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Responsive behavior

Dae Woo Park, Andrea Sebastiani, Choon Hwai Yap, Marc A Simon, Kang Kim
Mechanical and structural changes of right ventricular (RV) in response to pulmonary hypertension (PH) are inadequately understood. While current standard biaxial testing provides information on the mechanical behavior of RV tissues using surface markers, it is unable to fully assess structural and mechanical properties across the full tissue thickness. In this study, the mechanical and structural properties of normotensive and pulmonary hypertension right ventricular (PHRV) myocardium through its full thickness were examined using mechanical testing combined with 3D ultrasound speckle tracking (3D-UST)...
2016: PloS One
Steven M Grodsky, Christopher E Moorman, Sarah R Fritts, Steven B Castleberry, T Bently Wigley
Forest regeneration following timber harvest is a principal source of habitat for early-successional birds and characterized by influxes of early-successional vegetation and residual downed woody material. Early-successional birds may use harvest residues for communication, cover, foraging, and nesting. Yet, increased market viability of woody biomass as bioenergy feedstock may intensify harvest residue removal. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate effects of varying intensities of woody biomass harvest on the early-successional bird community; and (2) document early-successional bird use of harvest residues in regenerating stands...
2016: PloS One
Maxim Ziatdinov, Artem Maksov, Li Li, Athena S Sefat, Petro Maksymovych, Sergei V Kalinin
Electronic interactions present in material compositions close to the superconducting dome play a key role in the manifestation of high-T c superconductivity. In many correlated electron systems, however, the parent or underdoped states exhibit strongly inhomogeneous electronic landscape at the nanoscale that may be associated with competing, coexisting, or intertwined chemical disorder, strain, magnetic, and structural order parameters. Here we demonstrate an approach based on a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and advanced statistical learning for an automatic separation and extraction of statistically significant electronic behaviors in the spin density wave regime of a lightly (∼1%) gold-doped BaFe2As2...
November 25, 2016: Nanotechnology
Laura Hermosilla, Marcos Caroli Rezende, Vanderlei Gageiro Machado, Rafaela I Stock
The cationic halochromism and thermohalochromism of four phenolate dyes conjugated with aryl moieties substituted with one or two nitro groups were investigated in the presence of organic (tetra-n-butylammonium bromide and benzyltriethylammonium chloride) and inorganic (sodium perchlorate) salts, in hydrogen-bond donating (water, 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 2-propanol) and hydrogen-bond accepting (acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide) solvents. Although a positive halochromic response was observed in water for tetraalkylammonium salts, their thermohalochromic behavior was negligible...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
William J Joiner
Despite decades of intense study, the functions of sleep are still shrouded in mystery. The difficulty in understanding these functions can be at least partly attributed to the varied manifestations of sleep in different animals. Daily sleep duration can range from 4-20 hrs among mammals, and sleep can manifest throughout the brain, or it can alternate over time between cerebral hemispheres, depending on the species. Ecological factors are likely to have shaped these and other sleep behaviors during evolution by altering the properties of conserved arousal circuits in the brain...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Daniel M Bear, Jean-Marc Lassance, Hopi E Hoekstra, Sandeep Robert Datta
Evolution sculpts the olfactory nervous system in response to the unique sensory challenges facing each species. In vertebrates, dramatic and diverse adaptations to the chemical environment are possible because of the hierarchical structure of the olfactory receptor (OR) gene superfamily: expansion or contraction of OR subfamilies accompanies major changes in habitat and lifestyle; independent selection on OR subfamilies can permit local adaptation or conserved chemical communication; and genetic variation in single OR genes can alter odor percepts and behaviors driven by precise chemical cues...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Ricardo Vega Monroy, Guillermo Salazar Cohen
In this work we present a theory, which is able to explain the non-monotonic decreasing behavior (observed in experimental data(1-11)) of the graphene terahertz conductivity with the increase of the field frequency. In this connection, the displacement of the structure of topological states inside the energy band gap, which appears in graphene due to the strong photon-electron coupling, and the narrowing of this gap, as result of electron transitions from bound photon-dressed electron states to extended states outside the energy gap driven by the field frequency, lead to a periodic change of singularities near the edge of the band gap, resulting in subtle quantum oscillations of the dynamical terahertz conductivity...
