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violence in america

Eric Y Tenkorang, Adobea Y Owusu
Previous studies demonstrate the long term effects of childhood violence on future victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). With a few exceptions from Asia, however, this literature is largely limited to North America and Europe. To date, contributions from sub-Saharan Africa remain scant. We began to fill this gap by applying the life course theory to retrospective data collected from 2289 women in Ghana. Specifically, we examined if women's childhood experiences of family violence were associated with their later victimization and/or their perpetration of IPV...
March 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Lianne Fuino Estefan, Katie A Ports, Tracy Hipp
Purpose of Review: Unaccompanied children (UC) migrating to the USA from the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras are an underserved population at high risk for health, academic, and social problems. These children experience trauma, violence, and other risk factors that are shared among several types of interpersonal violence. Recent Findings: The trauma and violence experienced by many unaccompanied children, and the subsequent implications for their healthy development into adulthood, indicate the critical need for a public health approach to prevention and intervention...
April 2017: Current Trauma Reports
Shira M Goldenberg, Teresita Rocha Jiménez, Kimberly C Brouwer, Sonia Morales Miranda, Jay G Silverman
BACKGROUND: Migrant women are over-represented in the sex industry, and migrant sex workers experience disproportionate health inequities, including those related to health access, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and violence. Despite calls for occupational sex work interventions situated in labour rights frameworks, there remains a paucity of evidence pertaining to migrant sex workers' needs and realities, particularly within Mexico and Central America. This study investigated migrant sex workers' narratives regarding the ways in which structural features of work environments shape vulnerability and agency related to HIV/STI prevention and violence at the Guatemala-Mexico border...
February 2, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Patricia Ponce, Rubén Muñoz, Matías Stival
This article aims to describe and analyze the situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and treatment of HIV in indigenous populations of Latin America. In order to do so, 304 published materials - including declarations, public policy and health program protocols, case studies and literature reviews with local, national and regional scopes - were identified, classified and analyzed. The differential social vulnerability to HIV infection and the inequity in health care access among indigenous populations can be attributed to the juxtaposition of factors such as structural violence, gender, racism, and discrimination due health condition (living with HIV) as well as the subordinated position of indigenous peoples in societies stratified not only socially and economically but also ethnically and culturally...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
Samara McPhedran
Reducing lethal violence against women requires comprehensive measures addressing individual, social, economic, cultural, and situational factors. Regarding situational factors, access to weapons-and firearm access in particular-has received notable research attention. However, most study comes from the United States of America, and findings may not apply elsewhere. The current study examines whether changing gun laws in Australia affected female firearm homicide victimization. Female firearm homicide victimization may have been affected; however, no significant impacts were found for male firearm homicide victimization...
September 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Rodrigo Meneses-Reyes, Miguel Quintana-Navarrete
Research on violence in Mexico and Latin America suggests that, in part, due to state attempts to fight organized crime and the widespread availability of firearms, violence and homicides in general have experienced a recent shift from expressive to instrumental. Despite this transformation, however, socioeconomically disadvantaged young males continue to be overwhelmingly present in homicide events. We argue that both the use of a firearm and demographic and traditional socioeconomic factors should independently predict instrumental homicide; however, the association between the use of a firearm and instrumentality should be moderated by the level or category of these traditional characteristics (i...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
America L Davila, Laura Johnson, Judy L Postmus
Currently, Latinos constitute the second largest and fastest growing minority group in the United States. Among this population, one in every six Latinas experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in her lifetime. Research has documented significant detrimental effects of physical, sexual, emotional, and psychological IPV on the physical, emotional, and cognitive well-being of various cultural/ethnic groups; however, few studies have focused on economic abuse, which may include tactics of economic control, economic exploitation, and employment sabotage...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Annie Dube, Madeline Moffatt, Colleen Davison, Susan Bartels
BACKGROUND: Haiti remains the poorest country in the Americas and one of the poorest in the world. Children in Haiti face many health concerns, some of which were exacerbated by the 2010 earthquake. This systematic review summarizes published research conducted since the 2010 earthquake, focusing on health outcomes for children in Haiti, including physical, psychological, and socioeconomic well-being. METHODS: A literature search was conducted identifying articles published from January 2010 through May 2016 related to pediatric health outcomes in Haiti...
December 18, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Ran Zwigenberg
The onset of nuclear warfare in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had far-reaching implications for the world of medicine. The study of the A-bomb and its implications led to the launching of new fields and avenues of research, most notably in genetics and radiation studies. Far less understood and under-studied was the impact of nuclear research on psychiatric medicine. Psychological research, however, was a major focus of post-war military and civilian research into the bomb. This research and the perceived revolutionary impact of atomic energy and warfare on society, this paper argues, played an important role in the global development of post-war psychiatry...
