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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656283/economic-and-political-innovation-for-nutritional-improvement
#1
Joachim von Braun
Large shares of the world population are still affected by nutrition deficiencies and undernutrition. However, the current global agriculture and food system and its international governance shows signs of serious malfunctioning, and is not equipped to cope with the current and future challenges it is facing. In view of the complex and multi-dimensional nature of nutrition problems, a framework is put forward here to improve the understanding of underlying causalities, and to identify priorities for action...
April 13, 2018: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656021/next-generation-neuro-oncology
#2
REVIEW
Michael Weller
Neuro-oncology has evolved as a growing, but still small, highly specialised and multidisciplinary field at the interface of several diagnostic and therapeutic disciplines. The major challenge in the field of primary tumours is to translate the almost unique progress in deciphering the highly complex molecular genetic nature of many primary brain tumours, notably glioblastoma, into advances that allow for clinical benefit for affected patients. Furthermore, metastases to the central nervous system are an increasingly prevalent complication in many systemic cancers...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655348/mesoscopic-electrohydrodynamic-simulations-of-binary-colloidal-suspensions
#3
Nicolas Rivas, Stefan Frijters, Ignacio Pagonabarraga, Jens Harting
A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions are implemented using a pseudopotential model. The Nernst-Planck equation, describing the kinetics of dissolved ion species, is solved using a finite difference discretization based on the link-flux method...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653139/influence-of-zinc-oxide-quantum-dots-in-the-antibacterial-activity-and-cytotoxicity-of-an-experimental-adhesive-resin
#4
Isadora Martini Garcia, Vicente Castelo Branco Leitune, Fernanda Visioli, Susana Maria Werner Samuel, Fabrício Mezzomo Collares
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnOQDs ) into an experimental adhesive resin regarding the antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and the cytotoxicity against pulp fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ZnOQDs were synthesized by sol-gel process and were incorporated into 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). An experimental adhesive resin was formulated by mixing 66.6 wt.% bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and 33...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652499/rapid-sampling-of-hydrogen-bond-networks-for-computational-protein-design
#5
Jack B Maguire, Scott E Boyken, David Baker, Brian Kuhlman
Hydrogen bond networks play a critical role in determining the stability and specificity of biomolecular complexes, and the ability to design such networks is important for engineering novel structures, interactions, and enzymes. One key feature of hydrogen bond networks that makes them difficult to rationally engineer is that they are highly cooperative and are not energetically favorable until the hydrogen bonding potential has been satisfied for all buried polar groups in the network. Existing computational methods for protein design are ill-equipped for creating these highly cooperative networks because they rely on energy functions and sampling strategies that are focused on pairwise interactions...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652237/failure-of-facet-replacement-system-with-metal-on-metal-bearing-surface-and-subsequent-discovery-of-cobalt-allergy-report-of-2-cases
#6
Matthew L Goodwin, William Ryan Spiker, Darrel S Brodke, Brandon D Lawrence
The aim of this study was to report on 2 patients in whom metal-on-metal (MOM) facet replacements failed, with subsequent positive findings on allergy testing. Motion-preserving devices have been used with limited success when instrumentation is indicated in the mobile spine. MOM-bearing surfaces in orthopedics were developed to increase implant longevity, yet have been associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including local tissue reactions, pseudotumors, metallosis, and the need for revision surgery. Five patients with spinal stenosis and low-grade spondylolisthesis were randomized to undergo facet replacement surgery with the ACADIA facet replacement system at the authors' institution...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652177/broncho-epithelial-iga-secretion-is-impaired-in-asthma-role-of-il-4-il-13
#7
Maha Zohra Ladjemi, Delphine Gras, Sébastien Dupasquier, Bruno Detry, Marylène Lecocq, Céline Garulli, Chantal Fregimilicka, Caroline Bouzin, Sophie Gohy, Pascal Chanez, Charles Pilette
RATIONALE: Asthma is associated with increased lung IgE production, but whether the secretory (S-)IgA system is affected in this disease remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We explored mucosal IgA transport in human asthma and its potential regulation by Th2 inflammation. METHODS: Bronchial biopsies from asthma and control subjects were assayed for broncho-epithelial pIgR expression and correlated to Th2 biomarkers. Bronchial epithelium reconstituted in vitro from these subjects, upon culture in air-liquid interface, was assayed for pIgR expression and regulation by IL-4/IL-13...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652091/hunger-makes-apex-predators-do-risky-things
#8
Stan Boutin
In Focus: Blecha, K. A., Boone, R. B., & Alldredge, M. W. (2018). Hunger mediates apex predator's risk avoidance response in wildland-urban interface. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 609-622. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12801 Puma (Puma concolor), an apex predator, can live at the edge of cities where pockets of low-density human dwellings form residential patches in the wildland-urban interface. Blecha, Boone, and Alldredge () tracked puma via global positioning system (GPS) telemetry collars to determine when and where they hunted and made kills...