October 25, 2016: Nano Letters
Florian Albrecht, Felix Bischoff, Wilhelm Auwärter, Johannes V Barth, Jascha Repp
In recent years atomic force microscopy (AFM) at highest resolution was widely applied to mostly planar molecules, while its application towards exploring species with structural flexibility and a distinct 3D-character remains a challenge. Herein, the scope of non-contact AFM is widened by investigating subtle conformational differences occurring in the well-studied reference systems 2H-TPP and Cu-TPP on Cu(111). Different saddle-shape conformations of both species can be recognized in conventional constant-height AFM images...
October 25, 2016: Nano Letters
M Rincón-Cortés, R M Sullivan
Disrupted social behavior is a core symptom of multiple psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Many of these disorders are exacerbated by adverse infant experiences, including maltreatment and abuse, which negatively affect amygdala development. Although a link between impaired social behavior, abnormal amygdala function and depressive-like behavior following early adversity has been demonstrated in humans and animal models, the developmental emergence of maltreatment-related social deficits and associated amygdala neural activity are unknown...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
James E Coverdill, Adnan Alseidi, David C Borgstrom, Daniel L Dent, Russell D Dumire, Jonathan Fryer, Thomas H Hartranft, Steven B Holsten, M Timothy Nelson, Mohsen Shabahang, Stanley Sherman, Paula M Termuhlen, Randy J Woods, John D Mellinger
PURPOSE: Duty hours rules sparked debates about professionalism. This study explores whether and why general surgery residents delay departures at the end of a day shift in ways consistent with shift work, traditional professionalism, or a new professionalism. METHOD: Questionnaires were administered to categorical residents in 13 general surgery programs in 2014 and 2015. The response rate was 76% (N = 291). The 18 items focused on end-of-shift behaviors and the frequency and source of delayed departures...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Amanda J Sales, Vinícius A Hiroaki-Sato, Sâmia R L Joca
Systemic or hippocampal administration of nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors induces antidepressant-like effects in animals, implicating increased hippocampal levels of NO in the neurobiology of depression. However, the role played by different NO synthase in this process has not been clearly defined. As stress is able to induce neuroinflammatory mechanisms and trigger the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the brain, as well as upregulate neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible differential contribution of hippocampal iNOS and nNOS in the modulation of the consequences of stress elicited by the forced swimming test...
October 24, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Anderson B Mayfield, Yu-Bin Wang, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Shu-Hwa Chen, Chung-Yen Lin
As significant anthropogenic pressures are putting undue stress on the world's oceans, there has been a concerted effort to understand how marine organisms respond to environmental change. Transcriptomic approaches, in particular, have been readily employed to document the mRNA-level response of a plethora of marine invertebrates exposed to an array of simulated stress scenarios, with the tacit and untested assumption being that the respective proteins show a corresponding trend. To better understand the degree of congruency between mRNA and protein expression in an endosymbiotic marine invertebrate, mRNAs and proteins were sequenced from the same samples of the common, Indo-Pacific coral Seriatopora hystrix exposed to stable or upwelling-simulating conditions for one week...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Oni J Blackstock, Brent A Moore, Gail V Berkenblit, Sarah K Calabrese, Chinazo O Cunningham, David A Fiellin, Viraj V Patel, Karran A Phillips, Jeanette M Tetrault, Minesh Shah, E Jennifer Edelman
BACKGROUND: Among health care providers, prescription of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been low. Little is known specifically about primary care physicians (PCPs) with regard to PrEP awareness and adoption (i.e., prescription or referral), and factors associated with adoption. OBJECTIVE: To assess PrEP awareness, PrEP adoption, and factors associated with adoption among PCPs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey conducted in April and May 2015...
