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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859762/death-wishes-among-older-people-assessed-for-home-support-and-long-term-aged-residential-care
#1
Gary Cheung, Siobhan Edwards, Frederick Sundram
OBJECTIVE: Death wishes in older people are common and may progress to suicidal ideation and attempts. This study used routinely collected data from the interRAI Home Care assessment to examine the prevalence and clinical predictors of death wishes in older New Zealanders assessed for home support and long-term aged residential care. METHODS: Data were collected from 35 734 people aged over 65 during 2012-2014. Chi-squared analyses were used to determine significant relationships between the presence of death wishes and demographic factors, health and functional status, and emotional and psychosocial well-being...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781141/characterizing-neurocognitive-impairment-in-young-people-with-major-depression-state-trait-or-scar
#2
REVIEW
Kelly Allott, Caroline A Fisher, Gunther Paul Amminger, Joanne Goodall, Sarah Hetrick
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects a quarter of adolescents and young adults and is associated with the greatest global burden of disease in this population. There is a growing literature, mostly in adults, showing that significant neurocognitive impairments are common in MDD. It remains unclear whether these impairments are pre-existing trait markers of MDD, state-related impairments that fluctuate with depressive symptoms, or 'scar' impairments that worsen with illness progression...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781134/genetic-and-environmental-components-of-female-depression-as-a-function-of-the-severity-of-the-disorder
#3
James S M Rusby, Fiona Tasker, Lynn Cherkas
BACKGROUND: Both clinical care and genome-wide studies need to account for levels of severity in the etiology of depression. The purpose of the study is to estimate the genetic and environmental components of female depression as a function of the severity of the disorder. METHODS: A genetic and environmental model analysis of depression incidence was made using the IOP Depression Severity Measure (IDSM). Details of lifetime depression incidence were obtained by questionnaire from twins on the DTR registry...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422114/managing-depression-in-patients-with-cancer
#4
Daniel McFarland, Sheila Lahijani, Jimmie Holland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313534/impact-of-exercise-on-innate-immunity-in-multiple-sclerosis-progression-and-symptomatology
#5
REVIEW
Alison Barry, Owen Cronin, Aisling M Ryan, Brian Sweeney, Siew M Yap, Orna O'Toole, Andrew P Allen, Gerard Clarke, Ken D O'Halloran, Eric J Downer
Multiple Sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic progressive immune-mediated neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammatory demyelination and consequent axonal deterioration. It accounts for functional deterioration and lasting disability among young adults. A body of literature demonstrates that physical activity counteracts fatigue and depression and may improve overall quality of life in MS patients. Furthermore, much data indicates that exercise ameliorates chronic neuroinflammation and its related pathologies by tipping cytokine profiles toward an anti-inflammatory signature...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281373/treatment-expectations-for-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-light-therapy-for-seasonal-affective-disorder-change-across-treatment-and-relation-to-outcome
#6
Jonah Meyerhoff, Kelly J Rohan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the dynamic relationship between treatment expectations and treatment outcome over the course of a clinical trial for winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD). METHOD: Currently depressed adults with Major Depression, Recurrent with Seasonal Pattern (N = 177) were randomized to 6 weeks of group-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for SAD (CBT-SAD) or light therapy (LT). The majority were female (83.6%) and white (92.1%), with a mean age of 45...
October 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189779/insomnia-disorder
#7
Charles M Morin, Christopher L Drake, Allison G Harvey, Andrew D Krystal, Rachel Manber, Dieter Riemann, Kai Spiegelhalder
Insomnia disorder affects a large proportion of the population on a situational, recurrent or chronic basis and is among the most common complaints in medical practice. The disorder is predominantly characterized by dissatisfaction with sleep duration or quality and difficulties initiating or maintaining sleep, along with substantial distress and impairments of daytime functioning. It can present as the chief complaint or, more often, co-occurs with other medical or psychiatric disorders, such as pain and depression...