May 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652053/the-interplay-of-nanointerface-curvature-and-calcium-binding-in-weak-polyelectrolyte-coated-nanoparticles
#9
Rikkert J Nap, Estefania Gonzalez Solveyra, Igal Szleifer
When engineering nanomaterials for application in biological systems, it is important to understand how multivalent ions, such as calcium, affect the structural and chemical properties of polymer-modified nanoconstructs. In this work, a recently developed molecular theory was employed to study the effect of surface curvature on the calcium-induced collapse of end-tethered weak polyelectrolytes. In particular, we focused on cylindrical and spherical nanoparticles coated with poly(acrylic acid) in the presence of different amounts of Ca2+ ions...
April 13, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651990/non-fermi-liquids-in-oxide-heterostructures
#10
Susanne Stemmer, S James Allen
Understanding the anomalous transport properties of strongly correlated materials is one of the most formidable challenges in condensed matter physics. For example, one encounters metal-insulator transitions, deviations from Landau Fermi liquid behavior, longitudinal and Hall scattering rate separation, a pseudogap phase, and bad metal behavior. These properties have been studied extensively in bulk materials, such as the unconventional superconductors and heavy fermion systems. Oxide heterostructures have recently emerged as new platforms to probe, control, and understand strong correlation phenomena...
April 13, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651473/microfluidic-lung-airway-on-a-chip-with-arrayable-suspended-gels-for-studying-epithelial-and-smooth-muscle-cell-interactions
#11
Mouhita Humayun, Chung-Wai Chow, Edmond W K Young
Chronic lung diseases (CLDs) are regulated by complex interactions between many different cell types residing in lung airway tissues. Specifically, interactions between airway epithelial cells (ECs) and airway smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been shown in part to play major roles in the pathogenesis of CLDs, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. To advance our understanding of lung pathophysiology and accelerate drug development processes, new innovative in vitro tissue models are needed that can reconstitute the complex in vivo microenvironment of human lung tissues...
April 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651447/impaired-gal-9-dysregulates-the-pbmc-induced-th1-th2-imbalance-in-abortion-prone-matings
#12
Mengzhou He, Ming Jiang, Yuan Zhou, Fanfan Li, Meitao Yang, Yao Fan, Yin Xie, Rajluxmee Beejadhursing, Ling Feng, Dongrui Deng
Recurrent miscarriage is defined as the loss of 3 or more consecutive pregnancies; however, the underlying immunologic mechanisms that trigger pregnancy loss remain largely unelucidated. Galectin-9 (Gal-9) may modulate a variety of biologic functions and play an important role in Th1/Th2 immune deviation. To analyze the mechanism of Gal-9 in abortion, we used the classical abortion-prone mouse model (DBA/2-mated CBA/J mice) to detect the expression of Gal-9 at the maternal-fetal interface. We also mimicked the immune environment of pregnancy by culturing trophoblast cells with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to explore how Gal-9 might be involved in the pathogenesis of abortion...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650379/a-green-s-function-method-for-two-dimensional-reactive-solute-transport-in-a-parallel-fracture-matrix-system
#13
Kewei Chen, Hongbin Zhan
The reactive solute transport in a single fracture bounded by upper and lower matrixes is a classical problem that captures the dominant factors affecting transport behavior beyond pore scale. A parallel fracture-matrix system which considers the interaction among multiple paralleled fractures is an extension to a single fracture-matrix system. The existing analytical or semi-analytical solution for solute transport in a parallel fracture-matrix simplifies the problem to various degrees, such as neglecting the transverse dispersion in the fracture and/or the longitudinal diffusion in the matrix...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649983/ncx-db-a-unified-resource-for-integrative-analysis-of-the-sodium-calcium-exchanger-super-family
#14
Katrin Bode, Damien M O'Halloran
Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers are low-affinity high-capacity transporters that mediate Ca2+ extrusion by coupling Ca2+ efflux to the influx of Na+ ions. The Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers form a super-family comprised of three branches each differing in ion-substrate selectivity: Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+ /Ca2+ /K+ exchangers, and Ca2+ /cation exchangers. Their primary function is to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis and play a particularly important role in excitable cells that experience transient Ca2+ fluxes. Research into the role and activity of Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers has focused extensively on the cardio-vascular system, however, growing evidence suggests that Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers play a key role in neuronal processes such as memory formation, learning, oligodendrocyte differentiation, neuroprotection during brain ischemia and axon guidance...
