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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793147/comparing-public-safety-outcomes-for-traditional-probation-vs-specialty-mental-health-probation
#1
Jennifer L Skeem, Sarah Manchak, Lina Montoya
Importance: Probation is a cornerstone of efforts to reduce mass incarceration. Although it is understudied, specialty probation could improve outcomes for the overrepresented group of people with mental illness. Objective: To test whether specialty probation yields better public safety outcomes than traditional probation. Design, Setting, and Participants: A longitudinal observational study with group matching on age, sex, race/ethnicity, probation time, and offense at 2 urban agencies that exemplify specialty and traditional probation...
August 9, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766093/breastfeeding-and-exposure-to-past-current-and-neighborhood-violence
#2
Margaret L Holland, Kelly Thevenent-Morrison, Mona Mittal, Alice Nelson, Ann M Dozier
Objectives Breastfeeding has short- and long-term health benefits for children and mothers, but US breastfeeding rates are suboptimal. Exposure to violence may contribute to these low rates, which vary by race/ethnicity. We studied: (1) whether patterns of violence exposure differ by race/ethnicity and (2) whether these patterns are associated with breastfeeding outcomes. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data drawn from self-report surveys completed by a convenience sample of low-income postpartum women (n = 760) in upstate New York...
August 1, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746574/institutional-violence-and-quality-of-service-in-obstetrics-are-associated-with-postpartum-depression
#3
Karina Junqueira de Souza, Daphne Rattner, Muriel Bauermann Gubert
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between institutional violence in obstetrics and postpartum depression (PP depression) and the potential effect of race, age, and educational level in this outcome. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study about the health care conditions for the maternal and child population of the Federal District, Brazil, carried out in 2011. The study has used a probabilistic sample of 432 women, whose children were aged up to three months, stratified by clusters...
July 20, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729199/violent-firearm-related-conflicts-among-high-risk-youth-an-event-level-and-daily-calendar-analysis
#4
Patrick M Carter, Maureen A Walton, Jason Goldstick, Quyen M Epstein-Ngo, Marc A Zimmerman, Melissa C Mercado, Amanda Garcia Williams, Rebecca M Cunningham
Firearm homicide is the leading cause of violence-related youth mortality. To inform prevention efforts, we analyzed event-level data to identify unique precursors to firearm conflicts. Youth (ages:14-24) seeking Emergency Department (ED) treatment for assault or for other reasons and reporting past 6-month drug use were enrolled in a 2-year longitudinal study. Time-line follow-back substance use/aggression modules were administered at baseline and each 6-month follow-up. Violent non-partner conflicts were combined across time-points...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727682/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-homicides-of-adult-women-and-the-role-of-intimate-partner-violence-united-states-2003-2014
#5
Emiko Petrosky, Janet M Blair, Carter J Betz, Katherine A Fowler, Shane P D Jack, Bridget H Lyons
Homicide is one of the leading causes of death for women aged ≤44 years.* In 2015, homicide caused the death of 3,519 girls and women in the United States. Rates of female homicide vary by race/ethnicity (1), and nearly half of victims are killed by a current or former male intimate partner (2). To inform homicide and intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention efforts, CDC analyzed homicide data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) among 10,018 women aged ≥18 years in 18 states during 2003-2014...
July 21, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727530/homicide-rates-of-transgender-individuals-in-the-united-states-2010-2014
#6
Alexis Dinno
OBJECTIVES: To estimate homicide rates of transgender US residents and relative risks (RRs) of homicide with respect to cisgender comparators intersected with age, gender, and race/ethnicity. METHODS: I estimated homicide rates for transgender residents and transfeminine, Black, Latin@, and young (aged 15-34 years) subpopulations during the period 2010 to 2014 using Transgender Day of Remembrance and National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs transgender homicide data...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709385/recurrent-childhood-animal-cruelty-and-its-link-to-recurrent-adult-interpersonal-violence
#7
Caleb E Trentham, Christopher Hensley, Christina Policastro
In the early 1960s, researchers began to examine the potential link between childhood animal cruelty and future interpersonal violence. Findings since then have been inconsistent in establishing a relationship between the two. This may be due to researchers failing to measure the recurrency of childhood animal abuse and the recurrency of later violent acts committed in adulthood. The current study, using data from 257 inmates at a medium-security prison in a Southern state, is a replication of research conducted by Tallichet and Hensley, and Hensley, Tallichet, and Dutkiewicz, which examined this recurrency issue...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657474/-you-have-to-bow-right-here-heteronormative-scripts-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-women-s-same-sex-relationships
#8
Nadia Sanger, Ingrid Lynch
Intimate partner violence is increasingly recognised as occurring not only between heterosexual partners but also in same-sex relationships. Heterogendered relationship norms have been identified as intersecting with other social inequalities to create and sustain power differentials between partners - and fuel violence - yet remain largely unexplored in relation to women's same-sex relationships. Building on existing feminist research we explore the use of gendered scripts in South African lesbian and bisexual women's accounts of relationship norms and practices...
