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Multiple chemical sensitivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211520/multiple-crossovers-between-positive-and-negative-magnetoresistance-versus-field-due-to-fragile-spin-structure-in-metallic-gdpd3
#1
Abhishek Pandey, Chandan Mazumdar, R Ranganathan, D C Johnston
Studies on the phenomenon of magnetoresistance (MR) have produced intriguing and application-oriented outcomes for decades-colossal MR, giant MR and recently discovered extremely large MR of millions of percents in semimetals can be taken as examples. We report here the discovery of novel multiple sign changes versus applied magnetic field of the MR in the cubic intermetallic compound GdPd3. Our study shows that a very strong correlation between magnetic, electrical and magnetotransport properties is present in this compound...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210250/simultaneous-activation-of-iron-and-thiol-based-sensor-regulator-systems-by-redox-active-compounds
#2
Kang-Lok Lee, Ji-Sun Yoo, Gyeong-Seok Oh, Atul K Singh, Jung-Hye Roe
Bacteria in natural habitats are exposed to myriad redox-active compounds (RACs), which include producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive electrophile species (RES) that alkylate or oxidize thiols. RACs can induce oxidative stress in cells and activate response pathways by modulating the activity of sensitive regulators. However, the effect of a certain compound on the cell has been investigated primarily with respect to a specific regulatory pathway. Since a single compound can exert multiple chemical effects in the cell, its effect can be better understood by time-course monitoring of multiple sensitive regulatory pathways that the compound induces...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205094/knockdown-of-cardiac-kir3-1-gene-with-sirna-can-improve-bradycardia-in-an-experimental-sinus-bradycardia-rat-model
#3
Yang Li, Xiaodan Fu, Zhi Zhang, Bo Yu
The objective of this study was to explore whether the inhibition of potassium inwardly rectifying channel (Kir3.1) with short interfering RNA (siRNA) can improve bradycardia in an experimental sinus bradycardia rat model. 54 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: experimental group, control group, and sham group. Sinus bradycardia model was established in SD rats through chemical ablation of sinoatrial (SA) node with 20% formaldehyde. Variations of Kir3.1 expression at mRNA and protein level were examined with qPCR and Western blotting...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199083/shape-memory-hydrogels-evolution-of-structural-principles-to-enable-shape-switching-of-hydrophilic-polymer-networks
#4
Candy Löwenberg, Maria Balk, Christian Wischke, Marc Behl, Andreas Lendlein
The ability of hydrophilic chain segments in polymer networks to strongly interact with water allows the volumetric expansion of the material and formation of a hydrogel. When polymer chain segments undergo reversible hydration depending on environmental conditions, smart hydrogels can be realized, which are able to shrink/swell and thus alter their volume on demand. In contrast, implementing the capacity of hydrogels to switch their shape rather than volume demands more sophisticated chemical approaches and structural concepts...
February 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194746/stimuli-responsive-polymeric-nanocarriers-for-efficient-gene-delivery
#5
REVIEW
Yingqin Li, Jinbiao Gao, Chao Zhang, Zhong Cao, Du Cheng, Jie Liu, Xintao Shuai
Gene therapy provides an alternative and effective method for treatment of genetic diseases and cancers that are refractory to conventional therapeutics. The success of gene therapy is largely dependent on the development of safe and effective gene delivery vectors for transporting genetic material from the blood stream to the cytoplasm or nucleus. Current gene vectors can be divided into viral and non-viral vectors. Although non-viral gene delivery carriers can offer some advantages, such as safety and facile fabrication, they do not possess the same high gene transfection efficiency as viral vectors due to a lack of functionality to overcome extra- and intracellular gene delivery obstacles...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194231/skinsensdb-a-curated-database-for-skin-sensitization-assays
#6
Chia-Chi Wang, Ying-Chi Lin, Shan-Shan Wang, Chieh Shih, Yi-Hui Lin, Chun-Wei Tung
Skin sensitization is an important toxicological endpoint for chemical hazard determination and safety assessment. Prediction of chemical skin sensitizer had traditionally relied on data from rodent models. The development of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) and associated alternative in vitro assays have reshaped the assessment of skin sensitizers. The integration of multiple assays as key events in the AOP has been shown to have improved prediction performance. Current computational models to predict skin sensitization mainly based on in vivo assays without incorporating alternative in vitro assays...
2017: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193557/birds-and-flame-retardants-a-review-of-the-toxic-effects-on-birds-of-historical-and-novel-flame-retardants
#7
REVIEW
Mélanie F Guigueno, Kim J Fernie
Flame retardants (FRs) are a diverse group of chemicals, many of which persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in biota. Although some FRs have been withdrawn from manufacturing and commerce (e.g., legacy FRs), many continue to be detected in the environment; moreover, their replacements and/or other novel FRs are also detected in biota. Here, we review and summarize the literature on the toxic effects of various FRs on birds. Birds integrate chemical information (exposure, effects) across space and time, making them ideal sentinels of environmental contamination...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193150/maleimide-scavenging-enhances-determination-of-protein-s-palmitoylation-state-in-acyl-exchange-methods
#8
Charlotte H Hurst, Dionne Turnbull, Fiona Plain, William Fuller, Piers A Hemsley
S-palmitoylation (S-acylation) is emerging as an important dynamic post-translational modification of cysteine residues within proteins. Current assays for protein S-palmitoylation involve either in vivo labeling or chemical cleavage of S-palmitoyl groups to reveal a free cysteine sulfhydryl that can be subsequently labeled with an affinity handle (acyl-exchange). Assays for protein S-palmitoylation using acyl-exchange chemistry therefore require blocking of non-S-palmitoylated cysteines, typically using N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), to prevent non-specific detection...
