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Multiple chemical sensitivity

Xiaoli Ma, Xiaoyu Guo, Yuelin Song, Lirui Qiao, Wenguang Wang, Mingbo Zhao, Pengfei Tu, Yong Jiang
Clarification of the chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine formulas (TCMFs) is a challenge due to the variety of structures and the complexity of plant matrices. Herein, an integrated strategy was developed by hyphenating ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF), hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Qtrap-MS), and the novel post-acquisition data processing software UNIFI to achieve automatic, rapid, accurate, and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical components in TCMFs...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marie Thi Dao Tran, Sine Skovbjerg, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Karl Bang Christensen, Jesper Elberling
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of transcranially applied pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on functional impairments and symptom severity in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) patients. METHODS: The study was conducted as a nationwide trial in Denmark using a randomised, parallel-group, double-blind and placebo-controlled design. Sample size was estimated at 40 participants. Eligibility criteria were age 18-75 years and fulfilment of the MCS case criteria...
December 6, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Binoy Babu, Brian K Washburn, Steven H Miller, Kristina Poduch, Tulin Sarigul, Gary W Knox, Francisco M Ochoa-Corona, Mathews L Paret
Rose rosette disease caused by Rose rosette virus (RRV; genus Emaravirus) is the most economically relevant disease of Knock Out(®) series roses in the U.S. As there are no effective chemical control options for the disease, the most critical disease management strategies include the use of virus free clean plants for propagation and early detection and destruction of infected plants. The current diagnostic techniques for RRV including end-point reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) are highly sensitive, but limited to diagnostic labs with the equipment and expertise; and is time consuming...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Matthew North, Brandon D Gaytán, Carlos Romero, Vanessa Y De La Rosa, Alex Loguinov, Martyn T Smith, Luoping Zhang, Chris D Vulpe
Formaldehyde (FA) is a commercially important chemical with numerous and diverse uses. Accordingly, occupational and environmental exposure to FA is prevalent worldwide. Various adverse effects, including nasopharyngeal, sinonasal, and lymphohematopoietic cancers, have been linked to FA exposure, prompting designation of FA as a human carcinogen by U.S. and international scientific entities. Although the mechanism(s) of FA toxicity have been well studied, additional insight is needed in regard to the genetic requirements for FA tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Wenwen Yi, Yuanyuan Yang, Parastoo Hashemi, Mark Ming-Cheng Cheng
In this paper, we have fabricated 3D carbon nanofiber microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with highly reproducible and rich chemical surface areas for fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Carbon nanofibers are created from negative photoresist by a new process called dual O2 plasma-assisted pyrolysis. The proposed approach significantly improves film adhesion and increases surface reactivity. We showcase our sensor's compatibility with FSCV analysis by demonstrating highly sensitive and stable FSCV dopamine measurements on a prototype 4-channel array...
December 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
Hongxia Zhao, Xiuying Chen, Chen Shen, Baocheng Qu
A simple and efficient method for determining multiple mycotoxins was developed using a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) based extraction procedure in vegetable oils. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MSMS) was used for the quantification and confirmation of 16 chemically diversified mycotoxins. Different extraction procedures were studied and optimized by spiking 16 analytes into blank matrix, and the extraction with 85% MeCN solution and C18 as cleaning sorbent allowed an efficient recovery of 72...
November 28, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Kun Chen, Tao Wu, Haoyun Wei, Tian Zhou, Yan Li
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman microscopy (CARS) is a quantitative, chemically specific, and label-free optical imaging technique for studying inhomogeneous systems. However, the complicating influence of the nonresonant response on the CARS signal severely limits its sensitivity and specificity and especially limits the extent to which CARS microscopy has been used as a fully quantitative imaging technique. On the basis of spectral focusing mechanism, we establish a dual-soliton Stokes based CARS microspectroscopy and microscopy scheme capable of quantifying the spatial information of densities and chemical composition within inhomogeneous samples, using a single fiber laser...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Ève A M Gilroy, Patricia L Gillis, Laura E King, Nicholas A Bendo, Joseph Salerno, Marina Giacomin, Shane R de Solla
The toxicity and bioconcentration of three pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, iopamidol and sertraline) were examined using multiple life stages (larval, juvenile, and adult) of the unionid mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea. The endpoints examined varied with life stage, but included survival, behavior (algal clearance rate, filtering frequency), and oxidative stress. Iopamidol was not toxic at concentrations up to 101 mg/L. Sertraline was the most toxic chemical (LC/EC50 = 0.02-0.04 mg/L), but exposure did not induce oxidative stress...
