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System interface

Néstor Merino-Díez, Aran Garcia-Lekue, Eduard Carbonell-Sanromà, Jingcheng Li, Martina Corso, Luciano Colazzo, Francesco Sedona, Daniel Sánchez-Portal, Jose Ignacio Pascual, Dimas G de Oteyza
We report on the energy level alignment evolution of valence and conduction bands of armchair-oriented graphene nanoribbons (aGNR) as their band gap shrinks with increasing width. We use 4,4''-dibromo-para-terphenyl as molecular precursor on Au(111) to form extended poly-para-phenylene nanowires, which can be fused sideways to form atomically precise aGNRs of varying widths. We measure the frontier bands by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, corroborating that the nanoribbon's band gap is inversely proportional to their width...
October 19, 2017: ACS Nano
Beste Turanli, Gizem Gulfidan, Kazim Yalcin Arga
Drug repositioning is an innovative approach to identify new therapeutic indications for existing drugs. Drug repositioning offers the promise of reducing drug development timeframes and costs, and because it involves drugs that are already in the clinic, it might remedy some of the drug safety challenges traditionally associated with drug candidates that are not yet available in the clinic. The gene-by-drug interactions are an important dimension of optimal drug repositioning and development strategies. While gene-by-drug interactions have been curated and presented in various databases, novel bioinformatics tools and approaches are timely, and required with a specific focus to support drug positioning...
October 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Anna M Cieślak, Emma-Rose Janeček, Kamil Sokołowski, Tomasz Ratajczyk, Michał K Leszczyński, Oren A Scherman, Janusz Lewiński
Herein, we show how the inherent light-induced redox properties of semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs) can be utilized for the photo-driven reversible modulation of dynamic supramolecular systems formed at their interfaces that, on their own, do not respond to light. This was achieved by the unprecedented combination of photoactive zinc oxide NCs (ZnO NCs) with a host-guest chemistry of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) providing a route to the semiconductor-assisted light modulation of supramolecular assemblies (SALSA), here mediated by the photo-generation of viologen radical cations (MV˙(+)) at the NC corona and their further dimerization enhanced by CB[8] macrocycles...
October 19, 2017: Nanoscale
Sieun Chae, Won Jin Choi, Soo Sang Chae, Seunghun Jang, Hyunju Chang, Taeil Lee, Youn Sang Kim, Jeong O Lee
Due to its extreme thinness, graphene can transmit some surface properties of its underlying substrate, a phenomenon referred to as graphene transparency. Here we demonstrate the application of the transparency of graphene as a protector of thin-film catalysts and a booster of their catalytic efficiency. The photocatalytic degradation of dye molecules by ZnO thin films was chosen as a model system. A ZnO thin film coated with monolayer graphene showed greater catalytic efficiency and long-term stability than did bare ZnO...
October 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
Juan Camilo Valencia-Estrada, Jorge García-Marquez, Luc Chassagne, Suat Topsu
This paper presents a model to design bi-aspherical catadioptric lenses with limited image diffraction. A first refractive Cartesian oval surface that does not introduce any spherical aberration is used. When total internal reflection occurs, this surface can also be simultaneously used as a mirror. The reflective characteristics of Cartesian ovals are also well described in this paper. The theoretical work described here can considerably reduce computing time in optical system design. This model is applied to examples of antennae design for visible light communications (VLC)...
September 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Yuan Ni, Caixia Kan, Juan Xu, Yang Liu, Haiying Xu, Changshun Wang
The optical properties of coupled plasmon systems can be tuned by individual material and geometry, gap distance, and surrounding dielectric. This paper reports a dramatic effect of a curved interface in the nanoparticles dimer on the optical responses. Compared with gold nanorod (AuNR) monomer, AuNR dimers with different assembly types (such as end-to-end and side-by-side) can manipulate the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPRL) to red/blueshift. The electromagnetic field of the dimer is further enhanced in the interactive region...
October 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Javier Del Hoyo, Heejoo Choi, James H Burge, Geon-Hee Kim, Dae Wook Kim
The control of surface errors as a function of spatial frequency is critical during the fabrication of modern optical systems. A large-scale surface figure error is controlled by a guided removal process, such as computer-controlled optical surfacing. Smaller-scale surface errors are controlled by polishing process parameters. Surface errors of only a few millimeters may degrade the performance of an optical system, causing background noise from scattered light and reducing imaging contrast for large optical systems...
