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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934666/behavioral-approach-and-orbitofrontal-cortical-activity-during-decision-making-in-substance-dependence
#1
Dorothy J Yamamoto, Marie T Banich, Michael F Regner, Joseph T Sakai, Jody Tanabe
Behavioral approach, defined as behavior directed toward a reward or novel stimulus, when elevated, may increase one's vulnerability to substance use disorder. Behavioral approach has been associated with relatively greater left compared to right frontal activity; behavioral inhibition may be associated with relatively greater right compared to left frontal brain activity. We hypothesized that substance dependent individuals (SDI) would have higher behavioral approach than controls and greater prefrontal cortical activity during decision-making involving reward...
September 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934319/an-examination-of-objectively-measured-sedentary-behavior-and-mental-well-being-in-adults-across-week-days-and-weekends
#2
Ann-Marie Gibson, David J Muggeridge, Adrienne R Hughes, Louise Kelly, Alison Kirk
BACKGROUND: Limited research has explored the links between sedentary behaviour, mental health and quality of life. This study examines objectively measured sedentary behaviour and perceived mental health and quality of life across week days and weekends. METHODS: 42 adults (19M, 23F; mean age 38yrs (range 18-67) & BMI 24.8kg/m2 (range 18.7-33.8) wore an activPAL monitor 24h/day for one week and completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and SF12 Health Survey...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933911/differential-support-for-female-supervisors-among-men-and-women
#3
Andrea C Vial, Victoria L Brescoll, Jaime L Napier, John F Dovidio, Tom R Tyler
Two studies evaluated the lay belief that women feel particularly negatively about other women in the workplace and particularly in supervisory roles. The authors tested the general proposition, derived from social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979, 2004), that women, compared to men, may be more supportive of other women in positions of authority, whereas men would respond more favorably to other men than to women in positions of authority. Consistent with predictions, data from an online experiment (n = 259), in which the authors randomly assigned men and women to evaluate identical female (vs...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933878/group-norms-intergroup-resource-allocation-and-social-reasoning-among-children-and-adolescents
#4
Luke McGuire, Antony S R Manstead, Adam Rutland
Cooperation is a fundamental drive of moral behavior from infancy, yet competitive intergroup contexts can exert a significant influence on resource allocation behavior in childhood. The present study explored how ingroup and outgroup norms of competition and cooperation influenced the allocation of resources between groups among children and adolescents, along with how they reasoned about these allocations. Ingroup norms combined, for the first time, with outgroup norms were manipulated to examine their effect on the development of intergroup resource allocation...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933870/the-role-of-young-adult-social-bonds-substance-problems-and-sexual-risk-in-pathways-between-adolescent-substance-use-and-midlife-risky-sexual-behavior-among-urban-african-americans
#5
Katarzyna A Zebrak, Kerry M Green
African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections relative to other racial groups. Although substance use has been linked to risky sexual behavior, the understanding of how these associations develop over the life course remains limited, particularly the role of social bonds. This study uses structural equation modeling to examine pathways from adolescent substance use to young adult sexual risk, substance problems, and social bonds and then to midlife risky sexual behavior among African American men and women, controlling for childhood confounders...
September 21, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933868/electronic-structure-and-stability-of-b12x12-2-x-f-at-a-combined-photoelectron-spectroscopic-and-theoretical-study
#6
Jonas Warneke, Gao-Lei Hou, Edoardo Aprà, Carsten Jenne, Zheng Yang, Zhengbo Qin, Karol Kowalski, Xue-Bin Wang, Sotiris S Xantheas
The stability and electron loss process of numerous Multiply Charged Anions (MCAs) have been traditionally explained in terms of the classical Coulomb interaction between spatially separated charged groups. An understanding of these processes in MCAs with not well-separated excess charges is still lacking. We report the surprising properties and physical behavior of [B12X12]2-, X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, which are MCAs with not well-separated excess charges and cannot be described by the prevailing classical picture...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933829/synthesis-crystal-structure-and-magnetic-properties-of-the-highly-frustrated-orthorhombic-li4mgreo6
#7
JoAnna Milam-Guerrero, Charles J Bloed, Phuong-Hieu T Nguyen, Gia T Tran, William P Martin, Demetrios V Papakostas, Jefferson Toro, Murray N Wilson, Jeremy P Carlo, Graeme M Luke, Brent C Melot, Jiyeong Gu, Shahab Derakhshan
In an effort to understand the structure-property relationship in magnetically frustrated systems, an orthorhombic analog of the S = 1/2 Re-based oxide Li4MgReO6 has been successfully synthesized and its physical properties were investigated. Li4MgReO6 had been previously synthesized in a monoclinic system in an ordered NaCl structure type. That system was shown to exhibit spin glass behavior below ∼12 K. The crystal structure of the latter phase was determined using powder X-ray diffraction data. A structural model was refined in the orthorhombic Fddd space group that resulted in cell dimensions of a = 5...
