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Vertebral Bone Remodeling

Homare Eda, Loredana Santo, G David Roodman, Noopur Raje
Bone involvement represented by osteolytic bone disease (OBD) or osteopenia is one of the pathognomonic and defining characteristics of multiple myeloma (MM). Nearly 90 % of patients with MM develop osteolytic bone lesions, frequently complicated by skeletal-related events (SRE) such as severe bone pain, pathological fractures, vertebral collapse, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression. All of these not only result in a negative impact on quality of life but also adversely impact overall survival. OBD is a consequence of increased osteoclast (OC) activation along with osteoblast (OB) inhibition, resulting in altered bone remodeling...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
Baptiste Pichon, Loïc Campion, Grégory Delpon, François Thillays, Christian Carrie, Patrice Cellier, Pascal Pommier, Cécile Laude, Augustin Mervoyer, Hadji Hamidou, Marc-André Mahé, Stéphane Supiot
INTRODUCTION: Hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HSRT) for vertebral metastases gives good results in terms of local control but increases the risk of fracture in the treated volume. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that zoledronate not only reduces the risk of fracture and stimulates osteoclastic remodeling but also increases the immune response and radiosensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerability and effectiveness of zoledronate in association with radiation therapy...
July 30, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Giuseppe Pezzotti, Bryan J McEntire, Ryan Bock, Marco Boffelli, Wenliang Zhu, Eleonora Vitale, Leonardo Puppulin, Tetsuya Adachi, Toshiro Yamamoto, Narisato Kanamura, B Sonny Bal
The remarkable stoichiometric flexibility of hydroxyapatite (HAp) enables the formation of a variety of charged structural sites at the material's surface which facilitates bone remodeling due to binding of biomolecule moieties in zwitterionic fashion. In this paper, we report for the first time that an optimized biomedical grade silicon nitride (Si3N4) demonstrated cell adhesion and improved osteoconductivity comparable to highly defective, non-stoichiometric natural hydroxyapatite. Si3N4's zwitterionic-like behavior is a function of the dualism between positive and negative charged off-stoichiometric sites (i...
2016: Scientific Reports
Chang-Chin Wu, Li-Ho Hsu, Shoichiro Sumi, Kai-Chiang Yang, Shu-Hua Yang
Despite its common usage in vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), shortcomings of commercial polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) still remain. Accordingly, injectable and biodegradable composite cements, which are composed of poly(propylene fumarate)/α-tricalcium/hydroxyapatite (PPF/α-TCP/HAP) and PPF/tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate (PPF/TtCP/DCP), were developed. A porcine model was used and cylindrical holes in critical size were created at the center of the lateral cortex of vertebral bodies of the lumbar spine...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Yihui Shi, Renfu Quan, Shangju Xie, Qiang Li, Guoping Cao, Wei Zhuang, Liang Zhang, Rongxue Shao, Disheng Yang
A new HA/ZrO2-based porous bioceramic artificial vertebral body (AVB), carried a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)/chitosan slow-release hydrogel was prepared to repair vertebral bone defect in beagles. An ionic cross-linking was used to prepare the chitosan hydrogel (CS gel) as the rhBMP-2 slow-release carrier. The vertebral body defects were implanted with the rhBMP-2-loaded AVB in group A, or a non-drug-loaded AVB in group B, or autologous iliac in group C. The encapsulation rate of rhBMP-2 in rhBMP-2-loaded CS gel was 91...
2016: PloS One
Antonio Leone, Marzia Marino, Claudia Dell'Atti, Viola Zecchi, Nicola Magarelli, Cesare Colosimo
The ankylosed spine is prone to fracture even after minor trauma due to its changed biomechanical properties. The two central features of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that promote the pathological remodeling of the spine are inflammation and new bone formation. AS is also associated with osteoporosis that is attributed to an uncoupling of the bone formation and bone resorption processes. Therefore, bone resorption occurs and promotes weakening of the spine as well as increased risk of vertebral fractures which can be hugely different in terms of clinical relevance...