June 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Susan Michie, James Thomas, Marie Johnston, Pol Mac Aonghusa, John Shawe-Taylor, Michael P Kelly, Léa A Deleris, Ailbhe N Finnerty, Marta M Marques, Emma Norris, Alison O'Mara-Eves, Robert West
BACKGROUND: Behaviour change is key to addressing both the challenges facing human health and wellbeing and to promoting the uptake of research findings in health policy and practice. We need to make better use of the vast amount of accumulating evidence from behaviour change intervention (BCI) evaluations and promote the uptake of that evidence into a wide range of contexts. The scale and complexity of the task of synthesising and interpreting this evidence, and increasing evidence timeliness and accessibility, will require increased computer support...
October 18, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
Vanessa Lessa C Araujo, Pedro Basto Cruvinel, Regina Guenka Palma-Dibb, Ricardo Gariba-Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of high-power lasers (Nd:YAG and diode 980 nm) associated with mineral coal as fotopotencializer on bond strength of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer to root dentin, using the pushout test, and on the dentin/filling material interface, using confocal laser microscopy. For this purposes, 50 canines were instrumented with Mtwo rotary system up to #50.04 instrument and randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10): group I-control EDTAC; group II-EDTAC and Nd:YAG laser; group III-EDTAC and diode laser 980 nm; group IV-EDTAC, Nd:YAG laser and mineral coal 5 g/100 mL; and group V-EDTAC, diode laser 980 nm and mineral coal 5 g/100 mL...
October 18, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Alfredo Calvimontes
This work presents a technique for the study and measurement of the interfacial energies of solid-liquid-gas systems. The instrument and the evaluation method for the measurements obtained by it, allow the analysis of the energy changes of sessile drops submitted to microgravity. A mathematical model based on the thermodynamic of wetting is applied to evaluate the interfacial energies as a function of the drop shape changes due to the effect of the release of gravitation during the experiment. The presented model bases on the thermodynamic equilibrium of the interfaces and not on the balance of bi-dimensional tensors on the contour line...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
Colin K Curtis, Antonin Marek, Alex I Smirnov, Jacqueline Krim
This article reports a comparative study of the nanoscale and macroscale tribological attributes of alumina and stainless steel surfaces immersed in aqueous suspensions of positively (hydroxylated) or negatively (carboxylated) charged nanodiamonds (ND). Immersion in -ND suspensions resulted in a decrease in the macroscopic friction coefficients to values in the range 0.05-0.1 for both stainless steel and alumina, while +ND suspensions yielded an increase in friction for stainless steel contacts but little to no increase for alumina contacts...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Markus Göttlicher, Marcus Rohnke, Yannik Moryson, Jürgen Thomas, Joachim Sann, Anja Lode, Matthias Schumacher, Romy Schmidt, Stefan Pilz, Annett Gebert, Thomas Gemming, Jürgen Janek
BACKGROUND: Surface functionalization of orthopedic implants with pharmaceutically active agents is a modern approach to enhance osseointegration in systemically altered bone. A local release of strontium, a verified bone building therapeutic agent, at the fracture site would diminish side effects, which could occur otherwise by oral administration. Strontium surface functionalization of specially designed titanium-niobium (Ti-40Nb) implant alloy would provide an advanced implant system that is mechanically adapted to altered bone with the ability to stimulate bone formation...
