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race and violence

Marie E Karlsson, Kathryn Reid Quiñones, Cristina M López, Arthur R Andrews, Megan M Wallace, Alyssa Rheingold
Predictors of victim injury from intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using 1,292 police reports collected in South Carolina in 2009/2010. All cases were opposite sex adults. Results from bivariate statistics showed that IPV cases with ( n = 649) and without visible injuries ( n = 643) differed on victim gender, victim race, type of relationship, and perpetrator's alcohol use. Results from a logistic regression analysis predicting victim injury showed higher odds ratios for males, Whites, and couples identified as cohabitants...
November 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Wen-Jan Tuan, John J Frey
BACKGROUND: Despite low firearm mortality rates in Wisconsin, overall firearm fatalities continue to rise in recent years. In 2013, the statewide age-adjusted death rate due to firearms was 9.6 per 100,000 persons, the highest mark since the new millennium. This raises not only public safety concerns, but also raises questions regarding ongoing gun violence. OBJECTIVES: To describe the population and geographic characteristics of firearm mortality rates on population and geographic characteristics in Wisconsin...
November 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
Jacquelyn L Meyers, Carolyn E Sartor, Kimberly B Werner, Karestan C Koenen, Bridget F Grant, Deborah Hasin
BACKGROUND: Exposure to child maltreatment has been shown to increase lifetime risk for substance use disorders (SUD). However, this has not been systematically examined among race/ethnic groups, for whom rates of exposure to assaultive violence and SUD differ. This study examined variation by race/ethnicity and gender in associations of alcohol (AUD), cannabis (CUD), and tobacco (TUD) use disorders with three types of childhood interpersonal violence (cIPV): physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing parental violence...
January 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Lisa Fedina, Boyoung Nam, Hyun-Jin Jun, Roma Shah, Tara Von Mach, Charlotte L Bright, Jordan DeVylder
Resilience has been found to attenuate the effects of negative mental health symptomology associated with interpersonal victimization; however, existing research has largely focused on resilience traits, such as individual cognitive and environmental factors that promote resilience. In addition, empirical knowledge on the extent to which resilience mitigates suicidal symptomology associated with interpersonal violence victimization is particularly limited. This study assesses whether the relationship between interpersonal violence (i...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Leslie M Tutty, H L Radtke, Christine A Ateah, E Jane Ursel, Wilfreda E Billie Thurston, Mary Hampton, Kendra Nixon
This research examines how mental health issues associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) relate to women's intersecting identities of race/ethnicity, disability status, and child abuse history. Data ( N = 595) from a Canadian triprovincial study included women who were White ( n = 263, 44.8%), Indigenous ( n = 292, 49.7%), or visible minority ( n = 32, 5.5%). Few demographic differences were found. None of the mental health measures (Symptom Checklist-Short Form [SCL-10], Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression [CES-D-10], Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [PTSD] Checklist) were in the clinical ranges...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Dong Ha Kim, Lynn Murphy Michalopoulos, Dexter R Voisin
African American youth, especially those who reside in low resourced communities, are exposed to higher levels of exposure to community violence relative to their counterparts from other race/ethnic groups. However, appropriate measures for assessing psychological stress related to such exposures are underresearched in the extant literature for this population. The aim of the current study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18) scale among African American youth exposed to community violence through classical test theory and item response theory methods...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Gretchen Ely, Nadine Murshid
The objective of this article is to describe a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Abortion Patient Survey (APS 2008) data exploring the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and travel distances in a national sample of patients seeking abortion services in the United States. The researchers used the 2008 APS, which is the most recent publicly available version of this dataset, to conduct chi-square tests to examine the bivariate associations between all independent and dependent variables. Prevalence ratios were calculated to determine the association between physical and sexual violence and distance traveled to get an abortion, controlling for length of pregnancy, age, education, income, poverty category, race, relationship status, insurance type, whether women went to the closest clinic, whether the pregnancy was wanted, and number of previous abortions...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Katherine A Taylor, Terri N Sullivan
Substance use and dating violence victimization are common in adolescence and represent significant public health concerns. Although theoretical accounts suggest a bidirectional association between substance use and victimization within dating relationships, this has not been tested during early adolescence. Thus, the current study examined bidirectional associations between physical and psychological dating violence victimization and substance use across 6 months among an ethnically diverse sample of early adolescents...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Rick Dierenfeldt, Shaun A Thomas, Timothy C Brown, Jeffery T Walker
Anderson's thesis of a code of the street has been broadly applied to the study of violence, but race- and gender-specific multilevel analyses of gun violence are scant within the literature. An unresolved debate also surrounds the link between violent victimization and adherence to street culture; underscored by an apparent reputation-victimization paradox among those who engage in street behaviors. The current study contributes to the literature by assessing the direct influence of incident setting and victim-offender familiarity on the likelihood of gun use by Black males in the course of aggravated assaults; and the degree to which the confluence of these factors is conditioned by levels of disadvantage and violence in the community...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Lynette M Renner, Rachael A Spencer, Jamie Morrissette, Angela Lewis-Dmello, Hannah Michel, Deena Anders, Cari Jo Clark