2015: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136621/antifungal-agents-for-onychomycosis-new-treatment-strategies-to-improve-safety
#8
Lee T Zane, Sanjay Chanda, Dina Coronado, James Del Rosso
Onychomycosis is a common and difficult-to-treat fungal infection of the nail unit that gradually leads to dystrophic changes of the nail plate and nail bed. If untreated, infection progresses and may lead to discomfort, reduced quality of life, and risk of complications in patients with comorbid conditions (eg, diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, peripheral vascular disease). Onychomycosis treatments are designed to eradicate causative pathogens (most commonly Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), restore healthy nails, and prevent recurrence or spread of infection...
2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121423/staging-models-in-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Ather Muneer
Bipolar disorder is manifested as severe dysregulation of mood with recurrent manic and major depressive episodes. It is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities, inadequate response to currently available pharmacological agents and a progressively deteriorating course in many patients. The index episode is often depressive in nature, while the first manic or hypomanic episode may occur several years later in the course of the disorder causing delay in diagnosis and use of inappropriate treatment strategies...
May 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097631/recalcitrant-hidradenitis-suppurativa-an-investigation-of-demographics-surgical-management-bacterial-isolates-pharmacologic-intervention-and-patient-reported-health-outcomes
#10
Cristina Thomas, Katherine A Rodby, Jessina Thomas, Elizabeth Shay, Anuja K Antony
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is characterized by chronic inflammation, recurrent abscesses, and scarring. Surgery is performed when medical management and antibiotic therapy fails. This study sought to evaluate the demographics, surgical procedures, bacteriology, pharmacologic intervention, and quality of life of patients with recalcitrant HS requiring surgical intervention. A retrospective chart review was performed of 76 recalcitrant HS patients at the University of Illinois Medical Center. Patient demographics, bacterial culture, and surgery data were reviewed...
April 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071787/oxidative-stress-and-nitric-oxide-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-other-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#11
Kunio Yui, Yohei Kawasaki, Hiroshi Yamada, Shintaro Ogawa
The etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains unclear; however, the toxic environmental exposure to oxidative stress has been suggested to play an important role in its pathogenesis. A loss of balance between oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity produces an excess of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitric oxide (NO). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, are closely related to NO and NO synthase. In the pathophysiology of ASD, NO is related to the activity of primary PUFAs...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070170/-chronic-cerebral-circulatory-insufficiency-a-clinical-case-report
#12
V V Zakharov, N V Vakhnina, D O Gromova, A V Tarapovskaya
Chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency (CCCI) is a result of cerebral microangiopathy, most commonly due to uncontrolled hypertension. In this case, the brain is affected due to recurrent silent infarcts and/or microbleedings without clinical manifestations of stroke and chronic brain ischemia. Progressive cognitive impairments with a preponderance of inadequate attention and lower rates of cognitive performance, with impaired planning and control abilities in relative preservation of memory serve as the main manifestation of chronic progressive non-stroke vascular lesion in the brain...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963792/mindfulness-based-interventions-for-coping-with-cancer
#13
Linda E Carlson
Work in the development and evaluation of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for cancer care has been underway for the last 20 years, and a growing body of literature now supports their efficacy. MBIs are particularly helpful in dealing with common experiences related to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship, including loss of control, uncertainty about the future, and fears of recurrence, as well as a range of physical and psychological symptoms, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, and fatigue...
June 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898142/an-examination-of-horace-wells-life-as-a-manifestation-of-major-depressive-and-seasonal-affective-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Ramon F Martin, Sukumar P Desai
Horace Wells was a Hartford, Connecticut, dentist whose practice flourished because of his clinical skills. He had an imaginative mind that propelled him to the forefront in several aspects of dentistry. Unfortunately, he suffered a recurrent "illness" that began in the winter and resolved in the spring. These symptoms were compatible with both major depressive disorder and seasonal affective disorder as a qualifier. Wells' introduction of nitrous oxide as an anesthetic was also associated with self-inhalation...
