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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454283/investigating-antibiotics-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-microbial-contaminants-in-groundwater-in-relation-to-the-proximity-of-urban-areas
#1
Edina Szekeres, Cecilia Maria Chiriac, Andreea Baricz, Tiberiu Szőke-Nagy, Ildiko Lung, Maria-Loredana Soran, Knut Rudi, Nicolae Dragos, Cristian Coman
Groundwater is an essential public and drinking water supply and its protection is a goal for global policies. Here, we investigated the presence and prevalence of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and microbial contamination in groundwater environments at various distances from urban areas. Antibiotic concentrations ranged from below detection limit to 917 ng/L, being trimethoprim, macrolide, and sulfonamide the most abundant antibiotic classes. A total of eleven ARGs (aminoglycoside, β-lactam, chloramphenicol, Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B - MLSB, sulfonamide, and tetracycline), one antiseptic resistance gene, and two MGEs were detected by qPCR with relative abundances ranging from 6...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454205/how-can-local-representations-of-changes-of-the-availability-in-natural-resources-assist-in-targeting-conservation
#2
Juliana Loureiro Almeida Campos, Elcida de Lima Araújo, Orou G Gaoue, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque
The use and appropriation of natural resources by human groups may be strongly related to the perception that these groups have of the abundance or scarcity of these resources. Researches on environmental representation can be useful to understand the criteria involved in the selection and use of natural resources, to verify if people realize changes in the availability of these resources and the possible causes of these changes and to elaborate conservation strategies, if necessary. However, if people are not realizing these changes, of if they do not perceive themselves as a cause of such scarcity, the developing of conservation strategies will be very difficult to implement...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454159/an-aligned-porous-electrospun-fibrous-membrane-with-controlled-drug-delivery-an-efficient-strategy-to-accelerate-diabetic-wound-healing-with-improved-angiogenesis
#3
Xiaozhi Ren, Yiming Han, Jie Wang, Yuqi Jiang, Zhengfang Yi, He Xu, Qinfei Ke
A chronic wound in diabetic patients is usually characterized by poor angiogenesis and delayed wound closure. The exploration of efficient strategy to significantly improve angiogenesis in the diabetic wound bed and thereby accelerate wound healing is still a significant challenge. Herein, we reported a kind of aligned porous poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) electrospun fibrous membranes containing dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DS) for diabetic wound healing. The PLLA electrospun fibers aligned in a single direction and there were ellipse-shaped nano-pores in situ generated onto the surface of fibers, while the DS were well distributed in the fibers and the DMOG as well as Si ion could be controlled released from the nanopores on the fibers...
February 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454154/age-related-functional-changes-in-domain-specific-medial-temporal-lobe-pathways
#4
David Berron, Katja Neumann, Anne Maass, Hartmut Schütze, Klaus Fliessbach, Verena Kiven, Frank Jessen, Magdalena Sauvage, Dharshan Kumaran, Emrah Düzel
There is now converging evidence from studies in animals and humans that the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) harbor anatomically distinct processing pathways for object and scene information. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans suggest that this domain-specific organization may be associated with a functional preference of the anterior-lateral part of the entorhinal cortex (alErC) for objects and the posterior-medial entorhinal cortex (pmErC) for scenes. As MTL subregions are differentially affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases, the question was raised whether aging may affect the 2 pathways differentially...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454153/muscle-carnosine-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Charly Keytsman, Laura Blancquaert, Inez Wens, Maarten Missine, Pieter Van Noten, Frank Vandenabeele, Wim Derave, Bert O Eijnde
BACKGROUND: Muscle carnosine is related to contractile function (Ca ++ handling) and buffering of exercise-induced acidosis. As these muscular functions are altered in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) it is relevant to understand muscle carnosine levels in MS. METHODS: Tibialis anterior muscle carnosine was measured in an animal MS model (EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, n = 40) and controls (CON, n = 40) before and after exercise training (EAE EX , CON EX , 10d, 1 h/d, 24 m/min treadmill running) or sedentary conditions (EAE SED , CON SED )...
February 11, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454117/the-differentially-expressed-genes-of-human-sporadic-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#6
Xiangjiang Lin, Guolu Meng, Xing Liu, Tengfei Yu, Chuanfeng Bai, Xiaobin Fei, Shengze Deng, Jizong Zhao, Shulin Ren, Junting Zhang, Zhen Wu, Shuo Wang, Jianguo Zhang, Liwei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To understand the development of Sporadic cerebral cavernous malformations (SCCM) comprehensively, we analyzed gene expression profiles in SCCMs by the gene microarray. METHODS: The total number of the specimens collected in our study was 14, 7 of which were SCCMs, and the others were controls that were obtained from normal brain vessels. The total RNA was extracted and hybridized with Oligonucleotide array containing 21522 genes. The analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) items and molecular pathways was performed based on the GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454105/assessing-the-repeatability-of-absolute-cmro-2-oef-and-haemodynamic-measurements-from-calibrated-fmri
#7
Alberto Merola, Michael A Germuska, Kevin Murphy, Richard G Wise
As energy metabolism in the brain is largely oxidative, the measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) is a desirable biomarker for quantifying brain activity and tissue viability. Currently, PET techniques based on oxygen isotopes are the gold standard for obtaining whole brain CMRO 2 maps. Among MRI techniques that have been developed as an alternative are dual calibrated fMRI (dcFMRI) methods, which exploit simultaneous measurements of BOLD and ASL signals during a hypercapnic-hyperoxic experiment to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation...