September 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933556/the-assembly-behavior-of-organically-interlinked-gold-nanoparticle-composite-films-a-quartz-crystal-microbalance-investigation
#8
Yelyena Daskal, Tina Tauchnitz, Frederic Güth, Rosemarie Dittrich, Yvonne Joseph
Thin films based on dodecylamine stabilized gold nanoparticles interlinked with different organic molecules are prepared by automatic layer-by-layer self-assembly in a microfluidic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) cell, to obtain an in-situ insight on the film formation by ligand/linker exchange reactions. The influence of interlinking functional groups and the length of the organic linker molecule on assembly behavior is investigated. Namely alkyldithiols with different lengths are compared to alkyldiamines and alkylbisdithiocarbamates with a C8 alkylic molecular backbone...
September 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933548/investigation-of-structure-and-crystallization-behavior-of-poly-butylene-succinate-by-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#9
Shu-Fang Yao, Xiao-Tong Chen, Hai-Mu Ye
The detailed structure and crystallization behavior of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and other methods systematically. For the first time, we confirmed that the C=O stretching modes of PBS can respond to three distinguish absorption bands in the FTIR spectrum, at around 1736, 1720 and 1714 cm-1 respectively. The 1736 cm-1 band is adopted as the stretching mode of C=O groups in free amorphous fraction (MAF); the 1714 cm-1 band which is relevant to more stable structure, displays more anisotropic in polarized FTIR spectra, and has been confirmed as stretching vibrations of hydrogen-bonded C=O groups in the crystalline phase...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933544/conformational-dynamics-and-exchange-kinetics-of-n-formyl-and-n-acetyl-groups-substituting-3-amino-3-6-dideoxy-%C3%AE-d-galactopyranose-a-sugar-found-in-bacterial-o-antigen-polysaccharides
#10
Olof Engström, Hani Mobarak, Jonas Ståhle, Göran Widmalm
Three dimensional shape and conformation of carbohydrates are important factors in molecular recognition events and the N-acetyl group of a monosaccharide residue can function as a conformational gatekeeper whereby it influences the overall shape of the oligosaccharide. NMR spectroscopy and quantum mechanics (QM) calculations are used herein to investigate both the conformational preferences and the dynamic behavior of N-acetyl and N-formyl substituents of 3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactopyranose, a sugar and substitution patterns found in bacterial O-antigen polysaccharides...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933310/socialization-alleviates-burden-of-oxidative-stress-in-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-morphine-addiction-period-in-male-rats
#11
Hamidreza Famitafreshi, Morteza Karimian
INTRODUCTION: Addiction is a compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. Reduction of high-risk behaviors can reduce the burden of addiction in society and can improve the overall prognosis of drug addiction. The aim of this study is to show that reduction of oxidative stress with socialization will reduce occurrence of high-risk behavior during addiction period. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: socialized, isolated, addicted socialized and addicted isolated...
September 19, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933254/the-efficacy-of-a-working-memory-training-in-substance-use-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#12
Sabine Wanmaker, Sophie Maaike Jorinde Leijdesdorff, Elke Geraerts, Ben J M van de Wetering, Peter J Renkema, Ingmar H A Franken
INTRODUCTION: Substance use disorder patients show impairments in working memory (WM) functioning. Previous findings indicate that a WM training results in improvements of working memory capacity (WMC) and in decreased clinical symptoms in a range of mental disorders, including alcohol use disorder. METHOD: The aim of the current study is to investigate the efficacy of a 24-session WM training in addition to treatment as usual on craving, WMC, substance use, impulsivity, attention bias, and psychopathology using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933225/inflammation-relates-to-chronic-behavioral-and-neurological-symptoms-in-military-personnel-with-traumatic-brain-injuries
#13
Christina Devoto, Lindsay Arcurio, Joseph Fetta, Mary Ley, Tamar Rodney, Rebekah Kanefsky, Jessica Gill
Studies have shown that the presence of acute inflammation during recovery is indicative of poor outcomes after a traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the role of chronic inflammation in predicting post-TBI-related symptoms remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to compare inflammatory biomarkers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, and IL-10) in active duty personnel who either sustained or did not sustain a TBI. Service members were also assessed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality of life through self-reported measures...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933203/in-vivo-antitumor-effect-of-endostatin-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-combined-with-paclitaxel-on-lewis-lung-carcinoma
#14
Fang Xie, Rui-Lin Ding, Wen-Feng He, Zong-Jun-Lin Liu, Shao-Zhi Fu, Jing-Bo Wu, Ling-Lin Yang, Sheng Lin, Qing-Lian Wen
