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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930613/project-shikamana-baseline-findings-from-a-community-empowerment-based-combination-hiv-prevention-trial-among-female-sex-workers-in-iringa-tanzania
#1
Deanna Kerrigan, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Sarah Beckham, Ard Mwampashi, Catherine Shembilu, Andrea Mantsios, Anna Leddy, Wendy Davis, Noya Galai
BACKGROUND: Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923015/project-shikamana-baseline-findings-from-a-community-empowerment-based-combination-hiv-prevention-trial-among-female-sex-workers-in-iringa-tanzania
#2
Deanna Kerrigan, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Sarah Beckham, Ard Mwampashi, Catherine Shembilu, Andrea Mantsios, Anna Leddy, Wendy Davis, Noya Galai
BACKGROUND: Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893861/attitudes-towards-intimate-partner-violence-against-women-among-women-and-men-in-39-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Thach Duc Tran, Hau Nguyen, Jane Fisher
BACKGROUND: Violence against women perpetrated by an intimate partner (IPV) is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). The aim was to describe the attitudes of women and men towards perpetration of physical violence to women by an intimate partner, in a large group of low- and middle-income countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data from Round Four of the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Attitudes towards IPV against women were assessed by a study-specific scale asking if 'wife beating' is justified in any of five circumstances...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881047/cambodian-boys-transitions-into-young-adulthood-exploring-the-influence-of-societal-and-masculinity-norms-on-young-men-s-health
#4
Leah Scandurra, Daro Khorn, Thana-Ashley Charles, Marni Sommer
A growing body of evidence focuses on the experiences of young men in low-income countries, including their health vulnerabilities. Much of this research has been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Limited evidence exists on the norms influencing boys' transitions into young adulthood in Southeast Asia, and in Cambodia in particular. To help fill this gap, we conducted a comparative case study using participatory methods with 16-19-year-old young men in rural and urban Cambodia, and with the adults who intersect in their lives...
November 24, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876048/an-integrated-approach-to-care-attracts-people-living-with-hiv-who-use-illicit-drugs-in-an-urban-centre-with-a-concentrated-hiv-epidemic
#5
S Fernando, R McNeil, K Closson, H Samji, S Kirkland, C Strike, R Baltzer Turje, W Zhang, R S Hogg, S Parashar
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also marginalized by social and structural inequities often face barriers to accessing and adhering to HIV treatment and care. The Dr. Peter Centre (DPC) is a non-profit integrated care facility with a supervised injection room that serves PLHIV experiencing multiple barriers to social and health services in Vancouver, Canada. This study examines whether the DPC is successful in drawing in PLHIV with complex health issues, including addiction...
November 22, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836161/violence-by-parents-against-their-children-reporting-of-maltreatment-suspicions-child-protection-and-risk-in-mental-illness
#6
REVIEW
Miranda McEwan, Susan Hatters Friedman
Psychiatrists are mandated to report suspicions of child abuse in America. Potential for harm to children should be considered when one is treating parents who are at risk. Although it is the commonly held wisdom that mental illness itself is a major risk factor for child abuse, there are methodologic issues with studies purporting to demonstrate this. Rather, the risk from an individual parent must be considered. Substance abuse and personality disorder pose a separate risk than serious mental illness. Violence risk from mental illness is dynamic, rather than static...
December 2016: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766375/interventions-to-prevent-youth-violence-in-latin-america-a-systematic-review
#7
Erika E Atienzo, Susan K Baxter, Eva Kaltenthaler
OBJECTIVES: This review aims to summarise evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent youth violence in Latin America. METHODS: A systematic search on 13 academic databases was conducted to locate studies evaluating a primary or secondary prevention intervention in Latin America. Studies could use any type of quantitative design to assess outcomes related to youth violence. A search of websites, references and citation searching was also carried out...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761057/behavior-problems-among-adolescents-exposed-to-family-and-community-violence-in-chile
#8
Julie Ma, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Jorge Delva
Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with youth outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examined the relationship of youth exposure to family and community violence-parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression-with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 youth-mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between youth exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression...
July 2016: Family Relations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677951/a-global-exploratory-analysis-of-men-participating-in-gender-based-violence-prevention
#9
Richard M Tolman, Erin A Casey, Christopher T Allen, Juliana Carlson, Cliff Leek, Heather L Storer
Organizations addressing gender-based violence (GBV) increasingly include men as partners in prevention efforts. However, little is known about men who get involved in those efforts and what specific actions they take. We present analyses of data from an international sample of men involved in gender-based prevention work that aimed to describe (a) the nature of participants' involvement in prevention efforts, in both formal programming and in their daily lives; (b) characteristics of engaged men, including gender and bystander-related attitudes and beliefs, and social networks; and (c) factors that sustain men's involvement in GBV movements over time...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659869/violence-against-children-in-latin-america-and-caribbean-countries-a-comprehensive-review-of-national-health-sector-efforts-in-prevention-and-response
#10
Andrea L Wirtz, Carmen Alvarez, Alessandra C Guedes, Luisa Brumana, Cecilie Modvar, Nancy Glass
BACKGROUND: Violence against children (VAC) remains a global problem. The health sector has an opportunity and responsibility to be part of the multi-sector collaboration to prevent and respond to VAC. This review aimed to assess the health sector's response to VAC among Latin American & Caribbean (LAC) countries, particularly as it relates to physical violence, sexual violence, and neglect. METHOD: National protocols for the identification and provision of health care to child survivors of violence, abuse and neglect were solicited in partnership with UNICEF and PAHO/WHO country offices within the LAC region...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656939/-citizen-security-observatories-tools-for-decision-making-and-governability
#11
Gabriela Sánchez-Rentería, Francisco Javier Bonilla-Escobar, Andrés Fandiño-Losada, María Isabel Gutiérrez-Martinez
The need for good governability to promote countries development has been becoming the focus of governments. Latin America has political systems in crisis of governability caused by the inability of strategic actors to solve conflicts based on rules and procedures. The present review aims to describe how the creation of violence surveillance systems (observatories) contributes to strengthening governability and the creation of effective public policies. It was developed an analysis of the required components for the existence of governability and its relationship with the role of observatories in cities to provide reliable, timely and representative information that allows the formulation of strategies and policies...