October 24, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Murilo S Abreu, Ana Cristina V Giacomini, Darlan Gusso, Gessi Koakoski, Thiago A Oliveira, Alessandra Marqueze, Rodrigo Egydio Barreto, Leonardo J G Barcellos
In fish, defensive reactions are induced by different chemical cues that emanate from sense-related stresses [physical, chemical, and visual (visual contact with predator)] or food stresses (acute fasting and chronic food restriction). Using a shuttle box with a two-chamber unmixed laminar flow that allowed fish to remain or flee from a chemical cue, we showed that the avoidance response depended on the type of the chemical cue. We show that zebrafish (Danio rerio) retreated from water conditioned with chemical cues released by chemically or physically stressed fish and acutely fasted fish, but not from water with cues from fish experiencing visual contact with predatory fish or fish suffering from chronic food restriction...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
August F Holtyn, Wendy Donlin Washington, Todd W Knealing, Conrad J Wong, Ken Kolodner, Kenneth Silverman
We sought to identify behavioral factors associated with response to an employment-based intervention, in which participants had to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to paid employment. The present secondary analysis included data from a randomized clinical trial. The trial evaluated whether employment-based reinforcement could decrease cocaine use in community methadone patients. Participants (N=56) in the trial worked in a model workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earned about $10 per hr. After a 4-week baseline, participants were randomly assigned to an Abstinence & Work (n = 28) or Work Only (n = 28) condition and could work for an additional 26 weeks...
June 2016: Translational Issues in Psychological Science
Mikus Abolins-Abols, Sydney F Hope, Ellen D Ketterson
The life-history trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction posits that investment in one function decreases investment in the other. Manipulating the costs and benefits of functions involved in a trade-off may alter this interaction. Here we ask whether investment in self-maintenance during a stress response alters territorial behavior in wild Dark-eyed Juncos and whether rural and urban birds, which are known to differ in the magnitude of the stress response (greater in rural), also differ in the degree to which stress reduces territorial behavior...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Peter A Biro, Kerry V Fanson, Francesca Santostefano
Recent empirical and conceptual papers have highlighted the potential for metabolism to act as a proximate mechanism for behavior that could explain animal personality (consistency over time). Under this hypothesis, individuals with consistently high levels of behavioral activity should also have high resting metabolic rate (RMR) as it can reflect capacity to process food and generate energy. We tested for the predicted positive covariance between RMR and three behaviors that differ in energy demands in 30 male guppies, using multivariate mixed models; we repeatedly measured their activity (10 times each), courtship displays (nine times), voracity (10 times), and metabolism (four-times)...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Doug MacNearney, Karine Pigeon, Gordon Stenhouse, Wiebe Nijland, Nicholas C Coops, Laura Finnegan
Anthropogenic landscape change (i.e., disturbance) is recognized as an important factor in the decline and extirpation of wildlife populations. Understanding and monitoring the relationship between wildlife distribution and disturbance is necessary for effective conservation planning. Many studies consider disturbance as a covariate explaining wildlife behavior. However, we propose that there are several advantages to considering the spatial relationship between disturbance and wildlife directly using utilization distributions (UDs), including objective assessment of the spatially explicit overlap between wildlife and disturbance, and the ability to track trends in this relationship over time...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Anna M Borghi, Edoardo Zarcone
One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
A Mateus-Pinheiro, N D Alves, P Patrício, A R Machado-Santos, E Loureiro-Campos, J M Silva, V M Sardinha, J Reis, H Schorle, J F Oliveira, J Ninkovic, N Sousa, L Pinto
Hippocampal neurogenesis has been proposed to participate in a myriad of behavioral responses, both in basal states and in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we identify activating protein 2γ (AP2γ, also known as Tcfap2c), originally described to regulate the generation of neurons in the developing cortex, as a modulator of adult hippocampal glutamatergic neurogenesis in mice. Specifically, AP2γ is present in a sub-population of hippocampal transient amplifying progenitors. There, it is found to act as a positive regulator of the cell fate determinants Tbr2 and NeuroD, promoting proliferation and differentiation of new glutamatergic granular neurons...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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