The purpose of this study was to prepare endostatin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (ES-NPs) and evaluate their antitumor effect when combined with paclitaxel (PTX) on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) mouse xenografts. ES-NPs were prepared by ionic cross-linking. Characterization of the ES-NPs included size distribution, drug-loading efficiency (DL), and encapsulation efficiency (EE). An in vitro release test was also used to determine the release behavior of the ES-NPs. A subcutaneous LC xenograft model of C57BL/6J mice was established...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933160/plutonium-partitioning-behavior-to-humic-acids-from-widely-varying-soils-is-related-to-carboxyl-containing-organic-compounds
#15
Peng Lin, Chen Xu, Saijin Zhang, Nobuhide Fujitake, Daniel I Kaplan, Chris Yeager, Yuko Sugiyama, Kathleen A Schwehr, Peter H Santschi
In order to examine the influence of the HA molecular composition on the partitioning of Pu, ten different kinds of humic acids (HAs) of contrasting chemical composition, collected and extracted from different soil types around the world were equilibrated with groundwater at low Pu concentrations (10-14 M). Under mildly acidic conditions (pH~5.5), 29±24% of the HAs were released as colloidal organic matter (>3kDa to <0.45µm), yet this HA fraction accounted for a vast majority of the bound Pu, 76±13% on average...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933095/-investigation-of-effects-of-albiflorin-and-paeoniflorin-on-hippocampal-bdnf-and-no-in-chronic-restraint-stress-rats
#16
Ying-Li Zhu, Lin-Yuan Wang, Cheng-Long Wang, Dan-Ping Zhao, Sha Wang, Wen-Ting Fei, Jian-Jun Zhang
This paper aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects and the mechanism of the albiflorin, paeoniflorin on rats with chronic restraint stress model. Fluoxetine and Xiaoyao group served as the positive control, body weight, sucrose preference test and the open field behavioral experiment were measured, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) in hippocampus were detected by Greg colorimetric method. Furthermore, the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus were detected by ELISA. Finally, the expressions of nNOS mRNA in hippocampus detected by RT-qPCR, the protein levels of nNOS and BDNF in hippocampus were detected by Western blot...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932889/behavioral-economic-analysis-of-the-effects-of-n-substituted-benztropine-analogs-on-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#17
Claudio Zanettini, Derek S Wilkinson, Jonathan L Katz
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Benztropine (BZT) analogs and other atypical dopamine uptake inhibitors selectively decrease cocaine self-administration at doses that do not affect responding maintained by other reinforcers. Those effects were further characterized in the current study using a behavioral economic assessment of how response requirement (price) affects reinforcers obtained (consumption) in rats. METHODS: Two groups of rats were trained to press levers with food (45-mg pellet) or cocaine (0...
September 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932735/attitude-to-human-papillomavirus-deoxyribonucleic-acid-based-cervical-cancer-screening-in-antenatal-care-in-nigeria-a-qualitative-study
#18
Temitope E Filade, Eileen O Dareng, Toyosi Olawande, Tolani A Fagbohun, Amos O Adebayo, Clement A Adebamowo
OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based testing is increasingly used for cervical cancer screening in developed countries, but the best approach to utilizing it in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is unclear. Incorporation of HPV DNA-based testing into routine antenatal care (ANC) is a potential yet poorly explored strategy for cervical cancer screening in LMIC. We explored the attitude of health care workers and pregnant women to the incorporation of HPV DNA-based tests into routine ANC in Nigeria...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932600/abnormal-n400-semantic-priming-effect-may-reflect-psychopathological-processes-in-schizophrenia-a-twin-study
#19
Anuradha Sharma, Heinrich Sauer, Holger Hill, Claudia Kaufmann, Stephan Bender, Matthias Weisbrod
OBJECTIVE: Activation of semantic networks is indexed by the N400 effect. We used a twin study design to investigate whether N400 effect abnormalities reflect genetic/trait liability or are related to psychopathological processes in schizophrenia. METHODS: We employed robust linear regression to compare N400 and behavioral priming effects across 36 monozygotic twin pairs (6 pairs concordant for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, 11 discordant pairs, and 19 healthy control pairs) performing a lexical decision task...
2017: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932164/assessment-of-perceived-needs-and-preferences-with-regard-to-the-education-of-residents-in-medical-ethics-in-king-abdulaziz-university-hospital
#20
Ranya A Ghamri, Rajaa M Al-Raddadi
INTRODUCTION: Medical ethics is the branch of ethics that deals with moral issues in medical practice. Many postgraduate training programs have developed educational interventions in ethics to meet accreditation standards and prepare learners for certification examinations and clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of residents in King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) toward the need for ethics education and identify the most effective methods of teaching ethical issues...
September 2017: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
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