February 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454088/hsf4-transcriptional-regulates-hmox-1-expression-in-hlecs
#8
Shengjie Liao, Zhen Qu, Linqiang Li, Benwen Zhou, Meng Gao, Mi Huang, Duanzhuo Li
The major causes for cataract formation are free radicals, which are neutralized by the endogenous antioxidants. However, how the human lens clean these harmful free radicals is still unclear. Transcriptional factor heat shock factor 4 (HSF4) is a cataract-causing gene and plays important roles during lens development. Here we show that HMOX-1, an anti-oxidase, is a bona fide transcriptional target gene of HSF4 in HLECs (human lens epithelial cells). HSF4 directly binds to the HSE element in HMOX-1 promoter to mediate its mRNA transcription and protein accumulation...
February 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454079/a-novel-metric-that-quantifies-risk-stratification-for-evaluating-diagnostic-tests-the-example-of-evaluating-cervical-cancer-screening-tests-across-populations
#9
Hormuzd A Katki, Mark Schiffman
Our work involves assessing whether new biomarkers might be useful for cervical-cancer screening across populations with different disease prevalences and biomarker distributions. When comparing across populations, we show that standard diagnostic accuracy statistics (predictive values, risk-differences, Youden's index and Area Under the Curve (AUC)) can easily be misinterpreted. We introduce an intuitively simple statistic for a 2 × 2 table, Mean Risk Stratification (MRS): the average change in risk (pre-test vs...
February 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454024/development-of-an-in-vitro-screening-method-of-acute-cytotoxicity-of-the-pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-lasiocarpine-in-human-and-rodent-hepatic-cell-lines-by-increasing-susceptibility
#10
Kristina Forsch, Verena Schöning, Lucia Disch, Beate Siewert, Matthias Unger, Jürgen Drewe
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary plant ingredients formed in many plant species to protect against predators. PAs are generally considered acutely hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Up to now, only few in vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to evaluate their relative toxic potential. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim was to develop an in vitro screening method of their cytotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human and rodent hepatocyte cell lines (HepG2 and H-4-II-E) were used to assess cytotoxicity of the PA lasiocarpine...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453999/evolutionary-and-expression-analyses-reveal-a-pattern-of-ancient-duplications-and-functional-specializations-in-the-diversification-of-the-downstream-of-kinase-dok-genes
#11
Geoffrey Guittard, Pierre Pontarotti, Samuel Granjeaud, Magda Rodrigues, Laurent Abi-Rached, Jacques A Nunès
Downstream of Kinase (DOK) proteins represent a multigenic family of adaptors that includes negative regulators of immune cell signaling. Using phylogenetics and intron/exon structure data, we show here that the seven human DOK genes (DOK1 to DOK7) form three highly divergent groups that emerged before the protostome-deuterostome split: DOK1/2/3, DOK4/5/6, and DOK7. For two of these three groups (DOK1/2/3 and DOK4/5/6), further gene duplications occurred in vertebrates and so while chordates only have three DOK genes, vertebrates have seven DOK genes over the three groups...
February 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453983/aldolase-a-overexpression-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-and-promotes-tumor-progression-by-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-colon-cancer
#12
Feng Ye, Yixing Chen, Lu Xia, Jiabian Lian, Shuyu Yang
There is increasing evidence that glycolysis is involved in cancer progression. Aldolase is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Disruption of the aldolase genes also plays a role in the progression of multiple types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism of the action of aldolases in colon cancer progression remains elusive. In this study, aldolase A expression was investigated and found to be upregulated along with human colon cancer progression and metastasis at both the mRNA and protein levels in human colon cancer tissues...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453925/impact-of-opioid-therapy-on-gonadal-hormones-focus-on-buprenorphine
#13
REVIEW
Anjali Varma, Mamta Sapra, Ali Iranmanesh
Objective The USA is in the midst of an opioid crisis. Understanding the impact of opioids and commonly used treatments for opioid dependence is essential for clinicians and researchers in order to educate and treat the nation's growing population with opioid use disorders. As a relatively new treatment for opioid dependence, buprenorphine is gaining popularity to the extent of becoming not only a preferred approach to the maintenance of opiate addiction, but also an option for chronic pain management. The purpose of this report is to review the available evidence on the endocrine effects of buprenorphine, particularly as it relates to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is controversial and not fully defined...
