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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637294/over-time-impacts-of-pictorial-health-warning-labels-and-their-differences-across-smoker-subgroups-results-from-adult-smokers-in-canada-and-australia
#1
Kamala Swayampakala, James F Thrasher, Hua-Hie Yong, Gera E Nagelhout, Lin Li, Ron Borland, David Hammond, Richard J O'Connor, James W Hardin
Introduction: This study examines patterns of change in different smoker subgroups' responses to new pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) over the initial, two year post-implementation period in Canada, where HWLs include package inserts with cessation messages, and Australia, where "plain" packaging (i.e., prohibition of brand imagery) was also implemented. Methods: Data were collected from online consumer panels in Canada (nsmokers=3,153; nobservations=5,826) and Australia (nsmokers=2,699; nobservations=5,818) from September 2012 to September 2014, with approximately 1,000 adult smokers surveyed in each country every four months, using replenishment to maintain sample size...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637054/modeling-alphabet-skills-as-instructive-feedback-within-a-phonological-awareness-intervention
#2
Arnold Olszewski, Xigrid Soto, Howard Goldstein
Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of an instructive feedback strategy for modeling letter names and sounds during presentation of positive feedback within a small-group phonological awareness intervention for preschoolers. Method: Two experiments were conducted using multiple-baseline designs across children and behaviors. Letter name and sound identification and performance on a phonological awareness fluency measure served as the primary outcome variables...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636995/experimental-study-on-the-therapeutic-effect-and-underlining-mechanisms-of-positron-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#3
Ying Wang, Ming Li, Rao Diao, Brian Tung, Dalong Zhang, Yaming Li
The purpose of this study was to assess the potential therapeutic effect of positrons emitted by 18F-2-Deoxy-2-Fluoro-D-Glucose (18F-FDG) on pancreatic cancer cells and elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Pancreatic cancer cells were incubated with different radioactive concentrations of 18F-FDG and evaluated for anti-cancer properties and underlining mechanisms. In addition, three groups of tumor-bearing mice were treated with different doses of 18F-FDG weekly, the tumor growth rate was calculated, and the mice were imaged by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-FDG before and after treatment...
June 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636933/drosophila-neuropeptide-f-signaling-independently-regulates-feeding-and-sleep-wake-behavior
#4
Brian Y Chung, Jennifer Ro, Sabine A Hutter, Kylie M Miller, Lakshmi S Guduguntla, Shu Kondo, Scott D Pletcher
Proper regulation of sleep-wake behavior and feeding is essential for organismal health and survival. While previous studies have isolated discrete neural loci and substrates important for either sleep or feeding, how the brain is organized to coordinate both processes with respect to one another remains poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that the Drosophila Neuropeptide F (NPF) network forms a critical component of both adult sleep and feeding regulation. Activation of NPF signaling in the brain promotes wakefulness and adult feeding, likely through its cognate receptor NPFR...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636887/temporal-dynamics-of-the-hpa-axis-linked-to-exploratory-behavior-in-a-wild-european-songbird-parus-major
#5
Alexander T Baugh, Sarah C Davidson, Michaela Hau, Kees van Oers
Variation in the reactivity of the endocrine stress axis is thought to underlie aspects of persistent individual differences in behavior (i.e. animal personality). Previous studies, however, have focused largely on estimating baseline or peak levels of glucocorticoids (CORT), often in captive animals. In contrast, the temporal dynamics of the HPA axis-how quickly it turns on and off, for example-may better indicate how an individual copes with stressors. Moreover, these HPA components might be correlated, thereby representing endocrine suites...
June 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636880/behavioral-evidence-of-oxidative-stress-by-hematophagy-in-the-ocellar-system-of-rhodnius-prolixus-st%C3%A3-l-1859-red-eyed-mutants
#6
Carlos Alberto Vija Suarez, Mario Iván Ortiz, Jorge Molina
The photonegative response to light stimulation in Rhodnius prolixus (Reduviidae, Triatominae) is modulated by compound eyes and ocelli. Screening pigments in the visual system have been shown to protect the cellular structures from the oxidative stress damage produced by blood ingestion and light stimulation. Red-eyed mutants of Rhodnius prolixus lack screening pigments in their compound eyes and ocelli and are exposed to more oxidative stress. Experiments with Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans red-eyed mutants reared from the first nymphal stage show damage in the retinas of the compound eyes and a decrease in photonegative responses due to light stimulation...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636874/next-generation-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitors-novel-strategies-bring-new-prospects
#7
REVIEW
Maxim Levin, Yael Udi, Inna Solomonov, Irit Sagi
Enzymatic proteolysis of cell surface proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for tissue homeostasis and cell signaling. These proteolytic activities are mediated predominantly by a family of proteases termed matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The growing evidence in recent years that ECM and non-ECM bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, on top of matrikines and matricryptins) have versatile functions redefines our view on the roles matrix remodeling enzymes play in many physiological and pathological processes, and underscores the notion that ECM proteolytic reaction mechanisms represent master switches in the regulation of critical biological processes and govern cell behavior...
