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race and violence

Gary Sweeten, Matthew Larson, Alex R Piquero
AIM: We estimate group-based dating violence trajectories and identify the adolescent risk factors that explain membership in each trajectory group. METHOD: Using longitudinal data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, which follows a sample of 1354 serious juvenile offenders from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona between mid-adolescence and early adulthood, we estimate group-based trajectory models of both emotional dating violence and physical dating violence over a span of five years in young adulthood...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Lia Ahonen, Rolf Loeber
BACKGROUND: Teen dating violence (TDV) is a common phenomenon of great public concern. TDV may lead to severe long-term consequences for victims and offenders, and even more so for females than for males. AIM: The aim of this paper is to investigate possible underlying factors for involvement in TDV either as a perpetrator or a victim. Social learning theory is commonly used to explain internalisation of parents' behaviour on children's behavioural expressions, but less so on parents' emotion regulation as a direct link to later TDV...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Donna McCormack
This article examines anxieties concerning organ transplantation in Nalo Hopkinson's prize-winning novel Brown Girl in the Ring (1998). The main focus is how this novel re-imagines subjectivity and selfhood as an embodied metaphor for the reconfiguring of broader sociopolitical relations. In other words, this article analyses the relationship between the transplanted body and the body politic, arguing that a post-transplant identity, where there is little separation between donor and recipient, is the foundation for a politics based on responsibility for others...
October 3, 2016: Medical Humanities
Bindu Kalesan, Janice Weinberg, Sandro Galea
INTRODUCTION: The overall burden of gun violence death and injury in the US is now well understood. However, no study has shown the extent to which gun violence is associated with the individual lives of Americans. METHODS: We used fatal and non-fatal gun injury rates in 2013 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) and generally accepted estimates about the size of an American's social network to determine the likelihood that any given person will know someone in their personal social network who is a victim of gun violence during their lifetime...
September 22, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Valandra, Yvette Murphy-Erby, Brandon M Higgins, Lucy M Brown
Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women (n = 33) and men (n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Carla Ferreira do Nascimento, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira Duarte, Maria Lúcia Lebrão, Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho
OBJECTIVE: To identify socioeconomic and contextual factors associated with functional mobility and falls in elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: We used data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging (Saúde, Bem-estare Envelhecimento [SABE]) Study. The dependent variables were falling in the last year and functional mobility impairment. Individual (marital status, race, education, and perception of income sufficiency) and contextual (green area and violence) factors were analyzed by multilevel logistic models...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Whitney DeCamp, Christopher J Ferguson
Despite decades of study, no scholarly consensus has emerged regarding whether violent video games contribute to youth violence. Some skeptics contend that small correlations between violent game play and violence-related outcomes may be due to other factors, which include a wide range of possible effects from gender, mental health, and social influences. The current study examines this issue with a large and diverse (49 % white, 21 % black, 18 % Hispanic, and 12 % other or mixed race/ethnicity; 51 % female) sample of youth in eighth (n = 5133) and eleventh grade (n = 3886)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Rolf Loeber, David P Farrington, Alison E Hipwell, Stephanie D Stepp, Dustin Pardini, Lia Ahonen
INTRODUCTION: The study examines age-crime prevalence and age-crime frequency curves based on longitudinal data from boys in the Pittsburgh Youth Study and girls in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. RESULTS: Results show that the prevalence of the age-crime curve for theft and violence (based on self-reports or police charges) followed the typical age-crime curve for males and slightly less distinctly for females, with the peak of offending occurring earlier for self-reports than for police charges...
June 2015: Journal of Developmental and Life-course Criminology
Nicole H Weiss, Clinesha D Johnson, Ateka Contractor, Courtney Peasant, Suzanne C Swan, Tami P Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Past research underscores the key role of coping strategies in the development, maintenance, and exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The goal of the current study was to extend existing literature by examining whether race/ethnicity moderates the relations among coping strategies (social support, problem-solving, avoidance) and PTSD symptom clusters (intrusion, avoidance, numbing, arousal). METHODS: Participants were 369 community women (134 African Americans, 131 Latinas, 104 Whites) who reported bidirectional aggression with a current male partner...
August 30, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Samantha Teixeira, Anita Zuberi
Black youth are more likely than white youth to grow up in poor, segregated neighborhoods. This racial inequality in the neighborhood environments of black youth increases their contact with hazardous neighborhood environmental features including violence and toxic exposures that contribute to racial inequality in youth health and well-being. While the concept of neighborhood effects has been studied at length by social scientists, this work has not been as frequently situated within an environmental justice (EJ) paradigm...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Bridget H Lyons, Katherine A Fowler, Shane P D Jack, Carter J Betz, Janet M Blair
PROBLEM/CONDITION: In 2013, more than 57,000 persons died in the United States as a result of violence-related injuries. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 17 U.S. states for 2013. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, location of injury, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 2013. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: NVDRS collects data from participating states regarding violent deaths obtained from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, law enforcement reports, and secondary sources (e...
