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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637324/the-effects-of-phytosterols-on-the-sexual-behavior-and-reproductive-function-in-the-japanese-quail-coturnix-coturnix-japonica
#1
Mohammad Ibrahim Qasimi, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
Phytosterols (PS) are plant origin sterols naturally found in many foods and added as food additives. Since 1950, PS have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to lower serum cholesterol and inhibit cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, recent studies have found that PS act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals in laboratory animals. Therefore, this study was aimed at finding the mechanism(s) for PS effects on the sexual behaviors and reproductive functions in male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637294/over-time-impacts-of-pictorial-health-warning-labels-and-their-differences-across-smoker-subgroups-results-from-adult-smokers-in-canada-and-australia
#2
Kamala Swayampakala, James F Thrasher, Hua-Hie Yong, Gera E Nagelhout, Lin Li, Ron Borland, David Hammond, Richard J O'Connor, James W Hardin
Introduction: This study examines patterns of change in different smoker subgroups' responses to new pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) over the initial, two year post-implementation period in Canada, where HWLs include package inserts with cessation messages, and Australia, where "plain" packaging (i.e., prohibition of brand imagery) was also implemented. Methods: Data were collected from online consumer panels in Canada (nsmokers=3,153; nobservations=5,826) and Australia (nsmokers=2,699; nobservations=5,818) from September 2012 to September 2014, with approximately 1,000 adult smokers surveyed in each country every four months, using replenishment to maintain sample size...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637291/pediatric-to-adult-care-transition-perspectives-of-young-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease
#3
Jerlym S Porter, Kimberly M Wesley, Mimi S Zhao, Rebecca J Rupff, Jane S Hankins
The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of transition and transition readiness of young adult patients (YAs) with sickle cell disease (SCD) who have transitioned to adult health care. In all, 19 YAs with SCD (ages 18-30 years) participated in one of three focus groups and completed a brief questionnaire about transition topics. Transcripts were coded and emergent themes were examined using the social-ecological model of adolescent and young adult readiness for transition (SMART). Themes were consistent with most SMART components...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637262/qualitative-exploration-of-a-smoking-cessation-trial-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#4
Nandita Krishnan, Joel Gittelsohn, Alexandra Ross, Jessica Elf, Sandy Chon, Raymond Niaura, Neil Martinson, Jonathan E Golub
Introduction: In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. Methods: A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637193/effect-of-intensive-personalized-5as-5rs-intervention-on-smoking-cessation-in-hospitalized-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-not-ready-to-quit-immediately-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Jing-Guang Luo, Ling Han, Li-Wei Chen, Yun Gao, Xiao-Jun Ding, Ying Li, Ye Ja, Ming Yang, Chang-Sheng Ma
Introduction: The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients who are not ready to quit smoking immediately have an extremely low rate of cessation. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of intensive personalized '5As+5Rs'intervention (IPANR intervention) on smoking cessation in this population. Methods: A parallel-group randomized controlled trial was carried out, which compared IPANR intervention with routine 5Rs (control) at Fu Xing Hospital, Capital Medical University, Bei Jing, China...
June 20, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637054/modeling-alphabet-skills-as-instructive-feedback-within-a-phonological-awareness-intervention
#6
Arnold Olszewski, Xigrid Soto, Howard Goldstein
Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of an instructive feedback strategy for modeling letter names and sounds during presentation of positive feedback within a small-group phonological awareness intervention for preschoolers. Method: Two experiments were conducted using multiple-baseline designs across children and behaviors. Letter name and sound identification and performance on a phonological awareness fluency measure served as the primary outcome variables...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636995/experimental-study-on-the-therapeutic-effect-and-underlining-mechanisms-of-positron-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#7
Ying Wang, Ming Li, Rao Diao, Brian Tung, Dalong Zhang, Yaming Li
The purpose of this study was to assess the potential therapeutic effect of positrons emitted by 18F-2-Deoxy-2-Fluoro-D-Glucose (18F-FDG) on pancreatic cancer cells and elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Pancreatic cancer cells were incubated with different radioactive concentrations of 18F-FDG and evaluated for anti-cancer properties and underlining mechanisms. In addition, three groups of tumor-bearing mice were treated with different doses of 18F-FDG weekly, the tumor growth rate was calculated, and the mice were imaged by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-FDG before and after treatment...
