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Vertebral Bone Remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161589/women-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-have-lower-cortical-porosity-of-the-proximal-femoral-shaft-using-low-resolution-ct-than-nondiabetic-women-and-increasing-glucose-is-associated-with-reduced-cortical-porosity
#1
Marit Osima, Rita Kral, Tove T Borgen, Ingvild K Høgestøl, Ragnar M Joakimsen, Erik F Eriksen, Åshild Bjørnerem
Increased cortical porosity has been suggested as a possible factor increasing fracture propensity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This is a paradox because cortical porosity is generally associated with high bone turnover, while bone turnover is reduced in patients with T2DM. We therefore wanted to test the hypothesis that women with T2DM have lower bone turnover markers (BTM) and lower cortical porosity than those without diabetes, and that higher serum glucose and body mass index (BMI) are associated with lower BTM, and with lower cortical porosity...
February 1, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148780/pth4-an-ancient-parathyroid-hormone-lost-in-eutherian-mammals-reveals-a-new-brain-to-bone-signaling-pathway
#2
Paula Suarez-Bregua, Eva Torres-Nuñez, Ankur Saxena, Pedro Guerreiro, Ingo Braasch, David A Prober, Paloma Moran, Jose Miguel Cerda-Reverter, Shao Jun Du, Fatima Adrio, Deborah M Power, Adelino V M Canario, John H Postlethwait, Marianne E Bronner, Cristian Cañestro, Josep Rotllant
Regulation of bone development, growth, and remodeling traditionally has been thought to depend on endocrine and autocrine/paracrine modulators. Recently, however, brain-derived signals have emerged as key regulators of bone metabolism, although their mechanisms of action have been poorly understood. We reveal the existence of an ancient parathyroid hormone (Pth)4 in zebrafish that was secondarily lost in the eutherian mammals' lineage, including humans, and that is specifically expressed in neurons of the hypothalamus and appears to be a central neural regulator of bone development and mineral homeostasis...
February 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142258/bone-loss-of-vertebral-bodies-at-the-operative-segment-after-cervical-arthroplasty-a-potential-complication
#3
Dong Hwa Heo, Dong Chan Lee, Jong Yang Oh, Choon Keun Park
OBJECTIVE Bony overgrowth and spontaneous fusion are complications of cervical arthroplasty. In contrast, bone loss or bone remodeling of vertebral bodies at the operation segment after cervical arthroplasty has also been observed. The purpose of this study is to investigate a potential complication-bone loss of the anterior portion of the vertebral bodies at the surgically treated segment after cervical total disc replacement (TDR)-and discuss the clinical significance. METHODS All enrolled patients underwent follow-up for more than 24 months after cervical arthroplasty using the Baguera C disc...
February 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113132/osseodensification-for-enhancement-of-spinal-surgical-hardware-fixation
#4
Christopher D Lopez, Adham M Alifarag, Andrea Torroni, Nick Tovar, J Rodrigo Diaz-Siso, Lukasz Witek, Eduardo D Rodriguez, Paulo G Coelho
Integration between implant and bone is an essential concept for osseous healing requiring hardware placement. A novel approach to hardware implantation, termed osseodensification, is described here as an effective alternative. 12 sheep averaging 65kg had fixation devices installed in their C2, C3, and C4 vertebral bodies; each device measured 4mm diameter×10mm length. The left-sided vertebral body devices were implanted using regular surgical drilling (R) while the right-sided devices were implanted using osseodensification drilling (OD)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052066/effects-of-strontium-ranelate-on-spinal-interbody-fusion-surgery-in-an-osteoporotic-rat-model
#5
Tsung-Ting Tsai, Ching-Lung Tai, Natalie Yi-Ju Ho, Po-Liang Lai, Tsai-Sheng Fu, Chi-Chien Niu, Lih-Huei Chen, Wen-Jer Chen
Osteoporosis is a bone disease that afflicts millions of people around the world, and a variety of spinal integrity issues, such as degenerative spinal stenosis and spondylolisthesis, are frequently concomitant with osteoporosis and are sometimes treated with spinal interbody fusion surgery. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of strontium ranelate (SrR) treatment of osteoporosis in improving bone strength, promoting bone remodeling, and reducing the risk of fractures, but its effects on interbody fusion surgery have not been adequately investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002369/transient-local-bone-remodeling-effects-of-rhbmp-2-in-an-ovine-interbody-spine-fusion-model
#6
Hyun W Bae, Vikas V Patel, Zeeshan M Sardar, Jeffrey M Badura, Ben B Pradhan, Howard B Seim, A Simon Turner, Jeffrey M Toth
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is a powerful osteoinductive morphogen capable of stimulating the migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the site of implantation and inducing the proliferation and differentiation of these MSCs into osteoblasts. Vertebral end-plate and vertebral body resorption has been reported after interbody fusion with high doses of rhBMP-2. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2 rhBMP-2 doses on peri-implant bone resorption and bone remodeling at 7 time points in an end-plate-sparing ovine interbody fusion model...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926672/mechanisms-predisposing-factors-and-prognosis-of-intra-operative-vertebral-subluxation-during-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-in-surgical-correction-of-thoracolumbar-kyphosis-secondary-to-ankylosing-spondylitis
#7
Bang-Ping Qian, Sai-Hu Mao, Jun Jiang, Bin Wang, Yong Qiu
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanisms, predisposing factors and prognosis of the intraoperative vertebral subluxation (VS) during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VS is one of the most daunting challenges that surgeons encounter during PSO closure, especially in AS patients with ankylosed and mostly osteoporotic spine...
