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Megan K Young, Joseph Bertolini, Pushpa Kotharu, Darryl Maher, Allan W Cripps
The effectiveness of passive immunisation post-exposure to measles appears subject to a dose-response effect. New Zealand and the United Kingdom have increased the recommended dose of polyclonal human immunoglobulin for post-exposure prophylaxis within the last decade in response to concerns about decreasing levels of measles antibodies in these products. This study used the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to measure the titre of measles-specific antibodies in Australian immunoglobulin products for post-exposure prophylaxis and compared the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to the PRNT in available Australian and international samples: Australian intramuscular (n = 10), Australian intravenous (n = 28), New Zealand intramuscular (n = 2), Hizentra (subcutaneous)(USA) (n = 3), and Privigen (intravenous)(USA) (n = 2)...
October 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Lauren E Arthur, Russell S Kizor, Adrian G Selim, Mieke L van Driel, Leonardo Seoane
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, complicating the medical course of approximately 10% of mechanically-ventilated patients, with an estimated attributable mortality of 13%. To treat VAP empirically, the American Thoracic Society currently recommends antibiotic therapy based on the patients' risk of colonisation by an organism with multidrug resistance. The selection of initial antibiotic therapy in VAP is important, as inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment is associated with higher mortality and longer hospital stay in intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Houcem Maaoui, Florina Teodoresu, Qian Wang, Guo-Hui Pan, Ahmed Addad, Radhouane Chtourou, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub
Perturbations in glucose homeostasis is critical for human health, as hyperglycemia (defining diabetes) leads to premature death caused by macrovascular and microvascular complications. However, the simple and accurate detection of glucose in the blood at low cost remains a challenging task, although it is of great importance for the diagnosis and therapy of diabetic patients. In this work, carbon quantum dots decorated with copper oxide nanostructures (CQDs/Cu₂O) are prepared by a simple hydrothermal approach, and their potential for electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensing is evaluated...
October 18, 2016: Sensors
Dingqiang Lu, Fuping Lu, Guangchang Pang
In the current study, a novel double-layer gold nanoparticles-electrochemical immunosensor electrode immobilized with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) antibody derived from Balb/c mice was developed. To increase the fixed quantity of antibodies and electrochemical signals, an electrochemical biosensing signal amplification system was utilized with gold nanoparticles-thionine-chitosan absorbing horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In addition, a transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to characterize the nanogold solution...
October 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Samuel Pehrson, Héctor Carvacho, Chris G Sibley
Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Masato Kadoya, Ayumi Hida, Meiko Hashimoto Maeda, Kenichiro Taira, Chiseko Ikenaga, Naohiro Uchio, Akatsuki Kubota, Kenichi Kaida, Yusuke Miwa, Kazuhiro Kurasawa, Hiroyuki Shimada, Masahiro Sonoo, Atsuro Chiba, Yasushi Shiio, Yoshikazu Uesaka, Yasuhisa Sakurai, Toru Izumi, Manami Inoue, Shin Kwak, Shoji Tsuji, Jun Shimizu
OBJECTIVE: To show cancer association is a risk factor other than statin exposure for anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase autoantibody-positive (anti-HMGCR Ab+) myopathy. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical features and courses of 33 patients (23 female and 10 male) with anti-HMGCR Ab+ myopathy among 621 consecutive patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. RESULTS: Among the 33 patients, 7 (21%) were statin-exposed and 26 were statin-naive...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Kristin M Klohonatz, Ashley D Cameron, Joanna R Hergenreder, Juliano C da Silveira, Aeriel D Belk, D N R Veeramachaneni, Gerrit J Bouma, Jason E Bruemmer
During early pregnancy the conceptus and mare communicate to establish pregnancy. Cell-secreted vesicles (e.g. exosomes) have been reported in serum. Exosomes contain bioactive materials, such as miRNA, that can mediate cell responses. We hypothesized that (i) exosomes are present in mare circulation and quantity varies with pregnancy status, (ii) exosomes contain miRNAs unique to pregnancy status, and (iii) miRNAs target pathways in endometrium based upon pregnancy status of the mare. First, serum samples were obtained from mares in a crossover design, with each mare providing samples from a pregnant and non-mated control cycle (n = 3/sample day) on Days 12, 14, 16, and 18 post-ovulation...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Welma Stonehouse, Grant D Brinkworth, Campbell H Thompson, Mahinda Y Abeywardena
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In vitro, ex vivo and animal studies suggest palm-based tocotrienols and carotenes enhance vascular function, but limited data in humans exists. The aim was to examine the effects of palm-tocotrienols (TRF- 80) and palm-carotene (CC-60) supplementation on vascular function and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adults at increased risk of impaired vascular function. METHODS: Ninety men and women (18-70 yr, 20-45 kg/m(2)) with type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and/or elevated waist circumference were randomised to consume either TRF-80 (420 mg/day tocotrienol + 132 mg/day tocopherol), CC-60 (21 mg/day carotenes) or placebo (palm olein) supplements for 8 weeks...