2017: Biomaterials Research
Irina-Emilia Nicolae, Laura Acqualagna, Benjamin Blankertz
Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain. Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing) within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
M Neale Weitzmann
Osteoporosis increases fracture risk, a cause of crippling morbidity and mortality. The immunoskeletal interface (ISI) is a centralization of cell and cytokine effectors shared between skeletal and immune systems. Consequently, the immune system mediates powerful effects on bone turnover. Physiologically, B cells secrete osteoprotegerin (OPG), a potent anti-osteoclastogenic factor that preserves bone mass. However, activated T cells and B cells secrete pro-osteoclastogenic factors including receptor activator of Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) ligand (RANKL), Interleukin (IL)-17A, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α promoting bone loss in inflammatory states such as rheumatoid arthritis...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
Fulvio Grigolato, Claudio Colombo, Raffaele Ferrari, Lenka Rezabkova, Paolo Arosio
Interactions between proteins and surfaces in combination with hydrodynamic flow and mechanical agitation can often trigger the conversion of soluble peptides and proteins into aggregates, including amyloid fibrils. Despite the extensive literature on the empirical effects of surfaces and mechanical forces on the formation of amyloids, the molecular details of the mechanisms underlying this behavior are still elusive. This limitation is, in part, due to the complex reaction network underlying the formation of amyloids, where several microscopic reactions of nucleation and growth can occur both at the interfaces and in bulk...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
Esther Peña-Soler, Juan Aranda, Miguel López-Estepa, Sara Gómez, Fernando Garces, Miquel Coll, Francisco J Fernández, Iñaki Tuñon, M Cristina Vega
Sulfur trafficking in living organisms relies on transpersulfuration reactions consisting in the enzyme-catalyzed transfer of S atoms via activated persulfidic S across protein-protein interfaces. The recent elucidation of the mechanistic basis for transpersulfuration in the CsdA-CsdE model system has paved the way for a better understanding of its role under oxidative stress. Herein we present the crystal structure of the oxidized, inactivated CsdE dimer at 2.4 Å resolution. The structure sheds light into the activation of the Cys61 nucleophile on its way from a solvent-secluded position in free CsdE to a fully extended conformation in the persulfurated CsdA-CsdE complex...
2017: PloS One
Nara L M Sobreira, Harindra Arachchi, Orion J Buske, Jessica X Chong, Ben Hutton, Julia Foreman, François Schiettecatte, Tudor Groza, Julius O B Jacobsen, Melissa A Haendel, Kym M Boycott, Ada Hamosh, Heidi L Rehm
In well over half of the individuals with rare disease who undergo clinical or research next-generation sequencing, the responsible gene cannot be determined. Some reasons for this relatively low yield include unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity; locus heterogeneity; somatic and germline mosaicism; variants of uncertain functional significance; technically inaccessible areas of the genome; incorrect mode of inheritance investigated; and inadequate communication between clinicians and basic scientists with knowledge of particular genes, proteins, or biological systems...
October 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
Michelle Makhoul-Mansour, Wujun Zhao, Nicole Gay, Colleen O'Connor, Joseph Najem, Leidong Mao, Eric C Freeman
Droplet interface bilayer (DIB) networks allow for the construction of stimuli-responsive, membrane-based materials. Traditionally used for studying cellular transport phenomena, the DIB technique has proven its practicality when creating structured droplet networks. These structures consist of aqueous compartments capable of exchanging their contents across membranous barriers in a regulated fashion via embedded biomolecules, thus approximating the activity of natural cellular systems. However, lipid bilayer networks are often static and incapable of any reconfiguration in their architecture...
October 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jessica R Liley, Robert K Thomas, Jeffrey Penfold, Ian M Tucker, Jordan T Petkov, Paul S Stevenson, Ibrahim M Banat, Roger Marchant, Michelle Rudden, John Robert Peter Webster
The composition of an adsorbed layer at the air--water interface of a quinary mixture consisting of three conventional surfactants, octa-ethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E8), dodecane-6-p-sodium benzene sulfonate (LAS6), and diethylene glycol monododecyl ether sodium sulfate (SLE2S) mixed with two biosurfactants, the rhamnolipids L-rhamnosyl-L-rhamnosyl-β-hydroxydecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoyl, R2, and L-rhamnosyl-β-hydroxydecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoyl, R1, has been measured over a range of compositions above the mixed critical micelle concentration (CMC)...
October 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Charles Reilly, Donald E Ingber
Many have recognized the potential value of facilitating activities that span the art-science interface for the benefit of society; however, there are few examples that demonstrate how pursuit of an artistic agenda can lead to scientific insights. Here, we describe how we set out to produce an entertaining short film depicting the fertilization of the egg by sperm as a parody of a preview for another Star Wars movie to excite the public about science, but ended up developing a simulation tool for multiscale modeling...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
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