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Radiation oncology

Marcelo A Queiroz, Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel, Giovanni Guido Cerri
The new technology of PET/MRI is a prototype of hybrid imaging, allowing for the combination of molecular data from PET scanning and morphofunctional information derived from MRI scanning. Recent advances regarding the technical aspects of this device, especially after the development of MRI-compatible silicon photomultipliers of PET, permitted an increase in the diagnostic performance of PET/MRI translated into dose reduction and higher imaging quality. Among several clinical applications, PET/MRI gains ground initially in oncology, where MRI per se plays an essential role in the assessment of primary tumors (which is limited in the case of PET/CT), including prostate, rectal and gynecological tumors...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Michael Galgano, Jared Fridley, Adetokunbo Oyelese, Albert Telfian, Thomas Kosztowski, David Choi, Ziya L Gokaslan
Metastatic spinal disease is a source of significant morbidity in patients with cancer. Recent advancements in adjuvant oncologic therapy has led to increased survival for many patients who harbor neoplastic disease. As a result of this, the chance of developing metastatic spinal disease over the course of a cancer patient's lifespan has increased. Symptomatic metastatic spinal disease can cause significant morbidity including severe pain, neurologic deficit, and loss of ambulation. Current treatment of these patients typically involves the use of multiple modalities, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Salvina Barra, Liliana Belgioia, Michela Marcenaro, Serena Callegari, Alice Pastorino, Luca Trapani, Francesca Cavagnetto, Stefania Garelli, Renzo Corvò
Background: After radical prostatectomy (RP) radiotherapy (RT) plays a role, both as adjuvant or salvage treatment. If negative features are present such as extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph invasion, and positive surgical margins, RT after RP reduces the risk of recurrence, although it is associated with an increased risk of acute and late toxicities. An intensified RT delivered in a shortened time could improve clinical outcome and be safely combined with hormonal therapy (HT)...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Claire L Stokes, William A Stokes, John A Kalapurakal, Arnold C Paulino, Nicholas G Cost, Carrye R Cost, Timothy P Garrington, Brian S Greffe, Jonathan P Roach, Jennifer L Bruny, Arthur K Liu
PURPOSE: To determine, using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), the impact of the surgery to radiation therapy interval (SRI) on survival in contemporary patients with Wilms tumor (WT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The NCDB was queried for patients aged ≤25 years diagnosed from 2004 to 2013 with unilateral WT who underwent definitive surgery and radiation therapy. The SRI was calculated for each patient. A stratified analysis was performed based on presence of metastasis using logistic regression to calculate risk factors for prolonged SRI, with a focus on the recommended SRI according to recent Children's Oncology Group trials (by day 14) and National Wilms Tumor Study-5 (by day 9)...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Sumit S Sood, Christopher McClinton, Rajeev Badkul, Nathan Aguilera, Fen Wang, Allen M Chen
Purpose: The treatment of apical lung tumors with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is challenging due to the proximity of the brachial plexus and the concern for nerve damage. Methods and materials: Between June 2009 and February 2017, a total of 75 consecutive patients underwent SBRT for T1-T3N0 non-small cell lung cancer involving the upper lobe of the lung. All patients were treated with 4-dimensional computed tomography (CT)-based image guided SBRT to a dose of 40 to 60 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions...
January 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Stanislav Lazarev, Vishal Gupta, Zahra Ghiassi-Nejad, Brett Miles, Bethann Scarborough, Krzysztof J Misiukiewicz, Batya Reckson, Ren-Dih Sheu, Richard L Bakst
Purpose: Factors related to premature discontinuation of curative radiation therapy (PDCRT) are understudied. This study aimed to examine causes and clinical outcomes of PDCRT at our institution by investigating the most common anatomical site associated with PDCRT. Methods and materials: Among the 161 patients with PDCRT of various anatomic sites at our institution between 2010 and 2017, 36% received radiation to the head and neck region. Pertinent demographic, clinical, and treatment-related data on these 58 patients were collected...
