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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055064/association-of-drug-and-alcohol-use-with-adolescent-firearm-homicide-at-individual-family-and-neighborhood-levels
#1
Bernadette C Hohl, Shari Wiley, Douglas J Wiebe, Alison J Culyba, Rebecca Drake, Charles C Branas
Importance: Homicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States and the leading cause of death for adolescents who are African American. Large cities have disproportionate homicide rates. Objective: To determine the relationships between exposures to drugs and alcohol at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels and adolescent firearm homicide and to inform new approaches to preventing firearm violence. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based case-control study from January 2010 to December 2012 of all 13- to 20-year-olds who were homicide victims in Philadelphia during the study period matched to randomly selected 13- to 20-year-old controls from the general population...
January 3, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988489/frequent-experience-of-lgbq-microaggression-on-campus-associated-with-smoking-among-sexual-minority-college-students
#2
Thomas Ylioja, Gerald Cochran, Michael R Woodford, Kristen A Renn
INTRODUCTION: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer/questioning (LGBQ) microaggressions refer to often-unintentional insults, assaults, and invalidations that denigrate sexual minorities. While experiencing hostile discrimination and violence has previously been associated with elevated rates of smoking cigarettes for LGBQ college students, the relationship between LGBQ microaggressions and smoking is unknown. METHODS: Data from a national anonymous online survey of sexual and gender minority college students were used to examine the relationship between past month cigarette smoking and interpersonal LGBQ microaggressions...
November 8, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977503/chronic-stress-and-c-reactive-protein-in-mothers-during-the-first-postpartum-year
#3
Christine M Guardino, Christine Dunkel Schetter, Calvin J Hobel, Robin Gaines Lanzi, Peter Schafer, John M Thorp, Madeleine U Shalowitz
OBJECTIVES: Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. The current study tested associations between psychosocial stress and CRP in a large sample of women during the first postpartum year. METHODS: We analyzed data collected by the five-site Community Child Health Network study, which studied a predominately poor population. Participants (n = 1206 women; 54% African American, 23% white, 23% Hispanic/Latina) were recruited shortly after the birth of a child...
December 13, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930966/nonsuicidal-self-injury-and-interpersonal-violence-in-u-s-veterans-seeking-help-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Patrick S Calhoun, Elizabeth E Van Voorhees, Eric B Elbogen, Eric A Dedert, Carolina P Clancy, Lauren P Hair, Michael Hertzberg, Jean C Beckham, Nathan A Kimbrel
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been defined as deliberately damaging one's body tissue without conscious suicidal intent. NSSI is a robust predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts in adults. While NSSI has been associated with other-directed violence in adolescent populations, the link between NSSI and interpersonal violence in adults is less clear. The current study examined the cross-sectional relationship between NSSI and past-year interpersonal violence among 729 help-seeking veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
January 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925114/the-occurrence-of-external-causes-in-childhood-in-emergency-care-epidemiological-aspects-brazil-2014
#5
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas, Marta Maria Alves da Silva, Mércia Gomes Oliveira de Carvalho, Laura Augusta Barufaldi, Jovina Quintes Avanci, Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal
Objective: To describe emergency care for external causes in childhood, age group 0-9 years, in Brazilian capitals, collected from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA) Survey in 2014. Methods: To review data from the VIVA survey conducted in public emergency services in 24 Brazilian capitals. Variables analyzed were gender, age group (0-1 years, 2-5 years and 6-9 years), race/skin color, type of events and injuries, aggressors and other. Results: Eight thousand five hundred eighty-eight children received care, of which 8,164 (95%) were victims of accidents and 424 (5%) of violence...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921300/living-in-violent-neighbourhoods-is-associated-with-gestational-weight-gain-outside-the-recommended-range
#6
Jessica Galin, Barbara Abrams, Stephanie A Leonard, Ellicott C Matthay, Dana E Goin, Jennifer Ahern
BACKGROUND: During pregnancy, most women do not meet gestational weight gain (GWG) guidelines, potentially resulting in adverse maternal and infant health consequences. Social environment determinants of GWG have been identified, but evidence on the relationship between neighbourhood violence and GWG is scant. Our study aims to examine the relationship between neighbourhood violence and GWG outside the recommended range. METHODS: We used statewide vital statistics and health care utilization data from California for 2006-12 (n = 2 364 793) to examine the relationship of neighbourhood violence (quarters of zip-code rates of homicide and assault) in the first 37 weeks of pregnancy with GWG (categorized using the Institute of Medicine's pregnancy weight gain guidelines)...