October 14, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Francisco Javier Valero Chávez, Luis Miguel Luengo Pérez, Javier Cubero Juánez
Introducción: ante las nuevas implicaciones atribuidas a la vitamina D y la asociación con enfermedades tales como el cáncer, diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares, autoinmunes y mortalidad, no es de extrañar que se haya defendido la medición de los niveles de vitamina D en la población general. Sin embargo, no existen datos experimentales que demuestren la viabilidad y rentabilidad de la estrategia de cribado en la población y tampoco se ha comprobado la existencia de beneficios para la salud, por lo que en la actualidad solo es aconsejable la medida de 25 (OH) vitamina D en los grupos de personas de alto riesgo como indican las guías clínicas internacionales...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Luisa Fernanda Rodríguez-Villalba, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista
Objetivo: el propósito del estudio fue relacionar la etapa en el cambio en el comportamiento frente a la actividad física y el estado nutricional en escolares de Bogotá, Colombia, pertenecientes al estudio FUPRECOL.Método: se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado en 8.000 niños y adolescentes de entre 9 y 17 años, pertenecientes a 24 instituciones educativas. Se aplicó de manera autodiligenciada el cuestionario de cambio de comportamiento en función de la intención de realizar actividad física (CCC-FUPRECOL) y se midió el peso y la estatura para determinar el estado nutricional con el índice de masa corporal (IMC)...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Chunju Li, Suxiang Ma, Huanqing Chen, Jian Li, Xueshun Jia
Biphen[n]arenes (n = 3, 4) are a new family of macrocyclic hosts. Here we describe molecular recognition behaviour of hydroxylated biphen[4]arene (OHBP4) for the first time. A series of cationic guests with different size and shape, including quaternary ammonium salts (1*PF6 and 2*PF6), pyridinium-based guests (3*2PF6-6*2PF6) and cobaltocenium hexafluorophosphate (7*PF6), were chosen as the model guest molecules. OHBP4 exhibits good selectivity towards 2,7-dibutyldiazapyrenium bis(hexafluorophosphate) (4*2PF6) axle to form a [2]pseudorotaxane-type complex...
October 19, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Armando Lopes, Paulo Maló, Miguel de Araújo Nobre, Elena Sánchez-Fernández, Inês Gravito
BACKGROUND: There is a necessity of studies documenting the long-term outcome of full-arch flapless rehabilitations. PURPOSE: To evaluate the 7 years implant and prosthesis survival rate and 5-years marginal bone loss of full-arch fixed prosthetic rehabilitations supported by implants in immediate function with the All-on-4(®) treatment concept using a computer guided surgical protocol (NobelGuide(®) , Nobel Biocare). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective clinical study included 111 edentulous patients (n = 53 bruxers; n = 21 smokers; n = 59 systemically compromised), rehabilitated between February 2005 and November 2010 with 532 implants with the All-on-4(®) treatment concept using NobelGuide(®) ...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
En-Ping Lin, Tai-Chia Chiu, Ming-Mu Hsieh
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was combined with acetonitrile stacking in capillary electrophoresis for the identification of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, fluoxetine, and fluvoxamine) in human fluids such as urine and plasma. Parameters that affect the extraction and stacking efficiency, such as the type and volume of the extraction and disperser solvent, extraction time, salt addition for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and sample matrices, pH, and concentration of the separation buffer for stacking, were investigated and optimized...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Christine M Eisenhauer, Patricia A Hageman, Sheri Rowland, Betsy J Becker, Susan A Barnason, Carol H Pullen
OBJECTIVE: To examine rural men's use and perceptions of mobile and wireless devices to self-monitor eating and physical activity (mHealth). DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Men in this 3-week pilot study used FitBit One(®) to log daily food intake and monitor activity. A companion application (app) allowed activity monitoring of fellow participants. Health-related text messages were received 1-3 times daily. A purposive sample of 12 rural men (ages 40-67) was recruited by community leaders...