January 2016: Journal of Anesthesia History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26827636/influence-of-interactions-between-genes-and-childhood-trauma-on-refractoriness-in-psychiatric-disorders
#15
Ji Sun Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee
Psychiatric disorders are excellent disease models in which gene-environmental interaction play a significant role in the pathogenesis. Childhood trauma has been known as a significant environmental factor in the progress of, and prognosis for psychiatric illness. Patients with refractory illness usually have more severe symptoms, greater disability, lower quality of life and are at greater risk of suicide than other psychiatric patients. Our literature review uncovered some important clinical factors which modulate response to treatment in psychiatric patients who have experienced childhood trauma...
October 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26820402/symptoms-of-depression-and-anxiety-are-independently-associated-with-clinical-recurrence-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Antonina Mikocka-Walus, Valerie Pittet, Jean-Benoît Rossel, Roland von Känel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We examined the relationship between symptoms of depression and anxiety and clinical recurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a large patient cohort. We considered the progression of depression and anxiety over time. METHODS: We collected clinical and treatment data on 2007 adult participants of the Swiss IBD study (56% with Crohn's disease [CD], 48% male) performed in Switzerland from 2006 through 2015. Depression and anxiety symptoms were quantified by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale...
June 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780170/neuropathological-relationship-between-major-depression-and-dementia-a-hypothetical-model-and-review
#17
REVIEW
Helena Kyunghee Kim, Paula Villela Nunes, Katia C Oliveira, L Trevor Young, Beny Lafer
Major depression (MDD) is a chronic psychiatric condition in which patients often show increasing cognitive impairment with recurring episodes. Neurodegeneration may play an important component in the pathogenesis of MDD associated with cognitive complaints. In agreement with this, patients with MDD show decreased brain volumes in areas implicated in emotional regulation and cognition, neuronal and glial cell death as well as activation of various pathways that can contribute to cell death. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an integrative overview of potential contributing factors to neurodegeneration in MDD...
June 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26771990/the-development-of-lurasidone-for-bipolar-depression
#18
REVIEW
Antony Loebel, Jane Xu, Jay Hsu, Josephine Cucchiaro, Andrei Pikalov
Bipolar disorder is a chronic, recurrent illness that ranks among the top 10 causes of disability in the developed world. As the illness progresses, major depressive episodes increasingly predominate. However, few treatment options are available that have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of bipolar depression, either as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in combination with mood stabilizers. Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that was initially developed for the treatment of schizophrenia. Since no previous atypical antipsychotic development program had proceeded directly from work on schizophrenia to bipolar depression, the decision to focus on this indication represented an innovation in central nervous system drug development and was designed to address a clinically significant unmet need...
November 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26502263/distinct-recurrent-versus-afferent-dynamics-in-cortical-visual-processing
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kimberly Reinhold, Anthony D Lien, Massimo Scanziani
How intracortical recurrent circuits in mammalian sensory cortex influence dynamics of sensory representation is not understood. Previous methods could not distinguish the relative contributions of recurrent circuits and thalamic afferents to cortical dynamics. We accomplish this by optogenetically manipulating thalamus and cortex. Over the initial 40 ms of visual stimulation, excitation from recurrent circuits in visual cortex progressively increased to exceed direct thalamocortical excitation. Even when recurrent excitation exceeded thalamic excitation, upon silencing thalamus, sensory-evoked activity in cortex decayed rapidly, with a time constant of 10 ms, which is similar to a neuron's integration time window...
December 2015: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26480221/pharmacological-agents-under-research-for-the-maintenance-treatment-in-bipolar-disorder
#20
REVIEW
S Dimitrakopoulos, G Konstantakopoulos
The treatment of bipolar disorder is a current challenge for clinicians and despite progress in psychopharmacology, options remain limited and results are often unsatisfactory. Current research focuses on finding new pharmaceutical agents for all phases of bipolar disorder, i.e. mania, bipolar depression and maintenance. Particularly, relapse prevention and longterm stabilization is a major therapeutic target. Combination treatment and polypharmacy are the most common choices concerning relapse prevention. Furthermore, during maintenance phase patients often experience residual mood symptoms, cognitive deficits and functional decline, which altogether illustrate the inadequate effectiveness of existing treatments and the need for new, targeted, effective and safe treatments for bipolar disorder...
July 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
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