June 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636768/driving-aggression-and-anxiety-intersections-assessment-and-interventions
#8
Heidi M Zinzow, Stephanie M Jeffirs
OBJECTIVE: Driving aggression and anxiety are significant contributors to risky driving and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), which are leading causes of U.S. morbidity and mortality. Even though aggression and anxiety can be conceptualized as related features of the fight-or-flight response, literature on these topics has not been integrated. Driving aggression and anxiety are also transdiagnostic constructs that span multiple psychiatric disorders. Assessment and treatment of these complex problems must be understood to reduce the public health burden of MVCs...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636705/inflammation-in-the-neurocircuitry-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Sophia Attwells, Elaine Setiawan, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Margaret Anne Richter, Alan Kahn, Stephen J Kish, Sylvain Houle, Lakshmi Ravindran, Jeffrey H Meyer
Importance: For a small percentage of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases exhibiting additional neuropsychiatric symptoms, it was proposed that neuroinflammation occurs in the basal ganglia as an autoimmune response to infections. However, it is possible that elevated neuroinflammation, inducible by a diverse range of mechanisms, is important throughout the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of OCD. Identifying brain inflammation is possible with the recent advance in positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands that bind to the translocator protein (TSPO)...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636685/interfacial-memristors-in-al-lanio3-heterostructures
#10
Bobo Tian, Pavan Nukala, Mohamed Ben Hassine, Xiaolin Zhao, Xudong Wang, Hong Shen, Jianlu Wang, Shuo Sun, Tie Lin, Jinglan Sun, Jun Ge, Rong Huang, Chungang Duan, Thomas Reiss, Maria Varela, Brahim Dkhil, Xiangjian Meng, Junhao Chu
Memristive devices are promising circuit elements that enable novel computational approaches which go beyond the von-Neumann paradigms. Here by tuning the chemistry at the Al-LaNiO3 (LNO) interface, a metal-metal junction, we engineer good switching behavior with good electroresistance (ON-OFF resistance ratios of 100), and repeatable multiple resistance states. The active material responsible for such a behavior is a self-formed sandwich of an AlxOy layer at the interface obtained by grabbing oxygen by Al from LNO...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636629/minimal-oscillating-subnetwork-in-the-huang-ferrell-model-of-the-mapk-cascade
#11
Otto Hadač, František Muzika, Vladislav Nevoral, Michal Přibyl, Igor Schreiber
Prompted by the recent growing evidence of oscillatory behavior involving MAPK cascades we present a systematic approach of analyzing models and elucidating the nature of biochemical oscillations based on reaction network theory. In particular, we formulate a minimal biochemically consistent mass action subnetwork of the Huang-Ferrell model of the MAPK signalling that provides an oscillatory response when a parameter controlling the activation of the top-tier kinase is varied. Such dynamics are either intertwined with or separated from the earlier found bistable/hysteretic behavior in this model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636611/unmanned-aircraft-systems-as-a-new-source-of-disturbance-for-wildlife-a-systematic-review
#12
Margarita Mulero-Pázmány, Susanne Jenni-Eiermann, Nicolas Strebel, Thomas Sattler, Juan José Negro, Zulima Tablado
The use of small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS; also known as "drones") for professional and personal-leisure use is increasing enormously. UAS operate at low altitudes (<500 m) and in any terrain, thus they are susceptible to interact with local fauna, generating a new type of anthropogenic disturbance that has not been systematically evaluated. To address this gap, we performed a review of the existent literature about animals' responses to UAS flights and conducted a pooled analysis of the data to determine the probability and intensity of the disturbance, and to identify the factors influencing animals' reactions towards the small aircraft...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636486/spirituality-religion-and-suicidality-among-veterans-a-qualitative-study
#13
Jaimie Lusk, Steven K Dobscha, Marek Kopacz, Mary Frances Ritchie, Sarah Ono
OBJECTIVES: This qualitative study explores the relationship between Veterans' spirituality/religion and suicide ideation and attempts. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 Veterans who either endorsed chronic suicidal ideation or had made suicide attempt(s). Interviews explored the bi-directional relationship between spirituality/religion (e.g., beliefs, practices and experiences), and suicide ideation and behaviors. Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis...
