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N-3 emulsion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898794/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-solid-and-liquid-organic-fertilizers-applied-to-lettuce
#1
Phasita Toonsiri, Stephen J Del Grosso, Arina Sukor, Jessica G Davis
Improper application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and environmental factors can cause the loss of nitrous oxide (NO) to the environment. Different types of fertilizers with different C/N ratios may have different effects on the environment. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmental factors and four organic fertilizers (feather meal, blood meal, fish emulsion, and cyano-fertilizer) applied at different rates (0, 28, 56, and 112 kg N ha) on NO emissions and to track CO emissions from a lettuce field ( L...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875287/two-year-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-nutrition-intervention-trial-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#2
Jorine A Roelants, Hester Vlaardingerbroek, Chris H P van den Akker, Rogier C J de Jonge, Johannes B van Goudoever, Marijn J Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants are at risk for neurodevelopment impairment. This study assessed the effect of early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN) on long-term outcome in VLBW infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Directly after birth, VLBW infants (birth weight <1500 g, n = 142) were randomized to 5 different PN regimes. Controls (n = 46) received glucose and standard-dose amino acids (AAs; 2.4 g/[kg·d]) from birth onward and pure soybean oil fat emulsion (SOY) on the second day of life...
November 10, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859401/biochemical-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-lipase-from-an-algerian-isolated-staphylococcus-aureus-strain
#3
Fatima Nehal, Raida Jallouli, Najeh Krayem, Madiha Bou Ali, Abdelkader Dilmi Bouras, Ahmed Fendri, Youssef Gargouri
A Staphylococcus aureus strain, isolated from an Algerian biotope, secretes a non-induced lipase in the culture medium. The S. aureus lipase (SAL) was purified to homogeneity. Pure SAL is a monomeric protein (43 kDa). The 20 N-terminal amino acid residues showed a high degree of homology with other staphylococcal lipase sequences. SAL presents specific activities of about 1600 and 555 U mg(-1) using tributyrin and olive oil emulsion as substrates, respectively. In contrast to other staphylococcal lipases previously characterized, SAL was stable at a pH range from 6 to 9 after 1 h incubation, and retained 50% of its activity after 10 min incubation at 50 °C...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858037/dual-responsive-pickering-emulsions-stabilized-by-constructed-core-crosslinked-polymer-nanoparticles-via-reversible-covalent-bonds
#4
Huazhang Guo, Duanguang Yang, Mei Yang, Yong Gao, Yijiang Liu, Huaming Li
In this study, pH- and glucose-responsive Pickering emulsions stabilized by core crosslinked polymer nanoparticles, which were constructed via reversible covalent bonds, were presented for the first time. Firstly, well-defined PDMA-b-PAPBA (poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-b-poly(3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid)) diblock copolymers were synthesized via sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization reactions. By means of complexation of PBA units of PDMA-b-PAPBA with PVA in basic water, core crosslinked polymer nanoparticles (CCPNs) with a core-shell structure were formed...
November 18, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783521/co2-triggered-pickering-emulsion-based-on-silica-nanoparticles-and-tertiary-amine-with-long-hydrophobic-tails
#5
Yongmin Zhang, Shuang Guo, Wentao Wu, Zhirong Qin, Xuefeng Liu
Herein, we describe a strategy of fabricating CO2-triggered oil-in-water Pickering emulsion based on silica nanoparticles func-tionalized in situ by a trace amount of conventional CO2-switchable surfactant, N-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)alkyl amide (CnPMA). By alternately bubbling CO2 and N2 at a moderate conditions (30 oC, 80 mL·min-1), silica nanoparticles reversibly switch between amphipathic and hydrophilic as a result of the adsorption of ammonium (CO2) and the desorption of ter-tiary amine (N2). The emulsion can then be smart switched "on (stable)" and "off (unstable)," along with homogenization, without needing cooling and heating...
October 26, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777453/development-and-quality-assessment-of-carrageenan-incorporated-low-fat-chevon-patties
#6
N K Nayak, V Pathak
The present study was conducted to develop and assess the quality of carrageenan incorporated chevon patties with the objective of reducing fat content. Efficacy of carrageenan as fat replacers (0.3, 0.6 & 0.9 %) was assessed for development of low fat chevon patties. Emulsion stability and cooking yield increased with the increase in levels of carrageenan. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower fat and cholesterol contents and higher moisture and fat retention were observed in formulation with carrageenan. No significant difference in the mineral content in either of the treatment was recorded...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777121/efficacy-of-a-new-topical-cationic-emulsion-of-cyclosporine-a-on-dry%C3%A2-eye-clinical-signs-in-an-experimental-mouse-model-of-dry-eye
#7
Philippe Daull, Laurence Feraille, Stefano Barabino, Nicolas Cimbolini, Sophie Antonelli, Virgine Mauro, Jean-Sébastien Garrigue
Dry eye disease (DED) is a complex, multifactorial pathology characterized by corneal epithelium lesions and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cationic emulsion of cyclosporine A (CsA) in a mouse model that mimics severe dry eye. Eight to 12-week-old female C57BL/6N mice with tail patches of scopolamine were housed in controlled environment chambers to induce dry eye. At day three, following dry eye confirmation by corneal fluorescein staining (CFS, score 0-15) and phenol red thread (PRT) lacrimation test, the mice (n = 10/gp) were either treated 3 times a day in both eyes with drug-free cationic emulsion, a 0...
