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Vertebral Bone Remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911229/c-2-arteriovenous-fistula-presenting-as-a-pathologic-hangman-s-fracture-case-report
#1
Rajeev D Sen, Carolina Gesteira Benjamin, Howard A Riina, Donato Pacione
The authors report on an 81-year-old woman with a pathologic hangman's fracture secondary to a complex arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The patient presented with severe, unremitting neck pain and was found to have fractures bilaterally through the pars interarticularis of C-2 with significant anterior subluxation of C-2 over C-3 along with widening of the left transverse foramen. Due to an abnormally appearing left vertebral artery (VA) on CT angiography, the patient underwent conventional angiography, which revealed a complex AVF stemming from the left VA at the level of C-2 with dilated posterior cervical veins and a large venous varix...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904930/micrornas-in-bone-diseases
#2
REVIEW
L Gennari, S Bianciardi, D Merlotti
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, with an essential role in vertebrate development and different biological processes. This review highlights the recent advances in the function of miRNAs and their roles in bone remodeling and bone diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (∼22 nt), noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. They are essential for vertebrate development and play critical roles in different biological processes related to cell differentiation, activity, metabolism, and apoptosis...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894523/serum-and-urine-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-as-biochemical-growth-maturity%C3%A2-indicators
#3
Mohita Sinha, Tulika Tripathi, Priyank Rai, Santosh Kumar Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Biochemical markers are agents directly involved in bone growth and remodeling and can be quantitatively evaluated from various biologic fluids. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in serum and urine as a growth maturity indicator and to compare them with the cervical vertebral maturation radiographic stages. METHODS: The study was conducted with 72 female subjects aged 8 to 20 years...
December 2016: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865001/romosozumab-improves-bone-mass-and-strength-while-maintaining-bone-quality-in-ovariectomized-cynomolgus-monkeys
#4
Michael S Ominsky, Steven K Boyd, Aurore Varela, Jacquelin Jolette, Melanie Felx, Nancy Doyle, Nacera Mellal, Susan Y Smith, Kathrin Locher, Sabina Buntich, Ian Pyrah, Rogely W Boyce
Romosozumab (Romo), a humanized sclerostin antibody, is a bone-forming agent under development for treatment of osteoporosis. To examine the effects of Romo on bone quality, mature cynomolgus monkeys (cynos) were treated 4 months post-ovariectomy (OVX) with vehicle, 3, or 30 mg/kg Romo for 12 months, or with 30 mg/kg Romo for 6 months followed by vehicle for 6 months (30/0). Serum bone formation markers were increased by Romo during the first 6 months, corresponding to increased cancellous, endocortical, and periosteal bone formation in rib and iliac biopsies at months 3 and 6...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855318/a-method-for-measuring-the-three-dimensional-orientation-of-cortical-canals-with-implications-for-comparative-analysis-of-bone-microstructure-in-vertebrates
#5
Isaac Vorster Pratt, David Michael Lane Cooper
The orientation of vascular canals in cortical bone can reveal information about the growth rate and loading environment of a bone. For example, in birds it has been proposed that a high proportion of circumferential canals (a laminar cortex) is related to fast growth or torsional loading related to active flight. In this paper we present a method to measure the three dimensional (3D) orientation of vascular canals. Image data are obtained from micro-CT and two angles are measured: phi, determining how longitudinal a canal is; and theta, determining whether a canal is radial or circumferential...
November 2, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843719/cranial-bone-histology-of-metoposaurus-krasiejowensis-amphibia-temnospondyli-from-the-late-triassic-of-poland
#6
Kamil Gruntmejer, Dorota Konietzko-Meier, Adam Bodzioch
In this study, 21 skull bones of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis from the Late Triassic of Poland were investigated histologically. Dermal bones show a diploë structure, with an ornamented external surface. The ridges consist of mostly well vascularized parallel-fibered bone; the valleys are built of an avascular layer of lamellar bone. The thick middle region consists of cancellous bone, with varying porosity. The thin and less vascularized internal cortex consists of parallel-fibered bone. The numerous Sharpey's fibers and ISF are present in all bones...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818743/the-clinical-contribution-of-cortical-porosity-to-fragility-fractures
#7
REVIEW
Åshild Bjørnerem
Cortical bone is not compact; rather it is penetrated by many Haversian and Volkmann canals for blood supply. The lining of these canals are the intracortical bone surfaces available for bone remodeling. Increasing intracortical bone remodeling increases cortical porosity. However, cortical bone loss occurs more slowly than trabecular loss due to the fact that less surface per unit of bone matrix volume is available for bone remodeling. Nevertheless, most of the bone loss over time is cortical because cortical bone constitutes 80% of the skeleton, and the relative proportion of trabecular bone diminishes with advancing age...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818311/changes-in-bone-metabolism-after-bariatric-surgery-by-gastric-bypass-or-sleeve-gastrectomy
#8
Kaisa K Ivaska, Ville Huovinen, Minna Soinio, Jarna C Hannukainen, Virva Saunavaara, Paulina Salminen, Mika Helmiö, Riitta Parkkola, Pirjo Nuutila, Riku Kiviranta
Bariatric surgery results in rapid weight loss and beneficial metabolic effects, but may have negative effects on the skeleton. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate changes in bone metabolism in response to bariatric surgery with two surgical techniques. 46 morbidly obese subjects (mean 44.9years, BMI 42.1) with (n=19) or without (n=27) type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at baseline underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, n=21) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG, n=25). Bone turnover markers (CTX, PINP, TRAcP5b, TotalOC and ucOC) were measured before and six months after surgery...