June 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636974/sema3a-partially-reverses-vegf-effects-through-binding-to-neuropilin-1
#8
Bruna Palodetto, Adriana da Silva Santos Duarte, Matheus Rodrigues Lopes, Flavia Adolfo Corrocher, Fernanda Marconi Roversi, Fernanda Soares Niemann, Karla Priscila Vieira Ferro, Ana Leda Figueiredo Longhini, Paula Melo Campos, Patricia Favaro, Sara Teresinha Olalla Saad
Cross-talk between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is essential for HSCs regulation and leukemogenesis. Studying bone marrow of myelodysplasia patients, a pre-leukemic condition, we found mRNA overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in CD34(+) HSCs and semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) in BMSCs. To better understand the role of VEGFA and SEMA3A in leukemogenesis, we recruited 30 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, 29 acute myeloid leukemia (6 secondary to MDS) patients and 12 controls...
June 3, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636880/behavioral-evidence-of-oxidative-stress-by-hematophagy-in-the-ocellar-system-of-rhodnius-prolixus-st%C3%A3-l-1859-red-eyed-mutants
#9
Carlos Alberto Vija Suarez, Mario Iván Ortiz, Jorge Molina
The photonegative response to light stimulation in Rhodnius prolixus (Reduviidae, Triatominae) is modulated by compound eyes and ocelli. Screening pigments in the visual system have been shown to protect the cellular structures from the oxidative stress damage produced by blood ingestion and light stimulation. Red-eyed mutants of Rhodnius prolixus lack screening pigments in their compound eyes and ocelli and are exposed to more oxidative stress. Experiments with Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans red-eyed mutants reared from the first nymphal stage show damage in the retinas of the compound eyes and a decrease in photonegative responses due to light stimulation...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636705/inflammation-in-the-neurocircuitry-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Sophia Attwells, Elaine Setiawan, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Margaret Anne Richter, Alan Kahn, Stephen J Kish, Sylvain Houle, Lakshmi Ravindran, Jeffrey H Meyer
Importance: For a small percentage of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases exhibiting additional neuropsychiatric symptoms, it was proposed that neuroinflammation occurs in the basal ganglia as an autoimmune response to infections. However, it is possible that elevated neuroinflammation, inducible by a diverse range of mechanisms, is important throughout the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of OCD. Identifying brain inflammation is possible with the recent advance in positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands that bind to the translocator protein (TSPO)...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636677/contextual-imitation-of-intransitive-body-actions-in-a-beluga-whale-delphinapterus-leucas-a-do-as-other-does-study
#11
José Z Abramson, Mª Victoria Hernández-Lloreda, José-Antonio Esteban, Fernando Colmenares, Francisco Aboitiz, Josep Call
Cetaceans are remarkable for exhibiting group-specific behavioral traditions or cultures in several behavioral domains (e.g., calls, behavioral tactics), and the question of whether they can be acquired socially, for example through imitative processes, remains open. Here we used a "Do as other does" paradigm to experimentally study the ability of a beluga to imitate familiar intransitive (body-oriented) actions demonstrated by a conspecific. The participant was first trained to copy three familiar behaviors on command (training phase) and then was tested for her ability to generalize the learned "Do as the other does" command to a different set of three familiar behaviors (testing phase)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636644/longitudinal-changes-in-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-body-mass-index-in-adolescence-migrations-towards-different-weight-cluster
#12
José Devís-Devís, Jorge Lizandra, Alexandra Valencia-Peris, Esther Pérez-Gimeno, Xavier García-Massò, Carmen Peiró-Velert
This study examined longitudinal changes in physical activity, sedentary behavior and body mass index in adolescents, specifically their migrations towards a different weight cluster. A cohort of 755 adolescents participated in a three-year study. A clustering Self-Organized Maps Analysis was performed to visualize changes in subjects' characteristics between the first and second assessment, and how adolescents were grouped. Also a classification tree was used to identify the behavioral characteristics of the groups that changed their weight cluster...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636611/unmanned-aircraft-systems-as-a-new-source-of-disturbance-for-wildlife-a-systematic-review
#13
Margarita Mulero-Pázmány, Susanne Jenni-Eiermann, Nicolas Strebel, Thomas Sattler, Juan José Negro, Zulima Tablado
The use of small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS; also known as "drones") for professional and personal-leisure use is increasing enormously. UAS operate at low altitudes (<500 m) and in any terrain, thus they are susceptible to interact with local fauna, generating a new type of anthropogenic disturbance that has not been systematically evaluated. To address this gap, we performed a review of the existent literature about animals' responses to UAS flights and conducted a pooled analysis of the data to determine the probability and intensity of the disturbance, and to identify the factors influencing animals' reactions towards the small aircraft...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636610/chronotypes-in-the-us-influence-of-age-and-sex