February 17, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453877/significance-of-mitochondria-on-cardiometabolic-syndromes
#14
REVIEW
Nair Anupama, G Sindhu, K G Raghu
Metabolic syndromes (MS) are a cluster of disorders like obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS), a branch of MS, is a group of diseases affecting cardiovascular, renal, metabolic, prothrombotic and inflammatory abnormalities due to defects in energy metabolism. Since the emergence of molecular biology and the discovery of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA defect in the 1980s, research advances has revealed a number of common human disease involving mitochondrial dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453862/insights-into-transcriptional-silencing-and-anti-silencing-in-shigella-flexneri-a-detailed-molecular-analysis-of-the-icsp-virulence-locus
#15
Natasha Weatherspoon-Griffin, Michael A Picker, Krystle L Pew, Hiromichi S Park, Daren Ginete, Monika M Karney, Pashtana Usufzy, Maria I Castellanos, Juan Carlos Duhart, Dustin J Harrison, Jillian N Socea, Alexander D Karabachev, Christopher T Hensley, Amber J Howerton, Rosa Ojeda-Daulo, Joy A Immak, Helen J Wing
Transcriptional silencing and anti-silencing mechanisms modulate bacterial physiology and virulence in many human pathogens. In Shigella species, many virulence plasmid genes are silenced by the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS and anti-silenced by the virulence gene regulator VirB. Despite the key role that these regulatory proteins play in Shigella virulence, their mechanisms of transcriptional control remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the regulatory elements and their relative spacing requirements needed for the transcriptional silencing and anti-silencing of icsP, a locus that requires remotely located regulatory elements for both types of transcriptional control...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453855/nerve-reinnervation-and-itch-behaviour-in-a-rat-burn-wound-model
#16
Tiam M Saffari, Barthold N Schüttenhelm, Johan W van Neck, Jan C Holstege
In this study, we investigated whether post-burn itch in rats, after a full thickness burn, is correlated to the nervous reinnervation of the burn wound area. For this purpose, we determined scratching duration (expressed as sec/hr) at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-burn and combined this with immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) to identify all nerve fibers, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) to identify peptidergic fibers, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) for sympathetic fibers and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) for regrowing fibers...
February 17, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453764/comparative-analysis-of-human-ucb-and-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-their-differentiation-potential-into-brown-and-white-adipocytes
#17
Afrooz Rashnonejad, Gulinnaz Ercan, Cumhur Gunduz, Ali Akdemir, Yigit Ozer Tiftikcioglu
The differentiation potential of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) into brown and white adipocytes in comparison to Adipose tissue derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) were investigated in order to characterize their potency for future cell therapies. MSCs were isolated from ten UCB samples and six liposuction materials. MSCs were differentiated into white and brown adipocytes after characterization by flow cytometry. Differentiated adipocytes were stained with Oil Red O and hematoxylin/eosin...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453656/the-ferroportin-ceruloplasmin-system-and-the-mammalian-iron-homeostasis-machine-regulatory-pathways-and-the-role-of-lactoferrin
#18
Maria Carmela Bonaccorsi di Patti, Antimo Cutone, Fabio Polticelli, Luigi Rosa, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Piera Valenti, Giovanni Musci
In the last 20 years, several new genes and proteins involved in iron metabolism in eukaryotes, particularly related to pathological states both in animal models and in humans have been identified, and we are now starting to unveil at the molecular level the mechanisms of iron absorption, the regulation of iron transport and the homeostatic balancing processes. In this review, we will briefly outline the general scheme of iron metabolism in humans and then focus our attention on the cellular iron export system formed by the permease ferroportin and the ferroxidase ceruloplasmin...
February 16, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453653/tight-interplay-in-early-pregnancy-between-follistatin-and-anti-mullerian-hormone-in-women-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-pcos
#19
Angela Köninger, Antje Kampmeier, Pawel Mach, Boerge Schmidt, Thomas Strowitzki, Rainer Kimmig, Alexandra Gellhaus
PURPOSE: Follistatin levels increase during the course of pregnancy and may play a role in ovarian arrest, reflected by the simultaneous decrease of anti-mullerian-hormone (AMH) levels. The aim of the study was to investigate AMH and follistatin levels during the hormonal window at the beginning of pregnancy. Since both parameters are described as deregulated in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), subgroup analysis of PCOS patients may additionally elucidate their interplay and effects on ovarian activity...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453628/safety-tolerability-and-preliminary-activity-of-imgn529-a-cd37-targeted-antibody-drug-conjugate-in-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-b-cell-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-a-dose-escalation-phase-i-study
#20
Anastasios Stathis, Ian W Flinn, Sumit Madan, Kami Maddocks, Arnold Freedman, Steven Weitman, Emanuele Zucca, Mihaela C Munteanu, M Lia Palomba
Background CD37 is expressed on B-cell lymphoid malignancies, thus making it an attractive candidate for targeted therapy in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). IMGN529 is an antibody-drug conjugate comprising a CD37-binding antibody linked to the maytansinoid DM1, a potent anti-mitotic agent. Methods This first-in-human, phase 1 trial recruited adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell NHL. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase 2 dose. Secondary objectives were to evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary clinical activity...
February 17, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
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