November 3, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696267/bone-disease-in-multiple-myeloma
#9
Homare Eda, Loredana Santo, G David Roodman, Noopur Raje
Bone involvement represented by osteolytic bone disease (OBD) or osteopenia is one of the pathognomonic and defining characteristics of multiple myeloma (MM). Nearly 90 % of patients with MM develop osteolytic bone lesions, frequently complicated by skeletal-related events (SRE) such as severe bone pain, pathological fractures, vertebral collapse, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression. All of these not only result in a negative impact on quality of life but also adversely impact overall survival. OBD is a consequence of increased osteoclast (OC) activation along with osteoblast (OB) inhibition, resulting in altered bone remodeling...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663759/high-dose-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-for-noncompressive-vertebral-metastases-in-combination-with-zoledronate-a-phase-1-study
#10
Baptiste Pichon, Loïc Campion, Grégory Delpon, François Thillays, Christian Carrie, Patrice Cellier, Pascal Pommier, Cécile Laude, Augustin Mervoyer, Hadji Hamidou, Marc-André Mahé, Stéphane Supiot
INTRODUCTION: Hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HSRT) for vertebral metastases gives good results in terms of local control but increases the risk of fracture in the treated volume. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that zoledronate not only reduces the risk of fracture and stimulates osteoclastic remodeling but also increases the immune response and radiosensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerability and effectiveness of zoledronate in association with radiation therapy...
July 30, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539146/silicon-nitride-a-synthetic-mineral-for-vertebrate-biology
#11
Giuseppe Pezzotti, Bryan J McEntire, Ryan Bock, Marco Boffelli, Wenliang Zhu, Eleonora Vitale, Leonardo Puppulin, Tetsuya Adachi, Toshiro Yamamoto, Narisato Kanamura, B Sonny Bal
The remarkable stoichiometric flexibility of hydroxyapatite (HAp) enables the formation of a variety of charged structural sites at the material's surface which facilitates bone remodeling due to binding of biomolecule moieties in zwitterionic fashion. In this paper, we report for the first time that an optimized biomedical grade silicon nitride (Si3N4) demonstrated cell adhesion and improved osteoconductivity comparable to highly defective, non-stoichiometric natural hydroxyapatite. Si3N4's zwitterionic-like behavior is a function of the dualism between positive and negative charged off-stoichiometric sites (i...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448108/injectable-and-biodegradable-composite-bone-filler-composed-of-poly-propylene-fumarate-and-calcium-phosphate-ceramic-for-vertebral-augmentation-procedure-an-in-vivo-porcine-study
#12
Chang-Chin Wu, Li-Ho Hsu, Shoichiro Sumi, Kai-Chiang Yang, Shu-Hua Yang
Despite its common usage in vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), shortcomings of commercial polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) still remain. Accordingly, injectable and biodegradable composite cements, which are composed of poly(propylene fumarate)/α-tricalcium/hydroxyapatite (PPF/α-TCP/HAP) and PPF/tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate (PPF/TtCP/DCP), were developed. A porcine model was used and cylindrical holes in critical size were created at the center of the lateral cortex of vertebral bodies of the lumbar spine...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400197/evaluation-of-a-novel-ha-zro2-based-porous-bioceramic-artificial-vertebral-body-combined-with-a-rhbmp-2-chitosan-slow-release-hydrogel
#13
Yihui Shi, Renfu Quan, Shangju Xie, Qiang Li, Guoping Cao, Wei Zhuang, Liang Zhang, Rongxue Shao, Disheng Yang
A new HA/ZrO2-based porous bioceramic artificial vertebral body (AVB), carried a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)/chitosan slow-release hydrogel was prepared to repair vertebral bone defect in beagles. An ionic cross-linking was used to prepare the chitosan hydrogel (CS gel) as the rhBMP-2 slow-release carrier. The vertebral body defects were implanted with the rhBMP-2-loaded AVB in group A, or a non-drug-loaded AVB in group B, or autologous iliac in group C. The encapsulation rate of rhBMP-2 in rhBMP-2-loaded CS gel was 91...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379763/spinal-fractures-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#14
REVIEW
Antonio Leone, Marzia Marino, Claudia Dell'Atti, Viola Zecchi, Nicola Magarelli, Cesare Colosimo
The ankylosed spine is prone to fracture even after minor trauma due to its changed biomechanical properties. The two central features of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that promote the pathological remodeling of the spine are inflammation and new bone formation. AS is also associated with osteoporosis that is attributed to an uncoupling of the bone formation and bone resorption processes. Therefore, bone resorption occurs and promotes weakening of the spine as well as increased risk of vertebral fractures which can be hugely different in terms of clinical relevance...