#14
Dorothee Fischer, David A Lombardi, Helen Marucci-Wellman, Till Roenneberg
An individual's chronotype reflects how the circadian system embeds itself into the 24-h day with rhythms in physiology, cognition and behavior occurring accordingly earlier or later. In view of an increasing number of people working at unusual times and linked health and safety risks, the wide range in human chronotypes may provide opportunities to allow people to work (and sleep) at times that are in synch with their circadian physiology. We aimed at estimating the distribution of chronotypes in the US population by age and sex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636579/regeneration-orientation-is-better-than-resistance-orientation-in-behaviour-activation-results-from-an-intervention-study-with-psychosomatic-patients
#15
Josephine Otto, Michael Linden
The meaning of positive activities in mental health is widely known and found its entrance in therapeutically and empirical work. It also found it's entrance to current therapeutic developments. Different strategies for assessment and promotion of activity level exist. Patients were acquired from a department of psychosomatic medicine in a German rehabilitation center and randomly allocated to two treatment groups ("regeneration" vs "resistance" group). Data from 62 patients in the regeneration group and 65 patients in the resistance group was compared with 43 patients who received a "treatment as usual"...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636432/young-men-masculinities-and-suicide
#16
Mette Lyberg Rasmussen, Hanne Haavind, Gudrun Dieserud
OBJECTIVE: Young men constitute one of the highest risk groups for suicide in most countries. This gives reason to explore how meanings attached to masculinity can be evoked and handled when a young man takes his life. METHOD: In-depth interviews with five to eight informants for each of ten suicides, as well as suicide notes, were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. RESULTS: The suicides appeared as signature acts of compensatory masculinity with the following themes: When hope is gone, no one must know; weakness was never allowed; and suicide conducted in a way to present oneself as heroic...
June 21, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635589/regulation-of-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis-by-alternative-sigma-factor-n
#17
James T Riordan, Avishek Mitra
σ(N) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the RNA polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. It is broadly conserved in the Eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(N) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpoN (σ(N)), ptsN, hpf, rapZ, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella. In an increasing number of bacteria, σ(N) has been implicated in the control of genes essential to pathogenic behavior, including those involved in adherence, secretion, immune subversion, biofilm formation, toxin production, and resistance to both antimicrobials and biological stressors...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635580/hide-and-sick-self-concealment-shame-and-distress-in-the-setting-of-psycho-oncology
#18
Reut Wertheim, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Michal Mashiach-Eizenberg, Noam Pizem, Einat Shacham-Shmueli, Gil Goldzweig
OBJECTIVE: Both trait and contextual self-concealment, as well as shame- and guilt-proneness, have previously been found to be associated with psychological distress. However, findings regarding the associations between these variables among patients with cancer and among the spouses of patients with cancer are limited. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the relationship between shame-proneness and psychological distress (anxiety and depression) by examining the mediating role of both trait and contextual self-concealment among patients with cancer and among the spouses of patients with cancer...
June 21, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635378/people-with-autism-spectrum-conditions-make-more-consistent-decisions
#19
George D Farmer, Simon Baron-Cohen, William J Skylark
People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show reduced sensitivity to contextual stimuli in many perceptual and cognitive tasks. We investigated whether this also applies to decision making by examining adult participants' choices between pairs of consumer products that were presented with a third, less desirable "decoy" option. Participants' preferences between the items in a given pair frequently switched when the third item in the set was changed, but this tendency was reduced among individuals with ASC, which indicated that their choices were more consistent and conventionally rational than those of control participants...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635364/the-impact-of-motivational-interviewing-on-behavior-stages-of-nulliparous-pregnant-women-preparing-for-childbirth-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Masoumeh Rasouli, Seyed Abbas Mousavi, Ahmad Khosravi, Afsaneh Keramat, Ensieh Fooladi, Giti Atashsokhan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) on the stages of behavior change among nulliparous pregnant women who were preparing for childbirth. METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, 234 pregnant women were studied in two intervention groups (MI and lecture), and one control group at three stages. In weeks 16-19 of pregnancy, two counseling sessions were held for the MI group, and one lecturing session was held for the lecture group...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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