November 10, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Anthony P Malanoski, Brandy J Johnson, Jeffrey S Erickson, David A Stenger
Here, we describe our efforts focused on development of an algorithm for identification of detection events in a real-time sensing application relying on reporting of color values using commercially available color sensing chips. The effort focuses on the identification of event occurrence, rather than target identification, and utilizes approaches suitable to onboard device incorporation to facilitate portable and autonomous use. The described algorithm first excludes electronic noise generated by the sensor system and determines response thresholds...
November 16, 2016: Sensors
Scott H Robertson, Rohan S Virgincar, Elianna A Bier, Mu He, Geoffrey M Schrank, Rose Marie Smigla, Craig Rackley, H Page McAdams, Bastiaan Driehuys
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to accurately characterize the spectral properties of hyperpolarized (129)Xe in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) compared to healthy volunteers. METHODS: Subjects underwent hyperpolarized (129)Xe breath-hold spectroscopy, during which 38 dissolved-phase free induction decays (FIDs) were acquired after reaching steady state (echo time/repetition time = 0.875/50 ms; bandwidth = 8.06 kHz; flip angle≈22 °)...
November 8, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Matthew S Heard, Jan Baas, Jean-Lou Dorne, Elma Lahive, Alexander G Robinson, Agnes Rortais, David J Spurgeon, Claus Svendsen, Helen Hesketh
Threats to wild and managed insect pollinators in Europe are cause for both ecological and socio-economic concern. Multiple anthropogenic pressures may be exacerbating pollinator declines. One key pressure is exposure to chemicals including pesticides and other contaminants. Historically the honey bee (Apis mellifera spp.) has been used as an 'indicator' species for 'standard' ecotoxicological testing but it has been suggested that it is not always a good proxy for other types of eusocial and solitary bees because of species differences in autecology and sensitivity to various stressors...
November 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Petra Y Kunz, Eszter Simon, Nicolas Creusot, B Sumith Jayasinghe, Cornelia Kienle, Sibylle Maletz, Andrea Schifferli, Christine Schönlau, Selim Aït-Aïssa, Nancy D Denslow, Henner Hollert, Inge Werner, Etiënne L M Vermeirssen
In vitro estrogen receptor transactivation assays (ERTAs) are increasingly used to measure the overall estrogenic activity of environmental water samples, which may serve as an indicator of exposure of fish or other aquatic organisms to (xeno)estrogens. Another potential area of application of ERTAs is to assist the monitoring of the potent steroids 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) watch-list mechanism. Chemical analysis of E2 and EE2 is currently hampered by limits of quantification being mostly above the proposed annual average Environmental Quality Standards (AA-EQS) of 0...
