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Multiple chemical sensitivity

Lizhong Liu, Wei Huang, Jian-Dong Huang
BACKGROUND: Multi-signal processing circuits are essential for rational design of sophisticated synthetic systems with good controllability and modularity, therefore, enable construction of high-level networks. Moreover, light-inducible systems provide fast and reversible means for spatiotemporal control of gene expression. RESULTS: Here, in HEK 293 cells, we present combinatory genetic circuits responding to light and chemical signals, simultaneously. We first constructed a dual input circuit converting different light intensities into varying of the sensitivity of the promoter to a chemical inducer (doxycycline)...
January 19, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
Ahmed Sk Al-Khafaji, Michael Pa Davies, Janet M Risk, Michael W Marcus, Maria Koffa, John R Gosney, Richard J Shaw, John K Field, Triantafillos Liloglou
BACKGROUND: Taxanes are mitotic poisons widely used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, little is known about potential molecular modulators of response to these compounds. Aurora B (AURKB) is a critical regulator of the mitotic spindle assembly, previously shown overexpressed in NSCLC. Here we investigated the hypothesis that AURKB expression modulates the efficacy of taxanes in NSCLC cells. METHODS: AURKB mRNA expression was determined by qPCR in 132 frozen NSCLC tissues and nine NSCLC cell lines...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
Yuki Kanemaru, Tetsuya Suzuki, Akira Sassa, Kyomu Matsumoto, Noritaka Adachi, Masamitsu Honma, Satoshi Numazawa, Takehiko Nohmi
BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and environment are critical factors for causing cancer in humans. The genotoxicity of environmental chemicals can be enhanced via the modulation of susceptible genes in host human cells. DNA polymerase kappa (Pol κ) is a specialized DNA polymerase that plays an important role in DNA damage tolerance through translesion DNA synthesis. To better understand the protective roles of Pol κ, we previously engineered two human cell lines either deficient in expression of Pol κ (KO) or expressing catalytically dead Pol κ (CD) in Nalm-6-MSH+ cells and examined cytotoxic sensitivity against various genotoxins...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
Yuwei Xie, Jizhong Wang, Jianghua Yang, John P Giesy, Hongxia Yu, Xiaowei Zhang
Land-use intensification threatens freshwater biodiversity. Freshwater eukaryotic communities are affected by multiple chemical contaminants with a land-use specific manner. However, biodiversities of eukaryotes and their associations with multiple chemical contaminants are largely unknown. This study characterized in situ eukaryotic communities in sediments exposed to mixtures of chemical contaminants and assessed relationships between various environmental variables and eukaryotic communities in sediments from the Nanfei River...
December 27, 2016: Chemosphere
Igor Shuryak
The ecological effects of accidental or malicious radioactive contamination are insufficiently understood because of the hazards and difficulties associated with conducting studies in radioactively-polluted areas. Data sets from severely contaminated locations can therefore be small. Moreover, many potentially important factors, such as soil concentrations of toxic chemicals, pH, and temperature, can be correlated with radiation levels and with each other. In such situations, commonly-used statistical techniques like generalized linear models (GLMs) may not be able to provide useful information about how radiation and/or these other variables affect the outcome (e...
2017: PloS One
Ana Martinez-Val, Fernando Garcia, Pilar Ximénez-Embún, Ailyn Martínez Teresa-Calleja, Nuria Ibarz, Isabel Ruppen, Javier Munoz
Comprehensive analysis of post-translational modifications (PTMs) often depends on the purification of modified peptides prior to LC-MS/MS. The implementation of these enrichment methods requires thorough knowledge of the experimental conditions to achieve optimal selectivity and sensitivity. In this regard, large-scale analysis of lysine acetylation, a key PTM for multiple cellular processes, makes use of monoclonal pan-antibodies designed against this moiety. We report that the immuno-purification of lysine-acetylated peptides is hampered by the copurification of lysine carbamylated peptides, a frequent urea artifact...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Lili Sheng, Katalin Kovács, Klaus Winzer, Ying Zhang, Nigel Peter Minton
BACKGROUND: The thermophile Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius has considerable attraction as a chassis for the production of chemicals and fuels. It utilises a wide range of sugars and oligosaccharides typical of those derived from lignocellulose and grows at elevated temperatures. The latter improves the rate of feed conversion, reduces fermentation cooling costs and minimises the risks of contamination. Full exploitation of its potential has been hindered by a dearth of effective gene tools...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Ameya Rao, Hu Long, Anna Harley-Trochimczyk, Thang Pham, Alex Zettl, Carlo Carraro, Roya Maboudian
A simple and versatile strategy is presented for the localized on-chip synthesis of an ordered metal oxide hollow sphere array directly on a low power microheater platform to form a closely integrated miniaturized gas sensor. Selective microheater surface modification through fluorinated monolayer self-assembly and its subsequent microheater-induced thermal decomposition enables the position-controlled deposition of an ordered two-dimensional colloidal sphere array, which serves as a sacrificial template for metal oxide growth via homogeneous chemical precipitation; this strategy ensures control in both the morphology and placement of the sensing material on only the active heated area of the microheater platform, providing a major advantage over other methods of presynthesized nanomaterial integration via suspension coating or printing...
