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racism in america

Gretchen Heyer
Racial and religious identities are complex, often mired in dynamics of 'othering'. Such dynamics easily become a means of distancing the pain, fear and rage of intergenerational traumas, thus undermining ways race and religion can be powerful vehicles for the transference and countertransference. Drawing from a history of race in America as well as Jung's anxiety when meeting the stranger within himself, this paper focuses on 17 years of work between a black female patient and white female clinician (me)...
September 2016: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Daniel Ciccarone, Philippe Bourgois
This commentary revisits the political turmoil and scientific controversy over epidemiological study findings linking high HIV seroincidence to syringe exchange attendance in Vancouver in the mid-1990s. The association was mobilized polemically by US politicians and hard-line drug warriors to attack needle exchange policies and funding. In turn, program restrictions limiting access to syringes at the Vancouver exchange may have interfaced with a complex conjunction of historical, geographic, political economic and cultural forces and physiological vulnerabilities to create an extraordinary HIV risk environment: (1) ghettoization of services for indigent populations in a rapidly gentrifying, post-industrial city; (2) rural-urban migration of vulnerable populations subject to historical colonization and current patterns of racism; and (3) the flooding of North America with inexpensive powder cocaine and heroin, and the popularity of crack...
July 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Brian W Powers, Augustus A White, Nancy E Oriol, Sachin H Jain
African Americans remain substantially less likely than other physicians to hold academic appointments. The roots of these disparities stem from different extrinsic and intrinsic forces that guide career development. Efforts to ameliorate African American underrepresentation in academic medicine have traditionally focused on modifying structural and extrinsic barriers through undergraduate and graduate outreach, diversity and inclusion initiatives at medical schools, and faculty development programs. Although essential, these initiatives fail to confront the unique intrinsic forces that shape career development...
July 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Gilda Graff
This article argues that the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a new tactic in the history of American racism. Slavery was ended by the Civil War, but after Reconstruction, the gains of the former slaves were eroded by Jim Crow (a rigid pattern of racial segregation), lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, tenantry, unequal educational resources, terrorism, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Movement struck down legal barriers, but we have chosen to deal with the problems of poverty and race not so differently than we have in the past...
2015: Journal of Psychohistory
Adrian Miller, Peter D Massey, Jenni Judd, Jenny Kelly, David N Durrheim, Alan R Clough, Rick Speare, Sherry Saggers
INTRODUCTION: This article describes the use and effectiveness of the participatory action research (PAR) framework to better understand community members' perceptions and risks of pandemic influenza. In 2009, the H1N1 influenza pandemic affected Indigenous populations more than non-Indigenous populations in Oceania and the Americas. Higher prevalence of comorbidities (diabetes, obesity, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) as well as pregnancy in Indigenous communities may have contributed to the higher risks of severe disease...
July 2015: Rural and Remote Health
Michael I Norton, Samuel R Sommers
Although some have heralded recent political and cultural developments as signaling the arrival of a postracial era in America, several legal and social controversies regarding "reverse racism" highlight Whites' increasing concern about anti-White bias. We show that this emerging belief reflects Whites' view of racism as a zero-sum game, such that decreases in perceived bias against Blacks over the past six decades are associated with increases in perceived bias against Whites-a relationship not observed in Blacks' perceptions...
May 2011: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Jennifer Jee-Lyn García, Mienah Zulfacar Sharif
The recent nonindictments of police officers who killed unarmed Black men have incited popular and scholarly discussions on racial injustices in our legal system, racialized police violence, and police (mis)conduct. What is glaringly absent is a public health perspective in response to these events. We aim to fill this gap and expand the current dialogue beyond these isolated incidents to a broader discussion of racism in America and how it affects the health and well-being of people of color. Our goal is not only to reiterate how salient structural racism is in our society, but how critical antiracist work is to the core goals and values of public health...
August 2015: American Journal of Public Health
Sarah Walsh
This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light...
November 2015: Journal of the History of Biology
J Edgar Bauer
The study focuses on the slender corpus of literary work by Harlem Renaissance poet, author and visual artist Richard Bruce Nugent (1906-1987), arguably America's foremost Black aesthete. As an individualist in the footsteps of post-Hegelian and pre-Nietzschean philosopher Max Stirner (1806-1856), Nugent sought to re-think sexuality and race beyond fixed schemes of categorial distribution. To this end, Nugent deployed a strategy of sexual and racial ambiguity that aimed at situating the uniquely sexed and raced individual within the continuities of ever-diversifying Nature...
2015: Journal of Homosexuality
Pawan Singh, Lisa Cartwright, Cristina Visperas
Drawing on the theoretical frameworks of antiblackness and intersectionality and the concept of viral visibility, this essay attends to the considerable archive of research about endemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in sub-Saharan Africa accrued during the mid-20th century. This body of data was inexplicably overlooked in Western research into KS during the first decade of the AIDS epidemic, during which period European and Mediterranean KS cases were most often cited as precedents despite the volume of African data available...
December 2014: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Anne Pollock, David S Jones
Coronary artery disease (CAD) has dominated mortality for most of the past century, not just in Europe and North America but worldwide. Treatments for CAD, both pharmaceutical and surgical, have become leading sectors of the healthcare economy. This paper focuses on the therapeutic landscape for CAD in the United States. We hope to add texture to the broader conversation of pharmaceuticalization explored in this issue by situating pharmaceutical therapies as just one element in the broader therapeutic terrain, alongside cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology...