February 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191618/ecotoxicological-bioassays-of-sediment-leachates-in-a-river-bed-flanked-by-decommissioned-pesticide-plants-in-nantong-city-east-china
#9
Yan Zhou, Fenghe Wang, Jinzhong Wan, Jian He, Qun Li, Qiang Chen, Jay Gao, Yusuo Lin, Shengtian Zhang
Traditionally, the toxicity of river contaminants is analyzed chemically or physically through river bed sediments. The biotoxicity of polluted sediment leachates has not caught our attention. This study aims to overcome this deficiency through a battery of biotests which were conducted to monitor comprehensive toxicity of sediment leachates for the Yaogang River in East Jiangsu Province of China, which is in close proximity to former pesticide plants. The general physical and chemical parameters of major pollutants were analyzed from river bed sediments collected at five strategic locations...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190338/towards-streamlined-identification-of-dioxin-like-compounds-in-environmental-samples-through-integration-of-suspension-bioassay
#10
Hongxia Xiao, Markus Brinkmann, Beat Thalmann, Andreas Schiwy, Sigrid Große Brinkhaus, Christine Achten, Kathrin Eichbaum, Carolin Gembé, Thomas Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert
Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is a powerful strategy to identify biologically active compounds in environmental samples. However, in current EDA studies, fractionation and handling procedures are laborious, consist of multiple evaporation steps, and thus bear the risk of contamination and decreased recoveries of the target compounds. The low resulting throughput has been one of the major bottlenecks of EDA. Here, we propose a high-throughput EDA (HT-EDA) work-flow combining reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation of samples into 96-well microplates, followed by toxicity assessment in the micro-EROD bioassay with the wild-type rat hepatoma H4IIE cells, and chemical analysis of bioactive fractions...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186720/cuprizone-intoxication-induces-cell-intrinsic-alterations-in-oligodendrocyte-metabolism-independent-of-copper-chelation
#11
Alexandra Taraboletti, Tia Louise Walker, Robin Avila, He Huang, Joel Caporoso, Erendra Manandhar, Thomas C Leeper, David A Modarelli, Satish Medicetty, Leah P Shriver
Cuprizone intoxication is a common animal model used to test myelin regenerative therapies to treat diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Mice fed this copper chelator develop reversible, region-specific oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination. While the cellular changes influencing the demyelinating process have been explored in this model, there is no consensus on the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in oligodendrocytes and if this damage arises from the chelation of copper in vivo. Here we have identified an oligodendroglial cell line that displays sensitivity to cuprizone toxicity and performed global metabolomic profiling to determine biochemical pathways altered by this treatment...
February 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168316/additive-roles-of-two-tps-genes-in-trehalose-synthesis-conidiation-multiple-stress-responses-and-host-infection-of-a-fungal-insect-pathogen
#12
Juan-Juan Wang, Qing Cai, Lei Qiu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Intracellular trehalose accumulation is relevant to fungal life and pathogenicity. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) is known to control the first step of trehalose synthesis, but functions of multiple TPS genes in some filamentous fungi are variable. Here, we examined the functions of two TPS genes (tpsA and tpsB) in Beauveria bassiana, a fungal insect pathogen widely applied in arthropod pest control. Intracellular TPS activity and trehalose content decreased by 71-75 and 72-80% in ΔtpsA, and 21-30 and 15-45% in ΔtpsB, respectively, and to undetectable levels in ΔtpsAΔtpsB, under normal and stressful conditions...
February 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157878/multiplex-coherent-anti-stokes-raman-scattering-spectroscopy-for-trace-chemical-detection
#13
Sherrie B Pilkington, Stephen D Roberson, Paul M Pellegrino
Trace chemical detection is a particularly challenging problem of significant Army interest. Optical diagnostic techniques offer rapid, accurate, sensitive, and highly selective detection of hazardous materials in a variety of systems. Multiplex coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (MCARS) spectroscopy generates a complete Raman spectrum from the material of interest using a combination of a supercontinuum pulse, which drives multiple molecular vibrations simultaneously, and a narrowband probe pulse. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of MCARS to detect trace amounts of both explosive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants with limits of detection below 0...