June 21, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636482/impact-of-freeway-weaving-segment-design-on-light-duty-vehicle-exhaust-emissions
#14
Qing Li, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Shuyan Chen, Tiezhu Li
In United States, 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is emitted from the transportation sector, which meanwhile accompanies with enormous toxic emissions to humans, such as CO, NOx, and HC, approximately 2.5% and 2.44% of a total exhaust emission for a petrol and diesel engine, respectively. These exhaust emissions are typically subject to vehicles' intermittent operations, such as hard acceleration and hard braking. In practice, drivers are inclined to operate intermittently while driving through a weaving segment, due to complex vehicle maneuvering for weaving...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636434/selective-breeding-and-short-term-access-to-a-running-wheel-alter-stride-characteristics-in-house-mice
#15
Gerald C Claghorn, Zoe Thompson, Jarren C Kay, Genesis Ordonez, Thomas G Hampton, Theodore Garland
Postural and kinematic aspects of running may have evolved to support high runner (HR) mice to run approximately threefold farther than control mice. Mice from four replicate HR lines selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running show many differences in locomotor behavior and morphology as compared with four nonselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that HR mice would show stride alterations that have coadapted with locomotor behavior, morphology, and physiology. More specifically, we predicted that HR mice would have stride characteristics that differed from those of C mice in ways that parallel some of the adaptations seen in highly cursorial animals...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636323/ultrafast-dynamic-pressure-sensors-based-on-graphene-hybrid-structure
#16
Shanbiao Liu, Xing Wu, Dongdong Zhang, Congwei Guo, Peng Wang, Weida Hu, Xinming Li, Xiaofeng Zhou, Hejun Xu, Chen Luo, Jian Zhang, Jun-Hao Chu
The development of artificial skin is drawing tremendous attention due to its potential applications in sensing a variety of physical quantities, such as tactility, vibration, and temperature. A strain sensor that can mimic and surpass the subtle pressure-sensing properties of natural skin requires rational material design and array-accessible devices. Here, we report a new and facile preparation of a graphene hybrid structure with an ultrafast dynamic pressure response. Graphene oxide nanosheets are used as a surfactant to prevent graphene restacking in aqueous solution...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635651/effects-of-tetrodotoxin-in-mouse-models-of-visceral-pain
#17
Rafael González-Cano, Miguel Ángel Tejada, Antonia Artacho-Cordón, Francisco Rafael Nieto, José Manuel Entrena, John N Wood, Cruz Miguel Cendán
Visceral pain is very common and represents a major unmet clinical need for which current pharmacological treatments are often insufficient. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that exerts analgesic actions in both humans and rodents under different somatic pain conditions, but its effect has been unexplored in visceral pain. Therefore, we tested the effects of systemic TTX in viscero-specific mouse models of chemical stimulation of the colon (intracolonic instillation of capsaicin and mustard oil) and intraperitoneal cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis...
June 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635348/hope-coping-skills-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-alcohol-use-disorder-recovery
#18
Spencer D Bradshaw, Sterling T Shumway, Cynthia M Dsauza, Neli Morris, Nicholas D Hayes
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders adversely affect individual and societal health. These disorders are a chronic brain disease, and protective factors against relapse should be studied. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction is evident in alcohol use disorders, and research that explores recovery of the PFC in alcohol use disorders is needed, specifically in regard to how psychological and behavioral factors can augment medicalized treatments and protect against relapse. For example, hope or a belief that recovery is possible is an important cognitive construct-thought to precede behavioral action-that has been associated with relapse...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635292/assembly-morphology-diffusivity-and-indentation-of-hydrogel-supported-lipid-bilayers
#19
Tooba Shoaib, Prathima Chandra Nalam, Yichen He, Yuting Chen, Rosa M Espinosa-Marzal
Recognizing the limitations of solid-supported lipid bilayers to reproduce the behavior of cell membranes, including bendability, transmembrane protein inclusion and virus entry, this study describes a novel biomimetic system for cell membranes with the potential to overcome these and other limitations. The developed strategy utilizes a hydrogel with tunable mechanical behavior that resembles those of living cells as the soft support for the phospholipid bilayer, while a polyelectrolyte multilayer film serves as an intermediate layer to facilitate the self-assembly of the lipid bilayer on the soft cushion...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635154/chiral-responsive-liquid-quantum-dots
#20
Jin Zhang, Junkai Ma, Fangdan Shi, Demei Tian, Haibing Li
How to convert the weak chiral-interaction into the macroscopic properties of materials remains a huge challenge. Here, this study develops highly fluorescent, selectively chiral-responsive liquid quantum dots (liquid QDs) based on the hydrophobic interaction between the chiral chains and the oleic acid-stabilized QDs, which have been designated as (S)-1810-QDs. The fluorescence spectrum and liquidity of thermal control demonstrate the fluorescence properties and the fluidic behavior of (S)-1810-QDs in the solvent-free state...
June 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
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