January 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Tasneem Kaleem, Grace Li Smith, Robert C Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Ales Hlavka, Jaroslav Vanasek, Karel Odrazka, Jan Stuk, Martin Dolezel, Vit Ulrych, Martina Vitkova, Jiri Mynarik, Iveta Kolarova, Zdenka Vilasova
Image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) enables the achievement of higher precision in radiation delivery, a reduction in safety margins and a reduced risk of toxicity in healthy tissues. The present study investigated the magnitude of safety margins for the radiation boost setup on skin marks or metal clips implanted into the tumor bed during breast cancer surgery. One hundred eighty-four patients after breast conserving surgery with implanted metal clips into tumor bed were analyzed. The present study investigated the difference in safety margin required for the treatment setup on skin marks and metal clips...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Laura Curr Beamer, Marcia Grant
PURPOSE: The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the relationship between skin-related quality of life (SR-QOL) and global quality of life (G-QOL) among women experiencing breast radiodermatitis, measure change in SR-QOL and G-QOL between the start and fifth week on radiotherapy, and examine the trend in SR-QOL and severity of radiodermatitis over time on treatment. METHODS: A descriptive longitudinal study using repeated measurements was implemented. Forty women undergoing whole breast 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy at a comprehensive community cancer center completed the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) weekly and Quality of Life-Breast Cancer Patient Version at baseline before and at five weeks on radiotherapy...
April 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
C M Chingkoe, A Brook, A J Moser, K J Mortele
PURPOSE: At our tertiary medical center, multidisciplinary subspecialists meet twice a week during a CME-accredited conference to discuss oncologic and non-oncologic patients with pancreatic diseases at which time a subspecialized abdominal staff radiologist reinterprets the patient's relevant imaging studies. This study assesses the changes in patient management due to imaging reinterpretation during multidisciplinary pancreas conference (MPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, imaging studies of all patients discussed at MPC between July 1 and December 31, 2015 were assessed for technical adequacy, and original reports analyzed for congruency with reinterpretation...
March 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Sonia L Betancourt Cuellar, Diana Palacio, Marcelo F Benveniste, Brett W Carter, Gregory Gladish
Positron emission tomography (PET) computed tomography (CT) with 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) has been established as an effective modality for evaluation of cancer. Interpretations of patterns of physiologic18 F-FDG uptake by the heart is particularly difficult given the wide normal variations of18 F-FDG metabolic activity observed. Atypical patterns of focal or diffuse physiologic cardiac18 F-FDG uptake and post-therapeutic effects after radiation therapy, systemic diseases, or cardiomyopathy may also be confused with malignant disease on18 F-FDG PET/CT...
February 6, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Daniëlle Bp Eekers, Lieke In 't Ven, Erik Roelofs, Alida Postma, Claire Alapetite, Neil G Burnet, Valentin Calugaru, Inge Compter, Ida E M Coremans, Morton Høyer, Maarten Lambrecht, Petra Witt Nyström, Alejandra Méndez Romero, Frank Paulsen, Ana Perpar, Dirk de Ruysscher, Laurette Renard, Beate Timmermann, Pavel Vitek, Damien C Weber, Hiske L van der Weide, Gillian A Whitfield, Ruud Wiggenraad, Esther G C Troost
PURPOSE: To create a digital, online atlas for organs at risk (OAR) delineation in neuro-oncology based on high-quality computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. METHODS: CT and 3 Tesla (3T) MR images (slice thickness 1 mm with intravenous contrast agent) were obtained from the same patient and subsequently fused. In addition, a 7T MR without intravenous contrast agent was obtained from a healthy volunteer. Based on discussion between experienced radiation oncologists, the clinically relevant organs at risk (OARs) to be included in the atlas for neuro-oncology were determined, excluding typical head and neck OARs previously published...
March 13, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Roberta Anderson, Elwood Armour, Courtney Beeckler, Valerie Briner, Amanda Choflet, Andrea Cox, Amanda N Fader, Marie N Hannah, Robert Hobbs, Ellen Huang, Marilyn Kiely, Junghoon Lee, Marc Morcos, Paige E McMillan, Dave Miller, Sook Kien Ng, Rashmi Prasad, Annette Souranis, Robert Thomsen, Theodore L DeWeese, Akila N Viswanathan
PURPOSE: As a core component of a new gynecologic cancer radiation program, we envisioned, structured, and implemented a novel Interventional Radiation Oncology (IRO) unit and magnetic resonance (MR)-brachytherapy environment in an existing MR simulator. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We describe the external and internal processes required over a 6-8 month time frame to develop a clinical and research program for gynecologic brachytherapy and to successfully convert an MR simulator into an IRO unit...
