the association of HFpEF with reduced myocardial compliance attributed to fibrosis, spironolactone has not been shown to alter outcomes-perhaps reflecting the heterogeneity of underlying pathological mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to identify improvement in exercise capacity with spironolactone in the subset of patients with HFpEF with exercise-induced increase in ratio between early mitral inflow velocity and mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') reflecting elevation of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Kevin Forton, Yoshiki Motoji, Gael Deboeck, Vitalie Faoro, Robert Naeije
There has been revival of in interest in exercise testing of the pulmonary circulation for the diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease, but there still is uncertainty about body position and the most relevant measurements. Doppler echocardiography pulmonary hemodynamic measurements were performed at progressively increased workload in 26 healthy adult volunteers in supine, semi-recumbent and upright positions which were randomly assigned at 24 hours intervals. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was estimated from the maximum tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Nastasia Marinus, Liene Bervoets, Guy Massa, Kenneth Verboven, An Stevens, Tim Takken, Dominique Hansen
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is advised ahead of exercise intervention in obese adolescents to assess medical safety of exercise and physical fitness. Optimal validity and reliability of test results are required to identify maximal exercise effort. As fat oxidation during exercise is disturbed in obese individuals, it remains an unresolved methodological issue whether the respiratory gas exchange ratio (RER) is a valid marker for maximal effort during exercise testing in this population...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
John Cairney, Scott Veldhuizen, Sara King-Dowling, Brent E Faught, John Hay
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has shown children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have lower cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) than typically developing (TD) children. This has been hypothesized to be due to an activity deficit, whereby poor motor functioning discourages children from participating in physical activities, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In this study, we use longitudinal data to measure the extent to which physical activity explains differences in CRF between children with and without motor coordination deficits...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Bhupinder Singh, Huy Vo, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, John H Yack
PURPOSE: This study assessed the biomechanical gait changes in obese and normal weight female adult subjects following a commonly recommended 30-minute walking session. Hip and knee adduction and extensor moments, which are the primary modulators of frontal and sagittal plane load distribution were hypothesized to increase in obese females following a 30-minute walking period, resulting in more stress across the hip and knee joint. METHODS: Ten obese (37.7 ± 4...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Mohammad Shaban, Nawal Salahuddin, Mohammad Raed Kolko, Moh'd Sharshir, Mohannad AbuRageila, Ahmed AlHussain
INTRODUCTION: Compromised tissue oxygenation leads to anaerobiosis, leading to organ failure and death. This study attempts to demonstrate the predictive abilities of the Pv-aCO2 gap and Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 ratio in shock patients undergoing resuscitation. METHODS: In a prospective study, consecutive patients with shock were included. Timed measurements of Pv-aCO2 gap, ScvO2, lactate and Pv-aCO2/ Ca-vO2 ratio were obtained. The association between the mortality and each variable at all intervals were analyzed...
September 29, 2016: Shock
Erick Chan, Francesco Giallauria, Carlo Vigorito, Neil A Smart
Exercise training induces physical adaptations for heart failure patients with systolic dysfunction but less is known about those patients with preserved ejection fraction. This study's aims were to establish if exercise training produces changes in peak VO2 and related measures, quality of life, general health and diastolic function in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We conducted a MEDLINE search (1985 to September 1, 2015), for exercise based rehabilitation trials in heart failure, using search terms 'exercise training, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, heart failure with  normal ejection fraction, peak VO2 and diastolic heart dysfunction'...
October 14, 2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Ratko Peric, Marco Meucci, Zoran Nikolovski
BACKGROUND: This study examined substrate oxidation at high-intensity exercise and aimed to determine when fat oxidation ends (FATmin). We hypothesized the existence of a connection between the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and FATmin point. METHODS: Breath-by-breath data obtained from indirect calorimetry during a graded treadmill test were used to measure substrate oxidation and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) on 47 males (30 athletes (ATL) and 17 non-athletes (NATL))...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Christoph Zinner, David Morales-Alamo, Niels Ørtenblad, Filip J Larsen, Tomas A Schiffer, Sarah J Willis, Miriam Gelabert-Rebato, Mario Perez-Valera, Robert Boushel, Jose A L Calbet, Hans-Christer Holmberg
To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4-6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2peak, sprint performance (two 30-s Wingate tests with 4-min recovery), muscle efficiency and time-trial performance (TT, 5-min all-out) were assessed and biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis and m. triceps brachii taken before and after training...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Zach Rozenbaum, Shafik Khoury, Galit Aviram, Yaniv Gura, Jack Sherez, Avi Man, Jason Shimiaie, Thierry Le Tourneau, Amir Halkin, Simon Biner, Gad Keren, Yan Topilsky
BACKGROUND: Discriminating circulatory problems with reduced stroke volume from de-conditioning in which the muscles cannot consume O2 normally by gas exchange parameters is difficult. METHODS: We performed combined stress echo and cardio-pulmonary (CPET) tests in 110 patients (20 normal effort capacity, 54 attenuated stroke volume response, 36 de-conditioning) to evaluate multiple hemodynamic parameters and oxygen content difference (A-VO2 Difference) in four predefined activity levels to assess which of the gas measures may help in the discrimination...
October 11, 2016: Chest
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Yimin Fang, Joshua A Huber, Chi Zhang, Liou Y Sun, Andrzej Bartke
Ames dwarf mice (Prop1(df/df)) are long-lived due to a loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Along with a marked extension of longevity, Ames dwarf mice have improved energy metabolism as measured by an increase in their oxygen consumption (VO2) and heat production, as well as a decrease in their respiratory quotient (RQ). Along with alterations in energy metabolism, Ames dwarf mice have a lower core body temperature (Tco). Moreover, Ames dwarf mice have functionally altered epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) that improves, rather than impairs, their insulin sensitivity due to a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion...
October 14, 2016: Endocrinology
Luis Carlos de Vicente Poutás, Marta Castiñeira Reis, Roberto Sanz, Carlos Silva López, Olalla Nieto Faza
We propose a novel mechanism for the deoxydehydration (DODH) reaction of glycols catalyzed by a [Bu4N][VO2(dipic)] complex (dipic = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate) using triphenylphosphine as a reducing agent. Using density functional theory, we have confirmed that the preferred sequence of reaction steps involves reduction of the V(V) complex by phosphine, followed by condensation of the glycol into a [VO(dipic)(-O-CH2CH2-O-)] V(III) complex (6), which then evolves to the alkene product, with recovery of the catalyst...
October 14, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
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