January 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900824/mandibular-angle-fractures-a-comparative-study-between-one-and-two-plate-fixation
#7
Marcelo Silva Monnazzi, Marisa Ap Cabrini Gabrielli, Mário Francisco Real Gabrielli, Alexandre Elias Trivellato
BACKGROUND/AIM: The mandibular angle fracture is a challenging fracture to manage. Over time, the literature has shown many types of treatment modalities and different kinds of internal fixation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and complications of mandibular angle fractures managed by Champy's technique and two-plate fixation, over a period of 20 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The files of 149 patients with 155 angle fractures fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were chosen for this study...
November 7, 2016: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890031/a-national-assessment-of-the-health-and-safety-of-emergency-medical-services-professionals
#8
Melissa A Bentley, Roger Levine
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to assess changes in (1) health and physical fitness, (2) the prevalence of selected health problems, (3) risk behaviors, (4) ambulance safety issues, and (5) the preparedness of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals. In addition, the incidence of patient-initiated violence directed toward EMS personnel and associated factors were assessed. METHODS: Data were obtained from a sample of nationally certified EMS professionals via annual questionnaires between 1999 and 2008...
December 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884498/early-sexual-debut-and-associated-risk-behaviors-among-sexual-minority-youth
#9
Richard Lowry, Richard Dunville, Leah Robin, Laura Kann
INTRODUCTION: Early sexual debut, sexual risk taking, substance use, violent victimization, and suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among sexual minority than sexual nonminority youth. Although associations between early sexual debut and these risk behaviors exist, little is known about such associations among sexual minority youth. This study examined these associations among sexual minority U.S. high school students and their sexual nonminority peers. METHODS: In 2015, the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey included questions assessing sexual orientation for the first time...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880090/the-differential-impact-of-alcohol-and-interpersonal-violence-on-the-severity-of-violent-traumatic-brain-injuries-among-american-indians
#10
Kristen F Linton, Paul B Perrin
Research shows connections between substance use and traumatic brain injury (TBI), high rates of substance use and interpersonal violence (IPV) in American Indians with TBI, and connections between IPV and TBI. This study assessed the effects of substance use at the time of a violent TBI and possible mediators such as American Indian race on injury severity (injury severity score [ISS]). A secondary data analysis of 3,351 individuals who experienced a TBI due to violence was conducted. American Indians with TBI were more likely to experience IPV (χ(2) = 4...
November 23, 2016: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849291/revista-de-sa%C3%A3%C2%BAde-p%C3%A3%C2%BAblica-in-scientific-publications-on-violence-and-health-1967-2015
#11
REVIEW
Lilia Blima Schraiber, Claudia Barros, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas d'Oliveira, Maria Fernanda Tourinho Peres
This article retrieved the publications from the Revista de Saúde Pública journal (from 1967 to 2015) on violence and health, on the SciELO and PubMed bases, by searching for the terms "violence", "suicide", "aggression", "bullying", and "external causes", registered in any part of the text. We found 130 articles (the first one published in 1974). We observed: increase of publications over time, with decrease in the last five years; similar production volume in lethal and non-lethal violence; later publication of the latter; few studies in qualitative research; mostly descriptive production; and visualization of the problem more by the acts than by contexts or motivations and aggressors...
November 10, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844298/prospective-effects-of-a-syndemic-on-hiv-and-sti-incidence-and-risk-behaviors-in-a-cohort-of-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#12
Brian Mustanski, Gregory Phillips, Daniel T Ryan, Gregory Swann, Lisa Kuhns, Rob Garofalo
Young men who have sex with men continue to be highly affected by HIV. To improve understanding of the role that multiple co-occurring health issues (i.e., syndemics) play in HIV acquisition, sophisticated modeling methods are needed. The purpose of this study was to use structural equation modeling to understand the structure of the syndemic and to test its longitudinal association with condomless anal sex. Data are from a longitudinal study of 450 YMSM. A primary syndemic component comprised of substance use, violence, and internalizing mental health factors significantly predicted the number of condomless anal sex partners in the full sample...