In this study, we examined the impact of severe polyvictimization on 30-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among female survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). Data were collected from 34 participants in the "Leave it on the Mat" pilot study. The study was conducted in an urban city in a Midwestern state from August 2012 to April 2014. Severe polyvictimization was considered present if participants reported a history of three or more forms of victimization (childhood exposure to domestic violence, being psychologically or physically abused in childhood, and lifetime sexual assault) in addition to IPV...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Bethany M Coston
While just over one in three heterosexual women will experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in her lifetime, 61% of bisexual women and 78% of non-monosexual women will. Combining previous research and theories on power, social resources, binegativity, and gender-based violence, this article analyzes the role of power and inequality in non-monosexual women's IPV victimization. Using data from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, this article first examines rates of IPV victimization for statistically significant differences between monosexual (e...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Roberto Cancio
Along with service members, military families bear the brute consequences of global U.S. military intervention. Various studies have concluded that these deployments put military families at high risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Using structural equation modeling (SEM) as a novel approach to examine IPV among pre-9/11 military families, this study considers variations of self-reported IPV from the point of the abused partner to test the impact of several life events and demographic factors on the type of IPV most prevalent among perpetrators...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Francis L Huang, Colleen Lloyd Eddy, Emily Camp
Violence directed toward teachers in schools is relatively understudied in comparison with other school-based forms of peer aggression (e.g., school bullying). Based on the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) 2011-2012, approximately 10% of K-12 public school teachers in the United States, received a threat in the past 12 months and 6% reported being physically attacked. The effects of teacher-directed violence are far reaching and affect not just the victimized teacher, but the larger community itself...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Hyunkag Cho, Dasha Shamrova, Jae-Bum Han, Polina Levchenko
Intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors often do not seek critically needed help. A good understanding of the relationship between the pattern of violence and help-seeking is critical to developing adequate services for the survivors, as well as for reaching out to those who do not seek help. This study used the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey to examine how IPV survivor's help-seeking varies, depending on the characteristics of the survivors and the pattern of victimization. Logistic regression analyses were conducted, with the survivors' help-seeking and use of formal or informal help as the dependent variables...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
J Sebastian Leguizamon, Susane Leguizamon, Wesley Howden
Male unemployment may decrease the incidence of domestic violence, due to loss of economic power in the relationship, or increase the incidence of domestic violence, due to emotional outbursts fueled by increased stress. We hypothesize that Black men may face a greater loss of expected future earnings after an unemployment shock due to a more unfavorable labor market relative to White men. Consequently, we would expect that Black men would, on net, exhibit a greater reduction (or a smaller increase) in incidences of domestic violence following an employment shock...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Emily O'Malley Olsen, Alana Vivolo-Kantor, Laura Kann
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth are at risk for many negative behaviors associated with teen dating violence victimization (TDVV). This study describes the prevalence of physical and sexual TDVV by sexual identity and quantifies the increased risk for TDVV among LGB youth compared with heterosexual youth. The participants for this study were students in Grades 9 to 12 participating in the 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) who responded to questions ascertaining sexual identity and both physical and sexual TDVV...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Stefanie Poehacker, David Phillips, Jessica Riggs, Dean Lauterbach
Psychological intimate partner violence (P-IPV) refers to verbal abuse from one partner to another and abuse of power or control from one partner to another. To date, no studies have examined the longitudinal course of P-IPV exposure among mothers or the effect that witnessing P-IPV can have on their children. Using latent class growth analysis, the current study identified five trajectory groups with the following intercept and growth characteristics: low stable, low-increasing, moderate-decreasing, high-decreasing, and consistently elevated...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Michele Cascardi, Ernest N Jouriles, Jeff R Temple
Despite its high prevalence, adverse impact, and potential significance in understanding the onset of physical partner violence (PV), there has been surprisingly scant research on psychological PV perpetration. The present research, guided by social learning and attachment theories, addresses this gap in the literature by examining overlapping and distinct correlates for psychological and physical PV perpetration in emerging adults. Undergraduates ( N = 504) with current or recent dating experience were recruited to complete a self-report survey...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Justin Stoler, Jaclyn Verity, Jessica R Williams
This study examined geodemographic factors associated with availability of comprehensive intimate partner violence (IPV) screening services in Miami-Dade County, Florida. We geocoded 2014 survey data from 278 health facilities and created a population-normalized density surface of IPV screening comprehensiveness. We used correlation analysis and spatial regression techniques to evaluate census tract-level predictors of the mean normalized comprehensiveness score (NCS) for 505 census tracts in Miami-Dade. The population-adjusted density surface of IPV screening comprehensiveness revealed geographic disparities in the availability of screening services...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Nicole Trauffer, Cathy Spatz Widom
Although the percentage of crimes committed by females has increased over the last 20 years in the United States, most research focuses on crimes by males. This article describes an examination of the extent to which childhood maltreatment predicts violent and nonviolent offending in females and the role of psychiatric disorders. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, girls with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect were matched with nonmaltreated girls (controls) on the basis of age, race, and approximate family socioeconomic class, and followed into adulthood (N = 582)...
December 1, 2017: Violence and Gender
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