December 6, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911229/c-2-arteriovenous-fistula-presenting-as-a-pathologic-hangman-s-fracture-case-report
#8
Rajeev D Sen, Carolina Gesteira Benjamin, Howard A Riina, Donato Pacione
The authors report on an 81-year-old woman with a pathologic hangman's fracture secondary to a complex arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The patient presented with severe, unremitting neck pain and was found to have fractures bilaterally through the pars interarticularis of C-2 with significant anterior subluxation of C-2 over C-3 along with widening of the left transverse foramen. Due to an abnormally appearing left vertebral artery (VA) on CT angiography, the patient underwent conventional angiography, which revealed a complex AVF stemming from the left VA at the level of C-2 with dilated posterior cervical veins and a large venous varix...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904930/micrornas-in-bone-diseases
#9
REVIEW
L Gennari, S Bianciardi, D Merlotti
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, with an essential role in vertebrate development and different biological processes. This review highlights the recent advances in the function of miRNAs and their roles in bone remodeling and bone diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (∼22 nt), noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. They are essential for vertebrate development and play critical roles in different biological processes related to cell differentiation, activity, metabolism, and apoptosis...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894523/serum-and-urine-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-as-biochemical-growth-maturity%C3%A2-indicators
#10
Mohita Sinha, Tulika Tripathi, Priyank Rai, Santosh Kumar Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Biochemical markers are agents directly involved in bone growth and remodeling and can be quantitatively evaluated from various biologic fluids. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in serum and urine as a growth maturity indicator and to compare them with the cervical vertebral maturation radiographic stages. METHODS: The study was conducted with 72 female subjects aged 8 to 20 years...
December 2016: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865001/romosozumab-improves-bone-mass-and-strength-while-maintaining-bone-quality-in-ovariectomized-cynomolgus-monkeys
#11
Michael S Ominsky, Steven K Boyd, Aurore Varela, Jacquelin Jolette, Melanie Felx, Nancy Doyle, Nacera Mellal, Susan Y Smith, Kathrin Locher, Sabina Buntich, Ian Pyrah, Rogely W Boyce
Romosozumab (Romo), a humanized sclerostin antibody, is a bone-forming agent under development for treatment of osteoporosis. To examine the effects of Romo on bone quality, mature cynomolgus monkeys (cynos) were treated 4 months post- ovariectomy (OVX) with vehicle, 3 mg/kg, or 30 mg/kg Romo for 12 months, or with 30 mg/kg Romo for 6 months followed by vehicle for 6 months (30/0). Serum bone formation markers were increased by Romo during the first 6 months, corresponding to increased cancellous, endocortical, and periosteal bone formation in rib and iliac biopsies at months 3 and 6...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855318/a-method-for-measuring-the-three-dimensional-orientation-of-cortical-canals-with-implications-for-comparative-analysis-of-bone-microstructure-in-vertebrates
#12
Isaac Vorster Pratt, David Michael Lane Cooper
The orientation of vascular canals in cortical bone can reveal information about the growth rate and loading environment of a bone. For example, in birds it has been proposed that a high proportion of circumferential canals (a laminar cortex) is related to fast growth or torsional loading related to active flight. In this paper we present a method to measure the three dimensional (3D) orientation of vascular canals. Image data are obtained from micro-CT and two angles are measured: phi, determining how longitudinal a canal is; and theta, determining whether a canal is radial or circumferential...
November 2, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843719/cranial-bone-histology-of-metoposaurus-krasiejowensis-amphibia-temnospondyli-from-the-late-triassic-of-poland
#13
Kamil Gruntmejer, Dorota Konietzko-Meier, Adam Bodzioch
In this study, 21 skull bones of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis from the Late Triassic of Poland were investigated histologically. Dermal bones show a diploë structure, with an ornamented external surface. The ridges consist of mostly well vascularized parallel-fibered bone; the valleys are built of an avascular layer of lamellar bone. The thick middle region consists of cancellous bone, with varying porosity. The thin and less vascularized internal cortex consists of parallel-fibered bone. The numerous Sharpey's fibers and ISF are present in all bones...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818743/the-clinical-contribution-of-cortical-porosity-to-fragility-fractures
#14
REVIEW
Åshild Bjørnerem
Cortical bone is not compact; rather it is penetrated by many Haversian and Volkmann canals for blood supply. The lining of these canals are the intracortical bone surfaces available for bone remodeling. Increasing intracortical bone remodeling increases cortical porosity. However, cortical bone loss occurs more slowly than trabecular loss due to the fact that less surface per unit of bone matrix volume is available for bone remodeling. Nevertheless, most of the bone loss over time is cortical because cortical bone constitutes 80% of the skeleton, and the relative proportion of trabecular bone diminishes with advancing age...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818311/changes-in-bone-metabolism-after-bariatric-surgery-by-gastric-bypass-or-sleeve-gastrectomy
#15
Kaisa K Ivaska, Ville Huovinen, Minna Soinio, Jarna C Hannukainen, Virva Saunavaara, Paulina Salminen, Mika Helmiö, Riitta Parkkola, Pirjo Nuutila, Riku Kiviranta
Bariatric surgery results in rapid weight loss and beneficial metabolic effects, but may have negative effects on the skeleton. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate changes in bone metabolism in response to bariatric surgery with two surgical techniques. 46 morbidly obese subjects (mean 44.9years, BMI 42.1) with (n=19) or without (n=27) type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at baseline underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, n=21) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG, n=25). Bone turnover markers (CTX, PINP, TRAcP5b, TotalOC and ucOC) were measured before and six months after surgery...
