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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212416/the-variability-of-multisensory-processes-of-natural-stimuli-in-human-and-non-human-primates-in-a-detection-task
#1
Cécile Juan, Céline Cappe, Baptiste Alric, Benoit Roby, Sophie Gilardeau, Pascal Barone, Pascal Girard
BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies in both human and animals generally converge to the dogma that multisensory integration improves reaction times (RTs) in comparison to unimodal stimulation. These multisensory effects depend on diverse conditions among which the most studied were the spatial and temporal congruences. Further, most of the studies are using relatively simple stimuli while in everyday life, we are confronted to a large variety of complex stimulations constantly changing our attentional focus over time, a modality switch that can impact on stimuli detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212202/psychometric-evaluation-of-the-adolescent-health-promotion-scale-in-chile-differences-by-socioeconomic-status-and-gender
#2
Cristian A Rojas-Barahona, Jorge Gaete, Esterbina Olivares, Carla E Förster, Eugenio Chandia, Mei-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND: The promotion of healthy behaviors is a relevant issue worldwide, especially among adolescent populations, as this is the developmental stage where most unhealthy behaviors become ingrained. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS) in a Chilean sample of early adolescents. METHODS: The sample was composed of 1,156 adolescents aged 10-14 years from schools in San Felipe, Chile...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212067/the-treatment-of-severe-childhood-aggression-study-12-weeks-of-extended-blinded-treatment-in-clinical-responders
#3
Robert L Findling, Lisa Townsend, Nicole V Brown, L Eugene Arnold, Kenneth D Gadow, David J Kolko, Nora K McNamara, Devin S Gary, Dana B Kaplin, Cristan A Farmer, Heidi Kipp, Craig Williams, Eric M Butter, Oscar G Bukstein, Robert Rice, Kristin Buchan-Page, Brooke S G Molina, Michael G Aman
OBJECTIVES: Previous "Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression" (TOSCA) reports demonstrated that many children with severe physical aggression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) responded well to two randomized treatments (parent training [PT]+stimulant+placebo = Basic vs. PT+stimulant+risperidone = Augmented) for 9 weeks. An important clinical question is whether these favorable outcomes are maintained over longer times. METHODS: Clinical responders to the 9-week trial (n = 103/168), defined as Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)-Improvement of much/very much improved plus substantial reduction in parent ratings of disruptiveness, were followed another 12 weeks (21 weeks total) while remaining on blinded treatment...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211931/the-dynamic-conductance-response-and-mechanics-modulated-memristive-behavior-of-the-azurin-monolayer-under-cyclic-loads
#4
Xiaoyue Zhang, Jian Shao, Yun Chen, Weijin Chen, Jing Yu, Biao Wang, Yue Zheng
Azurin (Az) has been considered as the research hotspot in molecular electronics, as well as a promising material for building functional devices on the molecular scale because of its special electrical properties and force-dependent conductance effects. Here we carry out an in-depth investigation combined with molecular scale experiments, molecular dynamics simulations, first-principles calculations and theoretical models to reveal the dynamic conductance response of the Az monolayer under cyclic mechanical loading...
February 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211810/therapeutics-of-neurotransmitters-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Ramesh Kandimalla, P Hemachandra Reddy
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the loss of memory, multiple cognitive impairments and changes in the personality and behavior. Several decades of intense research have revealed that multiple cellular changes are involved in disease process, including synaptic damage, mitochondrial abnormalities and inflammatory responses, in addition to formation and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau. Although tremendous progress has been made in understanding the impact of neurotransmitters in the progression and pathogenesis of AD, we still do not have a drug molecule associated with neurotransmitter(s) that can delay disease process in elderly individuals and/or restore cognitive functions in AD patients...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211721/imaging-current-induced-switching-of-antiferromagnetic-domains-in-cumnas
#6
M J Grzybowski, P Wadley, K W Edmonds, R Beardsley, V Hills, R P Campion, B L Gallagher, J S Chauhan, V Novak, T Jungwirth, F Maccherozzi, S S Dhesi
The magnetic order in antiferromagnetic materials is hard to control with external magnetic fields. Using x-ray magnetic linear dichroism microscopy, we show that staggered effective fields generated by electrical current can induce modification of the antiferromagnetic domain structure in microdevices fabricated from a tetragonal CuMnAs thin film. A clear correlation between the average domain orientation and the anisotropy of the electrical resistance is demonstrated, with both showing reproducible switching in response to orthogonally applied current pulses...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211649/insufficient-sleep-in-adolescents-causes-and-consequences
#7
Judith A Owens, Miriam R Weiss
Insufficient sleep poses an important and complicated set of health risks in the adolescent population. Not only is deficient sleep (defined as both sleep duration inadequate to meet sleep needs and sleep timing misaligned with the body's circadian rhythms) at epidemic levels in this population, but the contributing factors are both complex and numerous and there are a myriad of negative physical and mental health, safety and performance consequences. Causes of inadequate sleep identified in this population include internal biological processes such as the normal shift (delay) in circadian rhythm that occurs in association with puberty and a developmentally-based slowing of the "sleep drive", and external factors including extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210969/host-tissue-response-by-the-expression-of-collagen-to-cyanoacrylate-adhesives-used-in-implant-fixation-for-abdominal-hernia-repair
#8
Gemma Pascual, Marta Rodríguez, Bárbara Pérez-Köhler, Claudia Mesa-Ciller, Mar Fernández-Gutiérrez, Julio San Román, Juan M Bellón
The less traumatic use of surgical adhesives rather than sutures for mesh fixation in hernia repair has started to gain popularity because they induce less host tissue damage and provoke less postoperative pain. This study examines the host tissue response to a new cyanoacrylate (CA) adhesive (n-octyl, OCA). Partial defects (3 × 5 cm) created in the rabbit anterior abdominal wall were repaired by mesh fixation using OCA, Glubran2(®)(n-butyl-CA), Ifabond(®)(n-hexyl-CA) or sutures. Samples were obtained at 14/90 days for morphology, collagens qRT-PCR/immunofluorescence and biomechanical studies...