January 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bryan Ronain Smith, Sanjiv Sam Gambhir
In vivo imaging, which enables us to peer deeply within living subjects, is producing tremendous opportunities both for clinical diagnostics and as a research tool. Contrast material is often required to clearly visualize the functional architecture of physiological structures. Recent advances in nanomaterials are becoming pivotal to generate the high-resolution, high-contrast images needed for accurate, precision diagnostics. Nanomaterials are playing major roles in imaging by delivering large imaging payloads, yielding improved sensitivity, multiplexing capacity, and modularity of design...
January 3, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Lin Op de Beeck, Julie Verheyen, Robby Stoks
Global warming and chemical pollution are key anthropogenic stressors with the potential to interact. While warming can change the impact of pollutants and pollutants can change the sensitivity to warming, both interaction pathways have never been integrated in a single experiment. Therefore, we tested the effects of warming and multiple pesticide pulses (allowing accumulation) of chlorpyrifos on upper thermal tolerance (CTmax) and associated physiological traits related to aerobic/anaerobic energy production in the damselfly Ischnura elegans...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Carrie Mae Long, Ewa Lukomska, Nikki B Marshall, Ajay Nayak, Stacey E Anderson
Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a potent low molecular weight chemical sensitizer and a leading cause of chemical-induced occupational asthma. The regulatory potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been recognized in a variety of disease states, including allergic disease; however, the roles of miRNAs in chemical sensitization are largely unknown. In a previous work, increased expression of multiple miRNAs during TDI sensitization was observed and several putative mRNA targets identified for these miRNAs were directly related to regulatory T-cell (Treg) differentiation and function including Foxp3 and Runx3...
December 27, 2016: Genes
Stefanie Gerbig, Gerold Stern, Hubertus E Brunn, Rolf-Alexander Düring, Bernhard Spengler, Sabine Schulz
Direct analysis of fruit and vegetable surfaces is an important tool for in situ detection of food contaminants such as pesticides. We tested three different ways to prepare samples for the qualitative desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) analysis of 32 pesticides found on nine authentic fruits collected from food control. Best recovery rates for topically applied pesticides (88%) were found by analyzing the surface of a glass slide which had been rubbed against the surface of the food...
December 29, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Choong-Ki Kim, Eun Gyo Jeong, Eungtaek Kim, Jeong-Gyu Song, Youngjun Kim, Whang Je Woo, Myung Keun Lee, Hagyoul Bae, Seong-Bae Jeon, Hyungjun Kim, Kyung Cheol Choi, Yang-Kyu Choi
Field-effect transistors (FETs) composed of 2D materials (2DMs) such as transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials show unstable electrical characteristics in ambient air due to the high sensitivity of 2DMs to water adsorbates. In this work, in order to demonstrate the long-term retention of electrical characteristics of a TMD FET, a multidyad encapsulation method was applied to a MoS2 FET and thereby its durability was warranted for one month. It was well known that the multidyad encapsulation method was effective to mitigate high sensitivity to ambient air in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) composed of organic materials...