March 13, 2018: Brachytherapy
Katherine S Chen, Scott M Glaser, Allison E Garda, John A Vargo, M Saiful Huq, Dwight E Heron, Sushil Beriwal
BACKGROUND: Clinical pathways outline criteria for dose homogeneity and critical organ dosimetry. Based upon an internal audit showing suboptimal compliance with dosimetric parameters in whole breast irradiation (WBI), we conducted a mandatory web-based teaching conference for the network. This study reports the impact of this initiative on subsequent treatment plans. METHODS: Radiation treatment plans were collected for the 10 most recent patients receiving WBI at 16 institutions within the UPMC Hillman Cancer Center network...
March 16, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Martha Nowosielski, Patrick Y Wen
The identification of more effective therapies for brain tumors has been limited in part by the lack of reliable criteria for determining response and progression. Since its introduction in 1990, the MacDonald criteria have been used in neuro-oncology clinical trials to determine response, but they fail to address issues such as pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression that have arisen with more recent therapies. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group, a multidisciplinary international group consisting of neuro-oncologists, medical oncologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and neuropsychologists, was formed to improve response assessment and clinical trial endpoints in neuro-oncology...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Nelson S Yee
Progress has been made in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers through advances in systemic therapies, surgical interventions, and radiation therapy. At the Multi-Disciplinary Patient Care in Gastrointestinal Oncology conference, the faculty members of the Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center presented a variety of topics that focused on this sub-specialty. This conference paper highlights the new development in systemic treatment of various malignant diseases in the digestive system. Results of the recent clinical trials that investigated the clinical efficacy of pegylated hyaluronidase, napabucasin, and L-asparaginase in pancreatic carcinoma are presented...
March 16, 2018: Biomedicines
Andrés Retamal C, Giancarlo Schiappacasse F, Lizbet Pérez M, Pablo Alvayay Q, Isabel Schild W
Pediatric cancer is the second cause of death in children older than 5 years in our country, after trauma. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a hybrid technique that involves radiation, which has been used for some time in adults and is being progressively imple mented in children. This technique allows morphological and functional assessments of the body with applications in neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. Its main role in oncology is in the evaluation and control of lymphomas, sarcomas and neuroblastomas, among others...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Benjamin D Smith, Jennifer R Bellon, Rachel Blitzblau, Gary Freedman, Bruce Haffty, Carol Hahn, Francine Halberg, Karen Hoffman, Kathleen Horst, Jean Moran, Caroline Patton, Jane Perlmutter, Laura Warren, Timothy Whelan, Jean L Wright, Reshma Jagsi
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this guideline is to offer recommendations on fractionation for whole breast irradiation (WBI) with or without a tumor bed boost and guidance on treatment planning and delivery. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) convened a task force to address 5 key questions focused on dose-fractionation for WBI, indications and dose-fractionation for tumor bed boost, and treatment planning techniques for WBI and tumor bed boost...
March 8, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
Krista C J Wink, Erik Roelofs, Charles B Simone, David Dechambre, Alina Santiago, Judith van der Stoep, Wim Dries, Julia Smits, Stephen Avery, Filippo Ammazzalorso, Nicolas Jansen, Urszula Jelen, Timothy Solberg, Dirk de Ruysscher, Esther G C Troost
PURPOSE: To compare dose to organs at risk (OARs) and dose-escalation possibility for 24 stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in a ROCOCO (Radiation Oncology Collaborative Comparison) trial. METHODS: For each patient, 3 photon plans [Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and CyberKnife], a double scattered proton (DSP) and an intensity-modulated carbon-ion (IMIT) therapy plan were created. Dose prescription was 60 Gy (equivalent) in 8 fractions...
March 12, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Jeff M Michalski, Jennifer Moughan, James Purdy, Walter Bosch, Deborah W Bruner, Jean-Paul Bahary, Harold Lau, Marie Duclos, Matthew Parliament, Gerard Morton, Daniel Hamstra, Michael Seider, Michael I Lock, Malti Patel, Hiram Gay, Eric Vigneault, Kathryn Winter, Howard Sandler
Importance: Optimizing radiation therapy techniques for localized prostate cancer can affect patient outcomes. Dose escalation improves biochemical control, but no prior trials were powered to detect overall survival (OS) differences. Objective: To determine whether radiation dose escalation to 79.2 Gy compared with 70.2 Gy would improve OS and other outcomes in prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: The NRG Oncology/RTOG 0126 randomized clinical trial randomized 1532 patients from 104 North American Radiation Therapy Oncology Group institutions March 2002 through August 2008...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Oncology
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