2016: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Jennifer L Steele
BACKGROUND: To extend our knowledge of general strain theory by exploring how under-researched strains such as racial discrimination, witnessing violence, physical victimization and verbal bullying affect adolescent substance use while considering differences according to racial identification. METHODS: This research utilized data from wave three of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Statistical analysis was primarily composed of path analysis using full information maximum likelihood parameter estimates...
October 14, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Claire E Margerison-Zilko, Kelly L Strutz, Yu Li, Claudia Holzman
Objectives Growing evidence suggests that pre-conception stressors are associated with increased risk of preterm delivery (PTD). Our study assesses stressors in multiple domains at multiple points in the life course (i.e., childhood, adulthood, within 6 months of pregnancy) and their relation to PTD. We also examine heterogeneity of associations by race/ethnicity, PTD timing, and PTD clinical circumstance. Methods We assessed stressors retrospectively via mid-pregnancy questionnaires in the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study (1998-2004), a Michigan pregnancy cohort (n = 2559)...
July 21, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Joey Nuñez Estrada, Tamika D Gilreath, Cathia Y Sanchez, Ron Avi Astor
Recent studies have found that military-connected students confront many challenges-such as secondary traumatization-that may stem from a parent's deployment and frequent relocations. It is possible that multiple moves and deployments of family service members are associated with military-connected students' gang membership and involvement with school violence behaviors. In this study, a total of 13,484 students completed the core and military modules of the California Healthy Kids Survey. Logistic regressions examined the odds of a student being a member of a gang given their grade, gender, race/ethnicity, school violence behaviors, military-connectedness, changes in schools, and familial deployments...
July 14, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Sophia Miryam Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Jessica G Eslinger, Lindsey Zimmerman, Jamie Scaccia, Betty S Lai, Catrin Lewis, Eva Alisic
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (ages 18-64) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009). DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional) and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce)...
2016: PloS One
Calae D Philippe, Kari Gloppen, Renee E Sieving, Iris W Borowsky, Sandra L Pettingell
This study examines relationships between emotional health, stress management skills, fight-avoidance skills, and two forms of violence perpetration among adolescent girls at high risk for violence involvement. Participants (n = 253) were 13- to 17-year-old girls enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. The current study was completed with baseline data collected prior to the start of the intervention. Analyses examined self-report outcome measures of physical violence perpetration in the past 6 months (five-item scale, α = ...
July 3, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Esme Fuller-Thomson, Jessica L Roane, Sarah Brennenstuhl
BACKGROUND: There are several gaps in the literature on the link between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and substance use, including the impact of less direct forms of abuse, such as witnessing domestic violence, and the role of gender as a moderator of the relationship. OBJECTIVES: To estimate associations between three types of ACEs (sexual abuse, physical abuse, and exposure to parental domestic violence), when mutually adjusted, and two substance dependence outcomes (alcohol and drug dependence), while considering the potential moderating role of gender and the effects of a range of potential explanatory factors...
September 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Glynnis Zieman, Ashley Bridwell, Javier F Cardenas
Domestic violence is a national health crisis, which affects people of all ages, races and socioeconomic classes. Traumatic brain injury is common in victims due to the high frequency of head and neck injuries inflicted through abuse. These recurrent injuries can lead to chronic symptoms with high morbidity. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 115 patients with a history of head trauma as a result of domestic violence. All patients were seen in a subspecialty traumatic brain injury clinic, at which time information regarding their histories and self-reported symptoms were recorded...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Michael A Russell, Sara A Vasilenko, Stephanie T Lanza
PURPOSE: To examine age-varying prevalence rates and health implications of weapon-related violence exposure (WRVE) from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 14-30) using time-varying effect modeling. METHODS: Data were from the Add Health study, a longitudinal study of adolescents in the United States (N = 5,103) followed into young adulthood across four assessment waves from age 14-30. RESULTS: WRVE rates varied with age, peaking during mid-to-late adolescence (ages 16-18)...
August 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Lisa A Goodman, Jennifer E Fauci, Cris M Sullivan, Craig D DiGiovanni, Joshua M Wilson
Over the last 4 decades, domestic violence (DV) programs-both residential and nonresidential-have sprung up in communities across the country with the aim of helping survivors become safe. These programs place strong emphasis on the relationship between the advocate and survivor as critical to becoming safer and healing from the trauma of abuse. Yet little research has demonstrated the extent to which specific aspects of the advocate-survivor alliance are related to specific indicators of survivor well-being, nor shown what factors might mediate that relationship...
2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
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