April 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210958/does-global-astrocytic-calcium-signaling-participate-in-awake-brain-state-transitions-and-neuronal-circuit-function
#9
Celia Kjaerby, Rune Rasmussen, Mie Andersen, Maiken Nedergaard
We continuously need to adapt to changing conditions within our surrounding environment, and our brain needs to quickly shift between resting and working activity states in order to allow appropriate behaviors. These global state shifts are intimately linked to the brain-wide release of the neuromodulators, noradrenaline and acetylcholine. Astrocytes have emerged as a new player participating in the regulation of brain activity, and have recently been implicated in brain state shifts. Astrocytes display global Ca(2+) signaling in response to activation of the noradrenergic system, but whether astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling is causative or correlative for shifts in brain state and neural activity patterns is not known...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210904/acute-and-neuropathic-orofacial-antinociceptive-effect-of-eucalyptol
#10
José de Maria de Albuquerque de Melo Júnior, Marina de Barros Mamede Vidal Damasceno, Sacha Aubrey Alves Rodrigues Santos, Talita Matias Barbosa, João Ronielly Campêlo Araújo, Antonio Eufrásio Vieira-Neto, Deysi Viviana Tenazoa Wong, Roberto César Pereira Lima-Júnior, Adriana Rolim Campos
Terpenes have a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antinociceptive action. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of eucalyptol are well established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of eucalyptol on acute and neuropathic orofacial pain in rodent models. Acute orofacial and corneal nociception was induced with formalin, capsaicin, glutamate and hypertonic saline in mice. In another series, animals were pretreated with capsazepine or ruthenium red to evaluate the involvement of TRPV1 receptors in the effect of eucalyptol...
February 16, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210884/energy-balance-and-obesity-what-are-the-main-drivers
#11
Isabelle Romieu, Laure Dossus, Simón Barquera, Hervé M Blottière, Paul W Franks, Marc Gunter, Nahla Hwalla, Stephen D Hursting, Michael Leitzmann, Barrie Margetts, Chizuru Nishida, Nancy Potischman, Jacob Seidell, Magdalena Stepien, Youfa Wang, Klaas Westerterp, Pattanee Winichagoon, Martin Wiseman, Walter C Willett
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the association between energy balance and obesity. METHODS: In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). RESULTS: The global epidemic of obesity and the double burden, in LMICs, of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition) are both related to poor quality diet and unbalanced energy intake...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210781/adolescent-cocaine-exposure-enhances-goal-tracking-behavior-and-impairs-hippocampal-cell-genesis-selectively-in-adult-bred-low-responder-rats
#12
M Julia García-Fuster, Aram Parsegian, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Shelly B Flagel
RATIONALE: Environmental challenges during adolescence, such as drug exposure, can cause enduring behavioral and molecular changes that contribute to life-long maladaptive behaviors, including addiction. Selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rats represent a unique model for assessing the long-term impact of adolescent environmental manipulations, as they inherently differ on a number of addiction-related traits. bHR rats are considered "addiction-prone," whereas bLR rats are "addiction-resilient," at least under baseline conditions...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210778/threshold-dose-for-behavioral-discrimination-of-cigarette-nicotine-content-in-menthol-vs-non-menthol-smokers
#13
Kenneth A Perkins, Nicole Kunkle, Joshua L Karelitz
RATIONALE: The lowest threshold content (or "dose") of nicotine discriminated in cigarettes may differ due to menthol preference. OBJECTIVES: Menthol and non-menthol Spectrum research cigarettes differing in nicotine content were used to determine discrimination thresholds. METHODS: Dependent smokers preferring menthol (n = 40) or non-menthol (n = 21) brands were tested on ability to discriminate cigarettes (matched for their menthol preference) with nicotine contents of 16-17, 11-12, 5, 2, and 1 mg/g, one per session, from an "ultra-low" cigarette with 0...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210643/perception-of-health-problems-among-competitive-runners-a-qualitative-study-of-cognitive-appraisals-and-behavioral-responses
#14
Sara Jelvegård, Toomas Timpka, Victor Bargoria, Håkan Gauffin, Jenny Jacobsson
BACKGROUND: Approximately 2 of every 3 competitive runners sustain at least 1 health problem each season. Most of these problems are nontraumatic injuries with gradual onset. The main known risk indicator for sustaining a new running-related injury episode is a history of a previous injury, suggesting that behavioral habits are part of the causal mechanisms. PURPOSE: Identification of elements associated with purposeful interpretations of body perceptions and balanced behavioral responses may supply vital information for prevention of health problems in runners...