October 2016: Rheumatology International
Jane A Cauley, Kamil E Barbour, Stephanie L Harrison, Yona K Cloonan, Michelle E Danielson, Kristine E Ensrud, Howard A Fink, Eric S Orwoll, Robert Boudreau
Cytokines play major roles in regulating bone remodeling but their relationship to incident fractures in older men is uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that men with higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory markers have a higher risk of fracture. We used a case-cohort design and measured inflammatory markers in a random sample of 961 men and in men with incident fractures including 120 clinical vertebral, 117 hip and 577 non-spine fractures; average follow up, 6.13 years (7.88 years for vertebral fractures)...
July 2, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
João Paulo Machado, Warren E Johnson, M Thomas P Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D Jarvis, Stephen J O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes
BACKGROUND: Bones have been subjected to considerable selective pressure throughout vertebrate evolution, such as occurred during the adaptations associated with the development of powered flight. Powered flight evolved independently in two extant clades of vertebrates, birds and bats. While this trait provided advantages such as in aerial foraging habits, escape from predators or long-distance travels, it also imposed great challenges, namely in the bone structure. RESULTS: We performed comparative genomic analyses of 89 bone-associated genes from 47 avian genomes (including 45 new), 39 mammalian, and 20 reptilian genomes, and demonstrate that birds, after correcting for multiple testing, have an almost two-fold increase in the number of bone-associated genes with evidence of positive selection (~52...
2016: BMC Genomics
Kristina Curry Rogers, Megan Whitney, Michael D'Emic, Brian Bagley
Sauropod dinosaurs exhibit the largest ontogenetic size range among terrestrial vertebrates, but a dearth of very young individuals has hindered understanding of the beginning of their growth trajectory. A new specimen of Rapetosaurus krausei sheds light on early life in the smallest stage of one of the largest dinosaurs. Bones record rapid growth rates and hatching lines, indicating that this individual weighed ~3.4 kilograms at hatching. Just several weeks later, when it likely succumbed to starvation in a drought-stressed ecosystem, it had reached a mass of ~40 kilograms and was ~35 centimeters tall at the hip...
April 22, 2016: Science
Martina Rauner, Kristin Franke, Marta Murray, Rashim Pal Singh, Sahar Hiram-Bab, Uwe Platzbecker, Max Gassmann, Merav Socolovsky, Drorit Neumann, Yankel Gabet, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Ben Wielockx
The main oxygen sensor HIF prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) is a critical regulator of tissue homeostasis during erythropoiesis, hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and wound healing. Recent studies point towards a role for the PHD2-erythropoietin (EPO) axis in the modulation of bone remodeling, even though the studies produced conflicting results. Here, we used a number of mouse strains deficient of PHD2 in different cell types to address the role of PHD2 and its downstream targets HIF-1α and HIF-2α in bone remodeling...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Dennis E Carey, Neville H Golden
Osteoporosis occurs during childhood and adolescence as a heritable condition such as OI, with acquired disease (eg, IBD), or iatrogenically as a result of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. However, the number of children affected by osteoporosis during youth is small compared to the numbers who will develop osteoporosis in adulthood. Prevention of adult osteoporosis requires that an optimal environment for the achievement of peak bone mass be established during the growing years. Detection of low BMD can be achieved using modalities such as DXA and pQCT...
August 2015: Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews
Shannon C McFarlin, Carl J Terranova, Adrienne L Zihlman, Timothy G Bromage
A central challenge in human origins research is to understand how evolution has shaped modern human life history. As fossilized remains of our ancestors provide the only direct evidence for life history evolution, efforts to reconstruct life history in paleontological contexts have focused on hard tissues, particularly on dental development. However, among investigators of other vertebrate groups, there is a long tradition of examining primary bone microstructure to decipher growth rates and maturational timing, based on an empirical relationship between the microanatomy of primary bone and the rate at which it is deposited...
March 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Chetan Choudhari, Katelyn Chan, Margarete K Akens, Cari M Whyne
Micro-damage formation within the skeleton is an important stimulant for bone remodeling, however abnormal build-up of micro-damage can lead to skeletal fragility. In this study, µCT imaging based micro finite element (μFE) models were used to evaluate tissue level damage criteria in whole healthy and metastatically-involved vertebrae. T13-L2 spinal segments were excised from osteolytic (n=3) and healthy (n=3) female athymic rnu/rnu rats. Osteolytic metastasis was generated by intercardiac injection of HeLa cancer cells...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Jennifer Anné, Roy A Wogelius, Nicholas P Edwards, Arjen van Veelen, Konstantin Ignatyev, Phillip L Manning
Bone remodelling is a crucial biological process needed to maintain elemental homeostasis. It is important to understand the trace elemental inventories that govern these processes as malfunctions in bone remodelling can have devastating effects on an organism. In this study, we use a combination of X-ray techniques to map, quantify, and characterise the coordination chemistry of trace elements within the highly remodelled bone tissues of extant and extinct Sirenia (manatees and dugongs). The dense bone structure and unique body chemistry of sirenians represent ideal tissues for studying both high remodelling rates as well as unique fossilisation pathways...