January 2018: Medical History
Joanne Klevens, Katie A Ports, Chelsea Austin, Ivan J Ludlow, Jacqueline Hurd
Children around the world experience violence at the hands of their caregivers at alarming rates. A recent review estimates that a minimum of 50% of children in Asia, Africa, and North America experienced severe physical violence by caregivers in the past year, with large variations between countries. Identifying modifiable country-level factors driving these geographic variations has great potential for achieving population-level reductions in rates of child maltreatment. This study builds on previous research by focusing on caregiver-reported physical abuse and neglect victimisation, examining 22 societal factors representing 11 different constructs among 42 countries from 5 continents at different stages of development...
November 28, 2017: Global Public Health
Jens Ludwig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Virginia Savage, Arachu Castro
BACKGROUND: Although mistreatment of women during facility-based childbirth has received increasing recognition as a critical issue throughout the world, there remains a lack of consensus on operational definitions of mistreatment and best practices to assess the issue. Moreover, only minimal research has focused on mistreatment in Latin America and the Caribbean, a region notable for social inequalities and inequitable access to maternal health care. METHODS: In this article, we discuss the results of a literature review that sought to contribute to the determination of best practices in defining and measuring the mistreatment of women during childbirth, particularly within Latin America and the Caribbean...
October 26, 2017: Reproductive Health
Anne Gatuguta, Barbra Katusiime, Janet Seeley, Manuela Colombini, Isaac Mwanzo, Karen Devries
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is widespread, yet relatively few survivors receive healthcare or complete treatment. In low and middle-income countries, community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to provide support services to large numbers of survivors. The aim of this review was to document the role of CHWs in sexual violence services. We aimed to: 1) describe existing models of CHWs services including characteristics of CHWs, services delivered and populations served; 2) explore acceptability of CHWs' services to survivors and feasibility of delivering such services; and 3) document the benefits and challenges of CHW-provided sexual violence services...
October 12, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Ainslie J Butler, Jürgen Rehm, Benedikt Fischer
BACKGROUND: Crack-cocaine use is prevalent largely in socio-economically marginalized populations in the Americas. Its use has been associated with diverse health outcomes, yet no recent or systematic reviews of these exist. METHODS: A systematic review of health outcomes associated with crack-cocaine use was performed, using MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and LILACS up to October 2016. Search terms included crack-cocaine and health outcome-related keywords, targeting peer-reviewed studies on quantified health outcomes associated with crack-cocaine use...
September 22, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Otaliba Libânio Morais, Sônia Margarida Gomes Sousa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
Jessie V Ford, Megan B Ivankovich, John M Douglas, Edward W Hook, Lynn Barclay, Joycelyn Elders, David Satcher, Eli Coleman
Sexual health is considered to be a state of wellness with physical, emotional, mental, and social dimensions. Sexual health can contribute to our overall well-being in each of these dimensions. However, despite the intrinsic importance and positive aspects of sexuality in our lives, the United States presently faces significant challenges related to the sexual health of its citizens, including human immunodeficiency virus, other sexually transmitted infections, viral hepatitis, unintended pregnancies, sexual violence, sexual dysfunction, and cancers in reproductive tracts with serious disparities among the populations affected...
October 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
José Juan Vázquez, Esther Rivas, Alexia C Suarez, Sonia Panadero
Retraction among female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) who report their abuser is a major problem in all societies. This article describes a study of 136 female victims of physical IPV living in poverty in Nicaragua, one of the countries with the lowest levels of development in Central America. This article analyses the aspects that differentiate women living in poverty who retracted after reporting IPV from those who did not. The results show that retraction is widespread among female victims of IPV living in poverty in León (Nicaragua)...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Maria Fernanda Tourinho Peres, Amy Nivette
Since the 1990s, researchers have noted declining trends in crime and violence, particularly homicide, in Western countries. Studies have explored national and sub-national trends using latent trajectory analysis techniques and identified several factors associated with declining and/or increasing trajectories. Social disorganization (SD) has been consistently linked to increases in homicide rates over time, explaining at least some of the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of homicide. Similar studies have not yet been carried out in Latin America's cities...
August 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Sofia Madeira, Vicky Pileggi, João Paulo Souza
BACKGROUND: Studies show that a large number of women around the world have experienced situations of abuse, disrespect, abuse, and neglect during childbirth and/or abortion. This violence is a serious violation of the rights of women, especially because it is a period in which the woman is more physiologically, socially, and psychologically vulnerable. Although this type of violence is known, there is still no international consensus on the definition of such violence and its prevalence is not known...
August 3, 2017: Systematic Reviews
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