December 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210353/prevalence-of-horizontal-violence-among-emergency-attending-physicians-residents-and-physician-assistants
#15
Nico B Volz, Ryan Fringer, Bradford Walters, Terry Kowalenko
INTRODUCTION: Horizontal violence (HV) is malicious behavior perpetrated by healthcare workers against each other. These include bullying, verbal or physical threats, purposeful disruptive behavior, and other malicious behaviors. This pilot study investigates the prevalence of HV among emergency department (ED) attending physicians, residents, and mid-level providers (MLPs). METHODS: We sent an electronic survey to emergency medicine attending physicians (n=67), residents (n=25), and MLPs (n=24) in three unique EDs within a single multi-hospital medical system...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210234/a-spiking-neuron-model-of-word-associations-for-the-remote-associates-test
#16
Ivana Kajić, Jan Gosmann, Terrence C Stewart, Thomas Wennekers, Chris Eliasmith
Generating associations is important for cognitive tasks including language acquisition and creative problem solving. It remains an open question how the brain represents and processes associations. The Remote Associates Test (RAT) is a task, originally used in creativity research, that is heavily dependent on generating associations in a search for the solutions to individual RAT problems. In this work we present a model that solves the test. Compared to earlier modeling work on the RAT, our hybrid (i.e., non-developmental) model is implemented in a spiking neural network by means of the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF), demonstrating that it is possible for spiking neurons to be organized to store the employed representations and to manipulate them...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210222/icariside-ii-a-broad-spectrum-anti-cancer-agent-reverses-beta-amyloid-induced-cognitive-impairment-through-reducing-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-rats
#17
Yuanyuan Deng, Long Long, Keke Wang, Jiayin Zhou, Lingrong Zeng, Lianzi He, Qihai Gong
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, associated neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation are considered as the important factors which lead to cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Icariside II (ICS II), an active flavonoid compound derived from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, has been extensively used to treat erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis and dementia in traditional Chinese medicine. Recently, ICS II attracts great interest due to its broad-spectrum anti-cancer property. ICS II shows an anti-inflammatory potential both in cancer treatment and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210212/differential-behavioral-and-neurobiological-effects-of-chronic-corticosterone-treatment-in-adolescent-and-adult-rats
#18
Jitao Li, Xiaomeng Xie, Youhong Li, Xiao Liu, Xuemei Liao, Yun-Ai Su, Tianmei Si
Adolescence is a critical period with ongoing maturational processes in stress-sensitive systems. While adolescent individuals show heightened stress-induced hormonal responses compared to adults, it is unclear whether and how the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of chronic stress would differ between the two age groups. Here we address this issue by examining the effects of chronic exposure to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), in both adolescent and adult animals. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected intraperitoneally with CORT (40 mg/kg) or vehicle for 21 days during adolescence (post-natal day (PND) 29-49) or adulthood (PND 71-91) and then subjected to behavioral testing or sacrifice for western blot analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210202/mechanisms-and-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#19
James Giordano, Marom Bikson, Emily S Kappenman, Vincent P Clark, H Branch Coslett, Michael R Hamblin, Roy Hamilton, Ryan Jankord, Walter J Kozumbo, R Andrew McKinley, Michael A Nitsche, J Patrick Reilly, Jessica Richardson, Rachel Wurzman, Edward Calabrese
The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory to inform tDCS research...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209774/methyl-donor-supplementation-alters-cognitive-performance-and-motivation-in-female-offspring-from-high-fat-diet-fed-dams
#20
Sarah E McKee, Nicola M Grissom, Christopher T Herdt, Teresa M Reyes
During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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