November 14, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782915/cutting-close-to-the-bone-student-trauma-free-speech-and-institutional-responsibility-in-medical-education
#13
Arno K Kumagai, Brittani Jackson, Saleem Razack
Learning the societal roles and responsibilities of the physician may involve difficult, contentious conversations about topics such as race, gender, sexual orientation, and class, as well as violence, inequities, sexual assault, and child abuse. If not done well, these discussions may be deeply traumatizing to learners for whom these subjects "cut close to the bone." Equally traumatizing is exposure to injustice and mistreatment, as well as to the sights, sounds, and smells of suffering and pain in the clinical years...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709748/predictors-of-emotional-and-physical-dating-violence-in-a-sample-of-serious-juvenile-offenders
#14
Gary Sweeten, Matthew Larson, Alex R Piquero
AIM: We estimate group-based dating violence trajectories and identify the adolescent risk factors that explain membership in each trajectory group. METHOD: Using longitudinal data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, which follows a sample of 1354 serious juvenile offenders from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona between mid-adolescence and early adulthood, we estimate group-based trajectory models of both emotional dating violence and physical dating violence over a span of five years in young adulthood...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709747/dating-violence-in-teenage-girls-parental-emotion-regulation-and-racial-differences
#15
Lia Ahonen, Rolf Loeber
BACKGROUND: Teen dating violence (TDV) is a common phenomenon of great public concern. TDV may lead to severe long-term consequences for victims and offenders, and even more so for females than for males. AIM: The aim of this paper is to investigate possible underlying factors for involvement in TDV either as a perpetrator or a victim. Social learning theory is commonly used to explain internalisation of parents' behaviour on children's behavioural expressions, but less so on parents' emotion regulation as a direct link to later TDV...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697844/living-with-others-inside-the-self-decolonising-transplantation-selfhood-and-the-body-politic-in-nalo-hopkinson-s-brown-girl-in-the-ring
#16
Donna McCormack
This article examines anxieties concerning organ transplantation in Nalo Hopkinson's prize-winning novel Brown Girl in the Ring (1998). The main focus is how this novel re-imagines subjectivity and selfhood as an embodied metaphor for the reconfiguring of broader sociopolitical relations. In other words, this article analyses the relationship between the transplanted body and the body politic, arguing that a post-transplant identity, where there is little separation between donor and recipient, is the foundation for a politics based on responsibility for others...
December 2016: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667339/gun-violence-in-americans-social-network-during-their-lifetime
#17
Bindu Kalesan, Janice Weinberg, Sandro Galea
INTRODUCTION: The overall burden of gun violence death and injury in the US is now well understood. However, no study has shown the extent to which gun violence is associated with the individual lives of Americans. METHODS: We used fatal and non-fatal gun injury rates in 2013 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) and generally accepted estimates about the size of an American's social network to determine the likelihood that any given person will know someone in their personal social network who is a victim of gun violence during their lifetime...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659684/african-american-perspectives-and-experiences-of-domestic-violence-in-a-rural-community
#18
Valandra, Yvette Murphy-Erby, Brandon M Higgins, Lucy M Brown
Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women (n = 33) and men (n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634837/individual-and-neighborhood-factors-associated-with-functional-mobility-and-falls-in-elderly-residents-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-a-multilevel-analysis
#19
Carla Ferreira do Nascimento, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira Duarte, Maria Lúcia Lebrão, Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho
OBJECTIVE: To identify socioeconomic and contextual factors associated with functional mobility and falls in elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: We used data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging (Saúde, Bem-estare Envelhecimento [SABE]) Study. The dependent variables were falling in the last year and functional mobility impairment. Individual (marital status, race, education, and perception of income sufficiency) and contextual (green area and violence) factors were analyzed by multilevel logistic models...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619379/the-impact-of-degree-of-exposure-to-violent-video-games-family-background-and-other-factors-on-youth-violence
#20
Whitney DeCamp, Christopher J Ferguson
Despite decades of study, no scholarly consensus has emerged regarding whether violent video games contribute to youth violence. Some skeptics contend that small correlations between violent game play and violence-related outcomes may be due to other factors, which include a wide range of possible effects from gender, mental health, and social influences. The current study examines this issue with a large and diverse (49 % white, 21 % black, 18 % Hispanic, and 12 % other or mixed race/ethnicity; 51 % female) sample of youth in eighth (n = 5133) and eleventh grade (n = 3886)...
February 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
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