June 28, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654311/effects-of-the-contextual-variables-of-racing-games-on-risky-driving-behavior
#9
Mingming Deng, Alan H S Chan, Feng Wu, Shulin Liu
OBJECTIVE: This research conducted experimental studies to investigate the effects of the contextual variables of racing games on risky driving behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, the effect of racing game violence on the driving-related risk-taking inclination of racing game players was examined. Experiment 2 investigated the impact of the competitiveness of racing games on risk-taking inclination, and Experiment 3 investigated the impact of the rewarded/punitive characteristics of racing games on the risk-taking inclination of racing game players...
June 27, 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652055/access-to-a-loaded-gun-without-adult-permission-and-school-based-bullying
#10
Maayan S Simckes, Joseph A Simonetti, Megan A Moreno, Frederick P Rivara, Barbara A Oudekerk, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar
PURPOSE: Gun access and bullying are risk factors for sustaining or perpetrating violence among adolescents. Our knowledge of gun access among bullied students is limited. METHODS: We used data on students, aged 12-18 years, from the 2011 and 2013 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey to assess the association between self-reported bullying victimization (traditional and cyber) and access to a loaded gun without adult permission. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from multivariable Poisson regression using the Taylor series after controlling for student age, sex, family income, public/private school, and race...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616719/are-partner-race-and-intimate-partner-violence-associated-with-incident-and-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infection-in-african-american-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
Matthew R Beymer, Nina T Harawa, Robert E Weiss, Chelsea L Shover, Brian R Toynes, Steven Meanley, Robert K Bolan
Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (BMSM) experience a disparate rate of HIV infections among MSM. Previous analyses have determined that STI coinfection and undiagnosed HIV infection partly explain the disparity. However, few studies have analyzed the impact of partner-level variables on HIV incidence among BMSM. Data were analyzed for BMSM who attended the Los Angeles LGBT Center from August 2011 to July 2015 (n = 1974) to identify risk factors for HIV infection. A multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze predictors for HIV prevalence among all individuals at first test (n = 1974; entire sample)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594210/are-risk-assessments-racially-biased-field-study-of-the-savry-and-yls-cmi-in-probation
#12
Rachael T Perrault, Gina M Vincent, Laura S Guy
Risk assessment instruments are widely used by juvenile probation officers (JPOs) to make case management decisions; however, few studies have investigated whether these instruments maintain their predictive validity when completed by JPOs in the field. Moreover, the validity of these instruments for use with minority groups has been called into question. This field study examined the predictive validity of both the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY; n = 383) and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI; n = 359) for reoffending when completed by JPOs...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552292/a-safe-haven-for-the-injured-urban-trauma-care-at-the-intersection-of-healthcare-law-enforcement-and-race
#13
Sara F Jacoby, Therese S Richmond, Daniel N Holena, Elinore J Kaufman
Patients with traumatic injuries often interact with police before and during hospitalization, particularly when their injuries are due to violence. People of color are at highest risk for violent injuries and have the poorest outcomes after injury. The purpose of this study was to describe how injured, Black patients perceived their interactions with police and what these perceptions reveal about police involvement within trauma care systems. We combined data from two qualitative studies to achieve this aim...