October 21, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765342/systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-the-effect-of%C3%A2-lipid-emulsion-on-microbial-growth-in-parenteral-nutrition
#8
REVIEW
P D Austin, K S Hand, M Elia
BACKGROUND: As lipid in parenteral nutrition (PN) purportedly enhances microbial growth, recommendations limit infusion of lipid PN (or lipid emulsion) from a single container to 24h (48h for lipid-free PN). However, the associated evidence base is ambiguous. AIM: To examine factors affecting microbial growth in PN. METHODS: A systematic review with meta-analyses examined effects of nutrients on microbial growth in PN infusates over a 48-h period using the growth ratio {GR=log10[colony-forming units (cfu)/mL at 48h/cfu/mL at time zero]}...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763710/synthesis-of-chemically-asymmetric-silica-nanobottles-and-their-application-for-cargo-loading-and-as-nanoreactors-and-nanomotors
#9
Deliang Yi, Qian Zhang, Yinghua Liu, Jiaying Song, Yi Tang, Frank Caruso, Yajun Wang
We report the synthesis of chemically asymmetric silica nanobottles (NBs) with a hydrophobic exterior surface (capped with 3-chloropropyl groups) and a hydrophilic interior surface for spatially selective cargo loading, and for application as nanoreactors and nanomotors. The silica NBs, which have a "flask bottle" shape with an average diameter of 350 nm and an opening of ca. 100 nm, are prepared by anisotropic sol-gel growth in a water/n-pentanol emulsion. Due to their chemically asymmetric properties, nanoparticles (NPs) with hydrophilic or hydrophobic surface properties can be selectively loaded inside the NBs or on the outside of the NBs, respectively...
November 14, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749343/experts-consensus-recommendations-for-the-management-of-calcium-channel-blocker-poisoning-in-adults
#10
Maude St-Onge, Kurt Anseeuw, Frank Lee Cantrell, Ian C Gilchrist, Philippe Hantson, Benoit Bailey, Valéry Lavergne, Sophie Gosselin, William Kerns, Martin Laliberté, Eric J Lavonas, David N Juurlink, John Muscedere, Chen-Chang Yang, Tasnim Sinuff, Michael Rieder, Bruno Mégarbane
OBJECTIVE: To provide a management approach for adults with calcium channel blocker poisoning. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION: Following the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II instrument, initial voting statements were constructed based on summaries outlining the evidence, risks, and benefits. DATA SYNTHESIS: We recommend 1) for asymptomatic patients, observation and consideration of decontamination following a potentially toxic calcium channel blocker ingestion (1D); 2) as first-line therapies (prioritized based on desired effect), IV calcium (1D), high-dose insulin therapy (1D-2D), and norepinephrine and/or epinephrine (1D)...
October 3, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738693/in-situ-formation-of-nitrogen-doped-carbon-nanoparticles-on-hollow-carbon-spheres-as-efficient-oxygen-reduction-electrocatalysts
#11
Tingsheng Zhou, Yao Zhou, Ruguang Ma, Zhenzhen Zhou, Guanghui Liu, Qian Liu, Yufang Zhu, Jiacheng Wang
In situ formation of nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles on hollow carbon spheres (NHCSs) were successfully realised via a simple, scalable emulsion polymerization route using melamine as the nitrogen precursor, followed by thermal treatment at 1000 °C in N2. All NHCSs show large BET specific surface areas (648.2-837.7 cm(2) g(-1)) and pore volumes (0.91-1.16 cm(3) g(-1)), evidently superior to N-free hollow carbon spheres (HCSs) (524.3 cm(2) g(-1) and 0.48 cm(3) g(-1), respectively). This unique nanocomposite has hierarchical micro-/mesoporosity (1...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733528/a-third-generation-lipid-emulsion-that-contains-n-3-long-chain-pufas-preserves-retinal-function-in-parenterally-fed-neonatal-piglets
#12
Justine M Turner, Yves Sauvé, Miyoung Suh, Paul W Wales, Pamela Wizzard, Susan Goruk, Catherine J Field
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonates and those with intestinal failure require prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) during a critical time of early central nervous system maturation. Conventional lipid emulsions fed to preterm neonates lack n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs; >20 carbon chain in length). Recently, fish oil lipid emulsions have been developed that provide both n-6 (ω-6) and n-3 LC-PUFAs, precursors of very long-chain PUFAs (VLC-PUFAs; >24 carbon chain in length)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716366/the-effect-of-n-3-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-acute-reflux-esophagitis-in-rats
#13
Ze-Hao Zhuang, Jing-Jing Xie, Jing-Jing Wei, Du-Peng Tang, Li-Yong Yang
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play various roles in inflammation. However, the effect of PUFAs in the development of reflux esophagitis (RE) is unclear. This study is to investigate the potential effect of n-3/n-6 PUFAs on acute RE in rats along with the underlying protective mechanisms. METHODS: Forty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group). RE model was established by pyloric clip and section ligation...