January 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157561/indirect-detection-of-infinite-speed-mas-solid-state-nmr-spectra
#14
Frédéric A Perras, Amrit Venkatesh, Michael P Hanrahan, Tian Wei Goh, Wenyu Huang, Aaron J Rossini, Marek Pruski
Heavy spin-1/2 nuclides are known to possess very large chemical shift anisotropies that can challenge even the most advanced magic-angle-spinning (MAS) techniques. Wide manifolds of overlapping spinning sidebands and insufficient excitation bandwidths often obfuscate meaningful spectral information and force the use of static, low-resolution solid-state (SS)NMR methods for the characterization of materials. To address these issues, we have merged fast-magic-angle-turning (MAT) and dipolar heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (D-HMQC) experiments to obtain D-HMQC-MAT pulse sequences which enable the rapid acquisition of 2D SSNMR spectra that correlate isotropic (1)H chemical shifts to the indirectly detected isotropic "infinite-MAS" spectra of heavy spin-1/2 nuclides...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142331/differential-cytotoxic-and-inflammatory-potency-of-amorphous-silicon-dioxide-nanoparticles-of-similar-size-in-multiple-cell-lines
#15
Dalibor Breznan, Dharani D Das, Julie S O'Brien, Christine MacKinnon-Roy, Surendra Nimesh, Ngoc Q Vuong, Stéphane Bernatchez, Nimal DeSilva, Myriam Hill, Prem Kumarathasan, Renaud Vincent
The likelihood of environmental and health impacts of silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiNPs) has risen, due to their increased use in products and applications. The biological potency of a set of similarly-sized amorphous SiNPs was investigated in a variety of cells to examine the influence of physico-chemical and biological factors on their toxicity. Cellular LDH and ATP, BrdU incorporation, resazurin reduction and cytokine release were measured in human epithelial A549, human THP-1 and mouse J774A.1 macrophage cells exposed for 24 h to suspensions of 5-15, 10-20 and 12 nm SiNPs and reference particles...
February 1, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135780/thyme-essential-oil-as-multiple-mechanisms-biofungicide-causing-sensitivity-of-mycosphaerella-graminicola
#16
Maissa Ben Jabeur, Lamia Somai Jemmali, Walid Hamada
AIMS: To understand the mode of action of thyme essential oil as an alternative biofungicide. METHODS AND RESULTS: The chemical composition of thyme essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris was analyzed. The main constituents of thyme essential oil were thymol (76.96%), ρ-cymene (9.89%), γ-terpinene (1.92%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.69%). The antifungal activity of the oil and its pure major component (thymol) was assessed by the in vitro assay against Mycosphaerella graminicola...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131099/lipid-biomarkers-and-spectroscopic-indices-for-identifying-organic-matter-sources-in-aquatic-environments-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Morgane Derrien, Liyang Yang, Jin Hur
Understanding the dynamics of organic matter (OM) and the roles in global and local carbon cycles is challenging to the fields of environmental sciences and biogeochemistry. The accurate identification of OM is an essential element to achieve this goal. Lipids, due to their ubiquitous presence and diagenetic and chemical stability, have long and successfully been used as molecular makers in assessing the sources and the fate of OM in natural environments. In parallel, optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) have been suggested as efficient tools in tracing OM sources...
January 19, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126440/activation-of-anti-oxidant-nrf2-signaling-by-substituted-trans-stilbenes
#18
Lorraine M Deck, Lisa J Whalen, Lucy A Hunsaker, Robert E Royer, David L Vander Jagt
Nrf2, which is a member of the cap'n'collar family of transcription factors, is a major regulator of phase II detoxification and anti-oxidant genes as well as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective genes. The importance of inflammation and oxidative stress in many chronic diseases supports the concept that activation of anti-oxidant Nrf2 signaling may have therapeutic potential. A number of Nrf2 activators have entered into clinical trials. Nrf2 exists in the cytosol in complex with its binding partner Keap1, which is a thiol-rich redox-sensing protein...
January 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123101/application-of-gene-set-enrichment-analysis-for-identification-of-chemically-induced-biologically-relevant-transcriptomic-networks-and-potential-utilization-in-human-health-risk-assessment
#19
Jeffry L Dean, Q Jay Zhao, Jason C Lambert, Belinda S Hawkins, Russell S Thomas, Scott C Wesselkamper
The rate of new chemical development in commerce combined with a paucity of toxicity data for legacy chemicals presents a unique challenge for human health risk assessment. There is a clear need to develop new technologies and incorporate novel data streams to more efficiently inform derivation of toxicity values. One avenue of exploitation lies in the field of transcriptomics and the application of gene expression analysis to characterize biological responses to chemical exposures. In this context, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was employed to evaluate tissue-specific, dose-response gene expression data generated following exposure to multiple chemicals for various durations...
January 25, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123098/astrobiology-as-a-framework-for-investigating-antibiotic-susceptibility-a-study-of-halomonas-hydrothermalis
#20
Jesse P Harrison, Roey Angel, Charles S Cockell
Physical and chemical boundaries for microbial multiplication on Earth are strongly influenced by interactions between environmental extremes. However, little is known about how interactions between multiple stress parameters affect the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics. Here, we assessed how 12 distinct permutations of salinity, availability of an essential nutrient (iron) and atmospheric composition (aerobic or microaerobic) affect the susceptibility of a polyextremotolerant bacterium, Halomonas hydrothermalis, to ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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