April 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649638/ultrafine-heat-induced-structural-perturbations-of-bone-mineral-at-the-individual-nanocrystal-level
#15
M Verezhak, E F Rauch, M Véron, C Lancelon-Pin, J-L Putaux, M Plazanet, A Gourrier
The nanoscale characteristics of the mineral phase in bone tissue such as nanocrystal size, organization, structure and composition have been identified as potential markers of bone quality. However, such characterization remains challenging since it requires combining structural analysis and imaging modalities with nanoscale precision. In this paper, we report the first application of automated crystal orientation mapping using transmission electron microscopy (ACOM-TEM) to the structural analysis of bone mineral at the individual nanocrystal level...
April 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649602/point-of-care-and-point-of-can-leveraging-reference-laboratory-capacity-for-integrated-diagnosis-of-fever-syndromes-in-the-tropics
#16
REVIEW
Makeda Semret, Momar Ndao, Jan Jacobs, Cedric P Yansouni
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for integrated diagnosis of febrile syndromes, able to account for multiple pathogens and inform decisions for clinical care and public health. AIMS: To reflect on the evolving roles of laboratory-based testing for non-malarial febrile illnesses (NMFI) in low-resource settings (LRS), and to consider how advances in diagnostics, in connectivity and transport, and in quality-systems implementation may substantially enhance the capacity of reference laboratories to bridge the current gap between remote passive surveillance and clinically meaningful integrated fever diagnosis...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649470/factors-influencing-the-retention-of-organic-solvents-in-products-freeze-dried-from-co-solvent-systems
#17
REVIEW
Claudia Kunz, Henning Gieseler
Controlling residual solvent levels is a major concern in pharmaceutical freeze drying from co-solvent systems. This review provides an overview of the factors influencing this process and estimates their potential to reduce residual solvents in freeze dried products. Decreased solvent contents are potentially correlated with the lower solid content, complete excipient crystallization, higher water solubility and smaller molecular sizes of the solvent. Although no general rule can be derived for the selection of appropriate freezing conditions, the freezing stage appears to play a major role in subsequent volatile retention...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649373/iot-for-real-time-measurement-of-high-throughput-liquid-dispensing-in-laboratory-environments
#18
Justin Shumate, Pierre Baillargeon, Timothy P Spicer, Louis Scampavia
Critical to maintaining quality control in high-throughput screening is the need for constant monitoring of liquid-dispensing fidelity. Traditional methods involve operator intervention with gravimetric analysis to monitor the gross accuracy of full plate dispenses, visual verification of contents, or dedicated weigh stations on screening platforms that introduce potential bottlenecks and increase the plate-processing cycle time. We present a unique solution using open-source hardware, software, and 3D printing to automate dispenser accuracy determination by providing real-time dispense weight measurements via a network-connected precision balance...
April 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648837/rheology-of-ultra-swollen-bicontinuos-lipidic-cubic-phases
#19
Chiara Speziale, Reza Ghanbari, Raffaele Mezzenga
Rheological studies of liquid crystalline systems based on monopalmitolein and 5 or 8% of 1,2 distearoylphosphatidylglycerol are reported. Such cubic phases have been shown to possess unusually large water channels, due to their ability of accommodating up to 80% wt of water, a feature that renders these systems suitable for crystallizing membrane proteins with large extra-cellular domains. Their mechanical properties are supposed to be substantially different from those of traditional cubic phases. Rheological measurements were carried out on cubic phases of both Pn3m and Ia3d symmetries...
April 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648628/the-serosal-immune-system-of-the-thorax-in-toxicology
#20
C Frieke Kuper, Jolanda van Bilsen, Marcel V W Wijnands
The thoracic cavities receive increasing attention in toxicology, because inhaled fibers and (nano)particles can reach these cavities and challenge the local lymphoid tissues. The thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are controlled by the serosal immune system with its special, loosely organized lymphoid clusters, namely the fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) and milky spots, which together can be denoted as serosa-associated lymphoid clusters (SALCs). These clusters house numerous innate lymphoid cells, namely the B1 and ILC2 populations...
April 10, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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