May 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534243/elevated-prevalence-of-suicide-attempts-among-victims-of-police-violence-in-the-usa
#14
Jordan E DeVylder, Jodi J Frey, Courtney D Cogburn, Holly C Wilcox, Tanya L Sharpe, Hans Y Oh, Boyoung Nam, Bruce G Link
Recent evidence suggests that police victimization is widespread in the USA and psychologically impactful. We hypothesized that civilian-reported police victimization, particularly assaultive victimization (i.e., physical/sexual), would be associated with a greater prevalence of suicide attempts and suicidal ideation. Data were drawn from the Survey of Police-Public Encounters, a population-based survey of adults (N = 1615) residing in four US cities. Surveys assessed lifetime exposure to police victimization based on the World Health Organization domains of violence (i...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527328/living-in-violence-neighborhood-domestic-violence-and-small-for-gestational-age-births
#15
Erica Felker-Kantor, Maeve Wallace, Katherine Theall
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between neighborhood domestic violence and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth and to examine if there is a differential impact of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births by race in a high crime community. METHODS: This analysis includes all birth records issued in New Orleans, Louisiana from 2011 to 2012 geocoded by census tract (N=177 census tracts, N=8322 women). Hierarchical modeling and ecologic spatial analysis were used to examine the area-effect of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births, independent of individual-level predictors and accounting for the propensity to live in high domestic violence neighborhoods...
July 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516853/a-gendered-analysis-of-the-shadow-of-sexual-harm-among-a-college-sample
#16
Aimee Petitt, Noelle Linville, Scott York, Carrie L Cook
This study uses survey methodology to examine correlates of fear of crime among men and women to discern the unique impact of risk perception, victimization, vicarious victimization, and fear of sexual harm on fear of crime. Recently, scholars have begun to examine fear separately by gender, which is vital given the unique experiences men and women have with fear and victimization. We examine two different types of fear of crime to determine whether the effects of these correlates differ by crime type across gender...
June 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501239/economic-insecurity-and-intimate-partner-and-sexual-violence-victimization
#17
Matthew J Breiding, Kathleen C Basile, Joanne Klevens, Sharon G Smith
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has consistently found that low SES is associated with higher levels of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) victimization. Though associated with poverty, two indicators of economic insecurity, food and housing insecurity, have been identified as conceptually distinct social determinants of health. This study examined the relationship between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV victimization experienced in the preceding 12 months, after controlling for SES and other demographic variables...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479657/striking-back-against-racist-violence-in-the-east-end-of-london-1968-1970
#18
Stephen Ashe, Satnam Virdee, Laurence Brown
This article tells the hitherto untold story of how different Pakistani organisations mobilised in response to racist violence and harassment in the east London Borough of Tower Hamlets (1968-1970). In telling this story, the authors analyse the problematic nature of official and public understandings of, and responses to, racist violence, and how it distorted the lives of racialised minorities. Drawing on original archival research carried out in 2014, this piece identifies the emergence of two distinct political repertoires from within the Pakistani community: the integrationist approach and the autonomous approach...
July 2016: Race & Class
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463448/effect-of-forced-sexual-intercourse-on-associations-between-early-sexual-debut-and-other-health-risk-behaviors-among-us-high-school-students
#19
Richard Lowry, Leah Robin, Laura Kann
BACKGROUND: Previous research on associations between early sexual debut and other health risk behaviors has not examined the effect of forced sexual intercourse on those associations. METHODS: We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 19,240 high school students in the United States, age ≥16 years, to describe the effect of forced sexual intercourse on associations between early sexual debut and other health risk behaviors using adjusted prevalence ratios (APR)...
June 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451465/intimate-partner-violence-victimization-in-lgbt-young-adults-demographic-differences-and-associations-with-health-behaviors
#20
Tyson R Reuter, Michael E Newcomb, Sarah W Whitton, Brian Mustanski
OBJECTIVE: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem with high prevalence and serious costs. Although literature has largely focused on IPV among heterosexuals, studies have recently begun examining IPV in LGBT samples, with mounting evidence suggesting IPV may be more common among LGBT individuals than heterosexuals. Less research has examined the specific health consequences of IPV in this population, particularly across time and among young people, and it remains unclear whether experiences of IPV differ between subgroups within the LGBT population (e...
January 2017: Psychology of Violence
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