April 2015: Social Science & Medicine
Krista M Perreira, Edward E Telles
Latin America is one of the most ethnoracially heterogeneous regions of the world. Despite this, health disparities research in Latin America tends to focus on gender, class and regional health differences while downplaying ethnoracial differences. Few scholars have conducted studies of ethnoracial identification and health disparities in Latin America. Research that examines multiple measures of ethnoracial identification is rarer still. Official data on race/ethnicity in Latin America are based on self-identification which can differ from interviewer-ascribed or phenotypic classification based on skin color...
September 2014: Social Science & Medicine
Maureen Riley-Behringer, Victor Groza, Wendy Tieman, Femmie Juffer
A cross-national sample of 622 internationally adopted children from India with White parents in The Netherlands (n = 409), Norway (n = 146), and the United States (n = 67) was used to contrast country-specific bicultural socialization (BCS) practices among families of transracial intercountry adoption. The 3 countries vary in their degrees of minority (US > Netherlands > Norway) and Indian populations (US > Norway > Netherlands). The current study examined parental survey trends among BCS practices, children's negative encounters about adoption, racial and positive discrimination, and parental worry about these issues...
April 2014: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Harriet L Crosby
Jane Wright was a fundamental researcher in cancer chemotherapy in the 1950s-1980s and was one of the first scientists to test anti-cancer drugs on humans rather than solely on mice, discovering the use of the popular antimetabolite drug methotrexate on solid tumours. From her research she was able to conclude which specific anti-cancer agents would have the greatest lethal effect on a patient's certain cancer type and she invented a method of delivering chemotherapy agents directly to an internal cancer site...
February 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Douglas S Massey
Globalization creates pressure for greater inequality throughout the world, but these pressures are expressed more fully in the United States than in other developed nations. Although the distribution of US income before taxes is no more unequal than other nations, after taxes it is considerably less egalitarian. This occurs because of specific institutional arrangements that fail to redistribute income effectively and allow the pressures of globalization to be fully realized. These arrangements represent a shift from the past and were deliberately enacted over the past two decades with divergent consequences for those at the top and bottom of the socioeconomic hierarchy...
January 1, 2009: European Sociological Review
G W Albee
A white male patriarchy developed in England as the British empire grew, expanding its colonial exploitation around the world. A rational explanation was required to explain how a small number of men deserved to control this enormous and growing wealth. With Darwin's theory of evolution (survival of the fittest), Galton's studies of genius (rich and successful men were related to each other) and Spencer's insight that natural selection in human societies was Nature's way of getting rid of bad stock and preserving the best, the theory took shape...
September 1996: Journal of Primary Prevention
G H Liebmann, L Wollman, A G Woltmann
Abstract Eric Berne, M.D.: Games People Play. Grove Press, New York, 1964. 192 pages. Price $5.00. Reviewed by Hugo G. Beigel Finkle, Alex M., Ph.D., M.D. and Prian, Dimitry F. Sexual Potency in Elderly Men before and after Prostatectomy. J.A.M.A., 196: 2, April, 1966. Reviewed by H. George Liebman Calvin C. Hernton: Sex and Racism In America. Grove Press, Inc. Black Cat Edition No. 113 (Paperback), 1966, 180 pp. Price $.95. Reviewed by Gus Woltmann Hans Lehfeldt, M.D., Ernest W. Kulka, M.D., H. George Liebman, M...
September 1966: Journal of Sex Research
Rachelle Miele, Juanne Clarke
Informed by social constructionism, biomedicalization, and a feminist framework, a discourse analysis was performed on 31 popular news articles published in North America between 2000 and 2010. The magazines construct prostate cancer in a gendered manner. Its construction is rooted in themes that are related to discussions of biology, prostate cancer as a heterosexual problem, the responsibilization of health and masculinity. Through these constructions, the popular news articles reinforce dominant ideals and performances of hegemonic masculinity and male sexuality, traditional femininity, and heteronormativity...
January 2014: American Journal of Men's Health
David J Brennan, Kenta Asakura, Clemon George, Peter A Newman, Sulaimon Giwa, Trevor A Hart, Rusty Souleymanov, Gerardo Betancourt
A growing body of literature has highlighted the increased prevalence of body image concerns and associations with health outcomes among gay and bisexual men (GBM). Little research, however, has examined the link between body image and social oppression for ethnoracialized GBM. Using an intersectionality lens and qualitative inductive analysis, data were collected through focus groups and interviews with GBM (n=61) who identify with one of four ethnoracial groups (Black, East/Southeast Asian, South Asian, Latino/Brazilian)...
June 2013: Body Image
Debora Alvarez-del Arco, Susana Monge, Amaya Azcoaga, Isabel Rio, Victoria Hernando, Cristina Gonzalez, Belen Alejos, Ana Maria Caro, Santiago Perez-Cachafeiro, Oriana Ramirez-Rubio, Francisco Bolumar, Teymur Noori, Julia Del Amo
BACKGROUND: The barriers to HIV testing and counselling that migrants encounter can jeopardize proactive HIV testing that relies on the fact that HIV testing must be linked to care. We analyse available evidence on HIV testing and counselling strategies targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in high-income countries. METHODS: Systematic literature review of the five main databases of articles in English from Europe, North America and Australia between 2005 and 2009...
December 2013: European Journal of Public Health
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