October 4, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696158/vortex-assisted-ionic-liquid-based-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-assessment-of-chromium-species-in-artificial-saliva-extract-of-different-chewing-tobacco-products
#14
Asma Akhtar, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Hassan Imran Afridi, Syed Ghulam Musharraf, Farah Naz Talpur, Noman Khan, Muhammad Bilal, Mustafa Khan
A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (ILDLLμE) method using an extracting solvent (ionic liquid) and dispersant (Triton X-114) was developed for the separation and preconcentration of hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) in artificial saliva extract (ASE) of chewing tobacco products, gutkha, and mainpuri (n = 23). In the proposed method, the extraction of Cr(6+) was accomplished by using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) as complexing agent and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4MIM] [PF6] as extracting solvent...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677153/carbon-spectrum-utilization-by-an-indigenous-strain-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-ncim-5514-production-characterization-and-surface-active-properties-of-biosurfactant
#15
Sunita J Varjani, Vivek N Upasani
The present research work was undertaken with a mandate to study carbon spectrum utilization and structural characterization of biosurfactant produced by indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514, which showed unique properties to utilize a large number of carbon sources effectively for production of biosurfactant, although glucose was the best carbon substrate. In Bushnell-Hass medium supplemented with glucose (1%, w/v), 3.178±0.071g/l biosurfactant was produced by this isolate in 96h. The biosurfactant produced showed surface tension and emulsification activity values from 29...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637335/the-impact-of-an-omega-3-fatty-acid-rich-lipid-emulsion-on-fatty-acid-profiles-in-critically-ill-septic-patients
#16
Thomas C Hall, Dilraj K Bilku, Christopher P Neal, Jill Cooke, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder, Ashley R Dennison
BACKGROUND: Death from sepsis in the intensive therapy unit (ITU) is frequently preceded by the development of multiple organ failure as a result of uncontrolled inflammation. Treatment with omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs), principally eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been demonstrated to attenuate the effects of uncontrolled inflammation and may be clinically beneficial in reducing mortality from organ dysfunction. Fish oil (FO) is a source of EPA and DHA...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614675/n-3-fatty-acid-based-parenteral-nutrition-improves-postoperative-recovery-for-cirrhotic-patients-with-liver-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Binhao Zhang, Gang Wei, Rui Li, Yanjun Wang, Jie Yu, Rui Wang, Hua Xiao, Chao Wu, Chao Leng, Bixiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A new lipid emulsion enriched in n-3 fatty acid has been reported to prevent hepatic inflammation in patients following major surgery. However, the role of n-3 fatty acid-based parenteral nutrition for postoperative patients with cirrhosis-related liver cancer is unclear. We investigated the safety and efficacy of n-3 fatty acid-based parenteral nutrition for cirrhotic patients with liver cancer followed hepatectomy. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial (Registered under ClinicalTrials...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609281/neuron-astrocyte-interactions-in-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn-in-neuropathic-pain-development-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-therapy
#18
Igor V Manzhulo, Olga S Ogurtsova, Yuliya O Kipryushina, Nikolay A Latyshev, Sergey P Kasyanov, Inessa V Dyuizen, Anna A Tyrtyshnaia
The analgesic activity of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) was studied using a chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model. Animals were subcutaneously injected with DHA emulsion at a dose of 4.5mg/kg (125mМ/kg) daily during 2weeks after surgery. We characterized the dynamics of GFAP-positive astrocyte, substance P (SP) and nNOS-positive neurons activity in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) superficial lamina. We found that DHA treatment decrease the intensity and duration of neurogenic pain syndrome, results in earlier stabilization of weight distribution, prevents the cold allodynia and dystrophic changings in denervated limb tissue...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539076/intra-articular-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-il1-ra-microspheres-for-posttraumatic-osteoarthritis-in-vitro-biological-activity-and-in-vivo-disease-modifying-effect
#19
Khaled A Elsaid, Anand Ubhe, Ziyad Shaman, Gerard D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 ra) can be disease-modifying in posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). One limitation is its short joint residence time. We hypothesized that IL-1 ra encapsulation in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres reduces IL-1 ra systemic absorption and provides an enhanced anti-PTOA effect. METHODS: IL-1 ra release kinetics and biological activity: IL-1 ra encapsulation into PLGA microsphere was performed using double emulsion solvent extraction...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535586/chitosan-functionalised-poly-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-core-shell-microgels-as-drug-delivery-carriers-salicylic-acid-loading-and-release
#20
Natshisa Mahattanadul, Panya Sunintaboon, Piyawan Sirithip, Patoomratana Tuchinda
This work presents the evaluation of chitosan-functionalised poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (CS/PHEMA) core-shell microgels as drug delivery carriers. CS/PHEMA microgels were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerisation with N,N '-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. The study on drug loading, using salicylic acid (SA) as a model drug, was performed. The results showed that the encapsulation efficiency (EE) increased as drug-to-microgel ratio was increased. Higher EE can be achieved with the increase in degree of crosslinking, by increasing the amount of MBA from 0...
September 2016: Journal of Microencapsulation
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