October 24, 2016: Water Research
Earl H Harrison, Robert W Curley
Carotenoids are polyenes synthesized in plants and certain microorganisms and are pigments used by plants and animals in various physiological processes. Some of the over 600 known carotenoids are capable of metabolic conversion to the essential nutrient vitamin A (retinol) in higher animals. Vitamin A also gives rise to a number of other metabolites which, along with their analogs, are known as retinoids. To facilitate discussion about these important molecules, a nomenclature is required to identify specific substances...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Francesca D'Este, Monica Benincasa, Giuseppe Cannone, Michela Furlan, Michele Scarsini, Donatella Volpatti, Renato Gennaro, Alessandro Tossi, Barbara Skerlavaj, Marco Scocchi
Cathelicidins, a major family of vertebrate antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), have a recognized role in the first line of defense against infections. They have been identified in several salmonid species, where the putative mature peptides are unusually long and rich in serine and glycine residues, often arranged in short multiple repeats (RLGGGS/RPGGGS) intercalated by hydrophobic motifs. Fragments of 24-40 residues, spanning specific motifs and conserved sequences in grayling or brown, rainbow and brook trout, were chemically synthesized and examined for antimicrobial activity against relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative salmonid pathogens, as well as laboratory reference strains...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Kristin M Allan, Matthew A Loberg, Juliet Chepngeno, Jennifer E Hurtig, Susmit Tripathi, Min Goo Kang, Jonathan K Allotey, Afton H Widdershins, Jennifer M Pilat, Herbert J Sizek, Wesley J Murphy, Matthew R Naticchia, Joseph B David, Kevin A Morano, James D West
A broad range of redox-regulated proteins undergo reversible disulfide bond formation on oxidation-prone cysteine residues. Heightened reactivity of the thiol groups in these cysteines also increases susceptibility to modification by organic electrophiles, a property that can be exploited in the study of redox networks. Here, we explored whether divinyl sulfone (DVSF), a thiol-reactive bifunctional electrophile, cross-links oxidant-sensitive proteins to their putative redox partners in cells. To test this idea, previously identified oxidant targets involved in oxidant defense (namely, peroxiredoxins, methionine sulfoxide reductases, sulfiredoxin, and glutathione peroxidases), metabolism, and proteostasis were monitored for cross-link formation following treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with DVSF...
November 2, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Chuong Nguyen, Graham M West, Kieran F Geoghegan
A powerful interplay exists between the recognition of gene families, sensitive techniques in proteomics, and the interrogation of protein function using chemical probes. The most prominent methods, such as affinity capture, activity-based protein profiling and photoaffinity labeling, are extensively reviewed in the literature. Here we briefly review additional methods developed in the past 15 years. These include "stability proteomics" methods such as proteomically analyzed cellular thermal shift assays and the use of chemical oxidation as a probe of structure, the use of multiple bead-linked kinase inhibitors to analyze inhibitor specificities, and advances in the use of proteolysis-targeting chimeras for selective protein elimination...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Katja Pinker, Thomas H Helbich, Elizabeth A Morris
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential tool in breast imaging, with multiple established indications. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is the backbone of any breast MRI protocol and has an excellent sensitivity and good specificity for breast cancer diagnosis. DCE-MRI provides high-resolution morphological information, as well as some functional information about neo-angiogenesis as a tumour-specific feature. To overcome limitations in specificity, several other functional MRI parameters have been investigated and the application of these combined parameters is defined as multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the breast...
November 2, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Giuseppe Latini, Lucia Dipaola, Maria Grazia Andreassi, Silvia Rocchiccioli, Marika Massaro, Eugenio Picano
Ionizing radiation has been shown to impact and possibly alter the normal structure and function of living cells and is dangerous for human health, especially when exposure occurs early in life. Additionally, radiation can interact with other dangerous substances in the same environment, such as phthalates. Phthalates are a group of multifunctional molecules used in a wide range of consumer products, as plasticizers to impart flexibility, durability and strength to otherwise rigid polyvinyl chloride. They are not chemically bound to polyvinyl chloride, and thus migrate into the environment with time and use, becoming ubiquitous environmental contaminants...
October 31, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Dominique Belpomme, Christine Campagnac, Philippe Irigaray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Athanasios Athanasiadis, Clare Fitzgerald, Nicholas M Davidson, Chiara Giorio, Stanley W Botchway, Andrew D Ward, Markus Kalberer, Francis D Pope, Marina K Kuimova
Organic aerosols (OAs) play important roles in multiple atmospheric processes, including climate change, and can impact human health. The physico-chemical properties of OAs are important for all these processes and can evolve through reactions with various atmospheric components, including oxidants. The dynamic nature of these reactions makes it challenging to obtain a true representation of their composition and surface chemistry. Here we investigate the microscopic viscosity of the model OA composed of squalene, undergoing chemical aging...
October 26, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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