November 3, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696267/bone-disease-in-multiple-myeloma
#16
Homare Eda, Loredana Santo, G David Roodman, Noopur Raje
Bone involvement represented by osteolytic bone disease (OBD) or osteopenia is one of the pathognomonic and defining characteristics of multiple myeloma (MM). Nearly 90 % of patients with MM develop osteolytic bone lesions, frequently complicated by skeletal-related events (SRE) such as severe bone pain, pathological fractures, vertebral collapse, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression. All of these not only result in a negative impact on quality of life but also adversely impact overall survival. OBD is a consequence of increased osteoclast (OC) activation along with osteoblast (OB) inhibition, resulting in altered bone remodeling...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663759/high-dose-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-for-noncompressive-vertebral-metastases-in-combination-with-zoledronate-a-phase-1-study
#17
Baptiste Pichon, Loïc Campion, Grégory Delpon, François Thillays, Christian Carrie, Patrice Cellier, Pascal Pommier, Cécile Laude, Augustin Mervoyer, Hadji Hamidou, Marc-André Mahé, Stéphane Supiot
INTRODUCTION: Hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HSRT) for vertebral metastases gives good results in terms of local control but increases the risk of fracture in the treated volume. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that zoledronate not only reduces the risk of fracture and stimulates osteoclastic remodeling but also increases the immune response and radiosensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerability and effectiveness of zoledronate in association with radiation therapy...
July 30, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539146/silicon-nitride-a-synthetic-mineral-for-vertebrate-biology
#18
Giuseppe Pezzotti, Bryan J McEntire, Ryan Bock, Marco Boffelli, Wenliang Zhu, Eleonora Vitale, Leonardo Puppulin, Tetsuya Adachi, Toshiro Yamamoto, Narisato Kanamura, B Sonny Bal
The remarkable stoichiometric flexibility of hydroxyapatite (HAp) enables the formation of a variety of charged structural sites at the material's surface which facilitates bone remodeling due to binding of biomolecule moieties in zwitterionic fashion. In this paper, we report for the first time that an optimized biomedical grade silicon nitride (Si3N4) demonstrated cell adhesion and improved osteoconductivity comparable to highly defective, non-stoichiometric natural hydroxyapatite. Si3N4's zwitterionic-like behavior is a function of the dualism between positive and negative charged off-stoichiometric sites (i...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448108/injectable-and-biodegradable-composite-bone-filler-composed-of-poly-propylene-fumarate-and-calcium-phosphate-ceramic-for-vertebral-augmentation-procedure-an-in-vivo-porcine-study
#19
Chang-Chin Wu, Li-Ho Hsu, Shoichiro Sumi, Kai-Chiang Yang, Shu-Hua Yang
Despite its common usage in vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), shortcomings of commercial polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) still remain. Accordingly, injectable and biodegradable composite cements, which are composed of poly(propylene fumarate)/α-tricalcium/hydroxyapatite (PPF/α-TCP/HAP) and PPF/tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate (PPF/TtCP/DCP), were developed. A porcine model was used and cylindrical holes in critical size were created at the center of the lateral cortex of vertebral bodies of the lumbar spine...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400197/evaluation-of-a-novel-ha-zro2-based-porous-bioceramic-artificial-vertebral-body-combined-with-a-rhbmp-2-chitosan-slow-release-hydrogel
#20
Yihui Shi, Renfu Quan, Shangju Xie, Qiang Li, Guoping Cao, Wei Zhuang, Liang Zhang, Rongxue Shao, Disheng Yang
A new HA/ZrO2-based porous bioceramic artificial vertebral body (AVB), carried a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)/chitosan slow-release hydrogel was prepared to repair vertebral bone defect in beagles. An ionic cross-linking was used to prepare the chitosan hydrogel (CS gel) as the rhBMP-2 slow-release carrier. The vertebral body defects were implanted with the rhBMP-2-loaded AVB in group A, or a non-drug-loaded AVB in group B, or autologous iliac in group C. The encapsulation rate of rhBMP-2 in rhBMP-2-loaded CS gel was 91...
2016: PloS One
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