February 3, 2017: Nanotechnology
Yuelin Song, Qingqing Song, Yao Liu, Jun Li, Jian-Bo Wan, Yitao Wang, Yong Jiang, Pengfei Tu
Universal acquisition of reliable information regarding the qualitative and quantitative properties of complicated matrices is the premise for the success of metabolomics study. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is now serving as a workhorse for metabolomics; however, LC-MS-based non-targeted metabolomics is suffering from some shortcomings, even some cutting-edge techniques have been introduced. Aiming to tackle, to some extent, the drawbacks of the conventional approaches, such as redundant information, detector saturation, low sensitivity, and inconstant signal number among different runs, herein, a novel and flexible work-flow consisting of three progressive steps was proposed to profile in depth the quantitative metabolome of plants...
February 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Peta A Neale, Maud E S Achard, Beate I Escher, Frederic D L Leusch
Environmental waters can contain a wide range of micropollutants. Bioanalytical test batteries using assays indicative of different stages of cellular toxicity pathways, such as adaptive stress responses, have been applied to a range of water samples. Oxidative stress response assays have proven to be sensitive tools, but the mechanism by which water samples are inducing the oxidative stress response remains unclear because both electrophiles and reactive oxygen species (ROS) may activate the Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway...
December 22, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Ivan Polsinelli, Martin Savko, Cecile Rouanet-Mehouas, Lidia Ciccone, Susanna Nencetti, Elisabetta Orlandini, Enrico A Stura, William Shepard
X-ray radiation in macromolecular crystallography can chemically alter the biological material and deteriorate the integrity of the crystal lattice with concomitant loss of resolution. Typical alterations include decarboxylation of glutamic and aspartic residues, breaking of disulfide bonds and the reduction of metal centres. Helical scans add a small translation to the crystal in the rotation method, so that for every image the crystal is shifted to expose a fresh part. On beamline PROXIMA 2A at Synchrotron SOLEIL, this procedure has been tested with various parameters in an attempt to understand how to mitigate the effects of radiation damage...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Arnab Mukherjee, Di Wu, Hunter C Davis, Mikhail G Shapiro
Non-invasive imaging of gene expression in live, optically opaque animals is important for multiple applications, including monitoring of genetic circuits and tracking of cell-based therapeutics. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable such monitoring with high spatiotemporal resolution. However, existing MRI reporter genes based on metalloproteins or chemical exchange probes are limited by their reliance on metals or relatively low sensitivity. Here we introduce a new class of MRI reporters based on the human water channel aquaporin 1...
December 23, 2016: Nature Communications
Jian Wu, Ying Xie, Zheng Xiang, Canjian Wang, Hua Zhou, Liang Liu
Guanjiekang (GJK) that is formed by five medicinal herbs including Astragali Radix, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Corydalis Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix Alba was used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of active components in GJK remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the pharmacokinetic behavior of seven representative active constituents in GJK (i.e., benzoylhypaconine, benzoylmesaconine, paeoniflorin, tetrahydropalmatine, calycosin-7-glucoside, formononetin and isoliquiritigenin) after oral administration of GJK in rats...
December 16, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rupal Gupta, Wenlin Huang, Lynn C Francesconi, Tatyana Polenova
We examined the positional isomerism and vanadium substitution on the (51)V magic angle spinning NMR spectra of potassium salts of vanadium-substituted polyoxotungstates of the Wells-Dawson series. NMR parameters of this class of catalytically active polyoxotungstates effect of are reported. Multiple species, indicative of differences in the local environment at the substitution sites, are observed in solid-state NMR spectra of the di- and tri- substituted complexes in contrast to solution NMR spectra, where single average chemical shift was observed...
December 10, 2016: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Clemens Wittwehr, Hristo Aladjov, Gerald Ankley, Hugh J Byrne, Joop de Knecht, Elmar Heinzle, Günter Klambauer, Brigitte Landesmann, Mirjam Luijten, Cameron MacKay, Gavin Maxwell, M E Bette Meek, Alicia Paini, Edward Perkins, Tomasz Sobanski, Dan Villeneuve, Katrina M Waters, Maurice Whelan
Efforts are underway to transform regulatory toxicology and chemical safety assessment from a largely empirical science based on direct observation of apical toxicity outcomes in whole organism toxicity tests to a predictive one in which outcomes and risk are inferred from accumulated mechanistic understanding. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework provides a systematic approach for organizing knowledge that may support such inference. Likewise, computational models of biological systems at various scales provide another means and platform to integrate current biological understanding to facilitate inference and extrapolation...
December 19, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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