May 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Brian Wingender, Patrick Bradley, Neha Saxena, Jeffrey W Ruberti, Laurie Gower
The mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone is essential in vertebrates to provide structure, locomotion, and protect vital organs, while also acting as a calcium and phosphate reservoir to maintain homeostasis. Bone's structure comprises mainly structural collagen fibrils, hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and water, and it is the organization of the densely-packed collagen matrix that directs the organization of the mineral crystallites. Biogenic mineralization occurs when osteoblasts release "mineral bearing globules" which fuse into the preformed collagen matrix, and upon crystallization of this amorphous precursor, the fibrils become embedded with [001] oriented nanocrystals of hydroxyapatite...
May 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Young Jae Moon, Kwang-Bok Lee
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship between clinical factors and spontaneous canal remodeling. METHODS: We evaluated computed tomography scans, before surgery, within a week after surgery, 6 months after surgery, and 12 months after surgery. Thirty-eight consecutive patients who underwent posterior fixation and fusion after thoracolumbar burst fractures were included in. Factors potentially affecting the postoperative degree of reduction and spontaneous spinal remodeling were defined as age, location, degree of change of anterior vertebral compression ratio, fracture type of the retropulse bone, presence of injury to the posterior longitudinal ligament, and posterolateral complex fracture...
May 2016: World Neurosurgery
Françoise Redini, Dominique Heymann
Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone tumor, with three cases per million worldwide. In clinical terms, Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, rapidly fatal malignancy that mainly develops not only in osseous sites (85%) but also in extra-skeletal soft tissue. It spreads naturally to the lungs, bones, and bone marrow with poor prognosis in the two latter cases. Bone lesions from primary or secondary (metastases) tumors are characterized by extensive bone remodeling, more often due to osteolysis. Osteoclast activation and subsequent bone resorption are responsible for the clinical features of bone tumors, including pain, vertebral collapse, and spinal cord compression...
2015: Frontiers in Oncology
Benjamin A Hoff, Michael Toole, Corrie Yablon, Brian D Ross, Gary D Luker, Catherine VanPoznak, Craig J Galbán
Pathologic vertebral compression fractures (PVCF) cause significant morbidity in patients with bone metastases from breast cancer and other malignancies. Due to limitations of existing biochemical and imaging biomarkers, clinicians currently have no reliable metrics to identify patients with impending PVCF, impeding efforts to prevent this severe complication. To establish the feasibility of a new method for defining risk of PVCF, we retrospectively analyzed serial CT scans from five breast cancer patients using parametric response mapping (PRM) to quantify dynamic bone density changes that preceded an event...
December 2015: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
Danaa Ganbat, Yoon Hyuk Kim, Kyungsoo Kim, Yong Jun Jin, Won Man Park
The development of heterotopic ossification (HO) is considered one of the major complications following cervical total disc replacement (TDR). Even though previous studies have identified clinical and biomechanical conditions that may stimulate HO, the mechanism of HO formation has not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to investigate whether mechanical loading is a biomechanical condition that plays a substantial role to decide the HO formation. A finite element model of TDR on the C5-C6 was developed, and HO formation was predicted by simulating a bone adaptation process under various physiological mechanical loadings...
October 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
A W Popp, P K Zysset, K Lippuner
UNLABELLED: Rebound-associated vertebral fractures may follow treatment discontinuation of highly potent reversible bone antiresorptives, resulting from the synergy of rapid bone resorption and accelerated microdamage accumulation in trabecular bone. INTRODUCTION: The purposes of this study are to characterize rebound-associated vertebral fractures following the discontinuation of a highly potent reversible antiresorptive therapy based on clinical observation and propose a pathophysiological rationale...
May 2016: Osteoporosis International
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