June 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631693/interventions-using-regular-activities-to-engage-high-risk-school-age-youth-a-review-of-after-school-programs-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#12
Alejandro Cid
In this paper, I review an issue that is an urgent challenge in the development field-the effectiveness of after-school programs for preventing school-age youth violence in vulnerable settings in Latin American and the Caribbean. These programs have proliferated in the region and include sports, recreation, music, tutoring, and other focused activities. Given their popularity and because they target known risk factors for violence (such as drop-out from school, poor academic performance, lack of motivation, too much idle time, low quality and quantity of adult supervision, and social isolation), it is critical to examine empirically whether they can be effective prevention strategies...
September 8, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594778/from-brute-to-thug-the-demonization-and-criminalization-of-unarmed-black-male-victims-in-america
#13
CalvinJohn Smiley, David Fakunle
The synonymy of Blackness with criminality is not a new phenomenon in America. Documented historical accounts have shown how myths, stereotypes, and racist ideologies led to discriminatory policies and court rulings that fueled racial violence in a post-Reconstruction era and has culminated in the exponential increase of Black male incarceration today. Misconceptions and prejudices manufactured and disseminated through various channels such as the media included references to a "brute" image of Black males...
2016: Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535824/violence-addiction-recovery-an-anthropological-study-of-mexico-s-anexos
#14
Angela Garcia, Brian Anderson
Informal, coercive residential centers for the treatment of addiction are widespread and growing throughout Latin America. In Mexico these centers are called "anexos" and they are run and utilized by low-income individuals and families with problems related to drugs and alcohol. This article draws on findings from a 3-year anthropological study of anexos in Mexico City. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to describe and analyze anexos, their therapeutic practices, and residents' own accounts of addiction and recovery...
August 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519994/barriers-and-facilitators-to-the-implementation-of-interventions-to-prevent-youth-violence-in-latin-america-a-systematic-review-and-qualitative-evidence-synthesis
#15
Erika E Atienzo, Eva Kaltenthaler, Susan K Baxter
Youth violence in Latin America is an important public health problem. However, the evidence from preventive programs within the region to address this problem is limited. Identifying context-specific factors that facilitate or hinder the success of interventions is necessary to guarantee the successful implementation of new preventive strategies. We present a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies to identify factors affecting the implementation of programs to prevent youth violence in Latin America...
August 12, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462857/-drug-use-in-the-public-health-debate
#16
Andrés Felipe Tirado-Otálvaro
This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death...
July 21, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439656/migration-violence-and-safety-among-migrant-sex-workers-a-qualitative-study-in-two-guatemalan-communities
#17
Teresita Rocha-Jiménez, Kimberly C Brouwer, Jay G Silverman, Sonia Morales-Miranda, Shira M Goldenberg
Despite reports of high levels of violence among women migrants in Central America, limited evidence exists regarding the health and safety of migrant sex workers in Central America. This study is based on 16 months of field research (November 2012-February 2014), including ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews, and focus groups conducted with 52 internal and international migrant female sex workers in Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, key transit and destination communities for both international and internal migrants...
September 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431472/putting-the-t-in-tools-a-roadmap-for-implementation-of-new-global-and-regional-transgender-guidance
#18
R Cameron Wolf, Darrin Adams, Robyn Dayton, Annette Verster, Joe Wong, Marcela Romero, Rafael Mazin, Edmund Settle, Tim Sladden, JoAnne Keatley
Transgender (trans) activists and global health partners have collaborated to develop new tools and guidance for assessing and addressing HIV and other health needs within trans populations. Trans women experience a heavy burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), high incidence of violence and difficulties accessing gender-affirming services. At the same time, little has been published on trans men's health, HIV issues, needs and experiences. Young trans people are especially marginalized and vulnerable, with few programmes and services specifically tailored to their needs...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258426/aggression-violence-and-injury-in-minor-league-ice-hockey-avenues-for-prevention-of-injury
#19
Michael D Cusimano, Gabriela Ilie, Sarah J Mullen, Christopher R Pauley, Jennifer R Stulberg, Jane Topolovec-Vranic, Stanley Zhang
BACKGROUND: In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163174/disparities-within-the-disparity-determining-hiv-risk-factors-among-latino-gay-and-bisexual-men-attending-a-community-based-clinic-in-los-angeles-ca
#20
Matthew R Beymer, Robert E Weiss, Perry N Halkitis, Farzana Kapadia, Danielle C Ompad, Linda Bourque, Robert K Bolan
BACKGROUND: Latino gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States have a 50% greater incidence of HIV when compared with White MSM. Previous studies have analyzed factors contributing to condomless anal intercourse among Latino MSM, but few studies have followed cohorts of HIV-negative Latino MSM to determine circumstances for HIV infection. Informed by Syndemics theory, we examine behavioral, biological, and contextual factors associated with HIV infection for Latino MSM...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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