October 18, 2016: Public Health Nursing
Mandi M Hopkins, Kathryn E Meier
The effects of fatty acids on cancer cells have been studied for decades. The roles of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and of microbiome-generated short-chain butyric acid, have been of particular interest over the years. However, the roles of free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) in mediating effects of fatty acids in tumor cells have only recently been examined. In reviewing the literature, the data obtained to date indicate that the long-chain FFARs (FFA1 and FFA4) play different roles than the short-chain FFARs (FFA2 and FFA3)...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Tijen Kaya Temiz, Omer Demir, Fatma Simsek, Yusuf Cem Kaplan, Selen Bahceci, Barıs Karadas, Aslı Celik, Gokhan Koyluoglu
AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate whether nitric oxide (NO)-mediated colonic motility was altered in rat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) model, using different isoforms of NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animal model of IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity was induced by intra-colonic infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) in saline once daily from postnatal days 8 to 21. Control animals received saline instead of AA. Experiments were performed at the end of 8 weeks...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Zahir H Alshehry, Piyushkumar A Mundra, Christopher K Barlow, Natalie A Mellett, Gerard Wong, Malcolm J McConville, John Simes, Andrew M Tonkin, David R Sullivan, Elizabeth H Barnes, Paul J Nestel, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Michel Marre, Bruce Neal, Neil R Poulter, Anthony Rodgers, Bryan Williams, Sophia Zoungas, Graham S Hillis, John Chalmers, Mark Woodward, Peter J Meikle
BACKGROUND: -Clinical lipid measurements do not show the full complexity of the altered lipid metabolism associated with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Lipidomics enables the assessment of hundreds of lipid species as potential markers for disease risk. METHODS: -Plasma lipid species (310) were measured by a targeted lipidomic analysis with liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry on a case-cohort (n=3,779) subset from the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular disease: preterAx and diamicroN-MR Controlled Evaluation) trial...
October 18, 2016: Circulation
Dimitrios Palaiogiannis, Evangelia Bekou, Kalliopi Pazaitou-Panayiotou, Victoria Samanidou, Andreas Tsakalof
The development and approbation of new, automated UHPLC-DAD method for the quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3/D2 (25OH-D3/D2) metabolites in plasma/serum for the evaluation of patient's vitamin D status are presented. The method was developed on the Ultimate 3000 UHPLC dual gradient system supplied with the on-line SPE-concentration column coupled through six port switching valve to analytical column. This configuration and materials selected enable large volume sample injection (500μL) and on-line sample preconcentration, clean up and subsequent selective metabolites transfer onto the analytical column...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Agne Ulyte, Nomeda Valeviciene, Darius Palionis, Simona Kundrotaite, Algirdas Tamosiunas
OBJECTIVE: In cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), incidental pathological findings are frequently found outside the investigated cardiovascular system. Some of these findings might have clinical implications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of incidental extracardiac findings (ECF) in CMR and their clinical significance. METHODS: A total of 4165 CMR reports from 2009-2012 were retrospectively reviewed for ECF. Two hundred-twenty reports with ECF were found...
September 22, 2016: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
Huazi Wang, Lu Hu, Wanzhen Li, Runhua Lu, Sanbing Zhang, Wenfeng Zhou, Haixiang Gao
A pretreatment method using in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the direct solidification of ionic liquids before high performance liquid chromatography analysis was developed for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides (BUs) in honey samples. The hydrophobic ionic liquid [N4444][PF6], formed in situ by the hydrophilic ionic liquid [N4444]Cl and the ion exchange reagent KPF6, was used to extract the target analytes. The entire extraction procedure was performed in a syringe. The extractant was solidified at room temperature and collected using a nylon membrane filter...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
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