October 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371811/inflammatory-markers-and-the-risk-of-hip-and-vertebral-fractures-in-men-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-mros
#15
Jane A Cauley, Kamil E Barbour, Stephanie L Harrison, Yona K Cloonan, Michelle E Danielson, Kristine E Ensrud, Howard A Fink, Eric S Orwoll, Robert Boudreau
Cytokines play major roles in regulating bone remodeling, but their relationship to incident fractures in older men is uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that men with higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory markers have a higher risk of fracture. We used a case-cohort design and measured inflammatory markers in a random sample of 961 men and in men with incident fractures including 120 clinical vertebral, 117 hip, and 577 non-spine fractures; average follow-up 6.13 years (7.88 years for vertebral fractures)...
December 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193938/bone-associated-gene-evolution-and-the-origin-of-flight-in-birds
#16
João Paulo Machado, Warren E Johnson, M Thomas P Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D Jarvis, Stephen J O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes
BACKGROUND: Bones have been subjected to considerable selective pressure throughout vertebrate evolution, such as occurred during the adaptations associated with the development of powered flight. Powered flight evolved independently in two extant clades of vertebrates, birds and bats. While this trait provided advantages such as in aerial foraging habits, escape from predators or long-distance travels, it also imposed great challenges, namely in the bone structure. RESULTS: We performed comparative genomic analyses of 89 bone-associated genes from 47 avian genomes (including 45 new), 39 mammalian, and 20 reptilian genomes, and demonstrate that birds, after correcting for multiple testing, have an almost two-fold increase in the number of bone-associated genes with evidence of positive selection (~52...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102482/precocity-in-a-tiny-titanosaur-from-the-cretaceous-of-madagascar
#17
Kristina Curry Rogers, Megan Whitney, Michael D'Emic, Brian Bagley
Sauropod dinosaurs exhibit the largest ontogenetic size range among terrestrial vertebrates, but a dearth of very young individuals has hindered understanding of the beginning of their growth trajectory. A new specimen of Rapetosaurus krausei sheds light on early life in the smallest stage of one of the largest dinosaurs. Bones record rapid growth rates and hatching lines, indicating that this individual weighed ~3.4 kilograms at hatching. Just several weeks later, when it likely succumbed to starvation in a drought-stressed ecosystem, it had reached a mass of ~40 kilograms and was ~35 centimeters tall at the hip...
April 22, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27082941/increased-epo-levels-are-associated-with-bone-loss-in-mice-lacking-phd2-in-epo-producing-cells
#18
Martina Rauner, Kristin Franke, Marta Murray, Rashim Pal Singh, Sahar Hiram-Bab, Uwe Platzbecker, Max Gassmann, Merav Socolovsky, Drorit Neumann, Yankel Gabet, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Ben Wielockx
The main oxygen sensor HIF prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) is a critical regulator of tissue homeostasis during erythropoiesis, hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and wound healing. Recent studies point towards a role for the PHD2-erythropoietin (EPO) axis in the modulation of bone remodeling, even though the studies produced conflicting results. Here, we used a number of mouse strains deficient of PHD2 in different cell types to address the role of PHD2 and its downstream targets HIF-1α and HIF-2α in bone remodeling...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26999874/bone-health-in-adolescence
#19
REVIEW
Dennis E Carey, Neville H Golden
Osteoporosis occurs during childhood and adolescence as a heritable condition such as OI, with acquired disease (eg, IBD), or iatrogenically as a result of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. However, the number of children affected by osteoporosis during youth is small compared to the numbers who will develop osteoporosis in adulthood. Prevention of adult osteoporosis requires that an optimal environment for the achievement of peak bone mass be established during the growing years. Detection of low BMD can be achieved using modalities such as DXA and pQCT...
August 2015: Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989017/primary-bone-microanatomy-records-developmental-aspects-of-life-history-in-catarrhine-primates
#20
Shannon C McFarlin, Carl J Terranova, Adrienne L Zihlman, Timothy G Bromage
A central challenge in human origins research is to understand how evolution has shaped modern human life history. As fossilized remains of our ancestors provide the only direct evidence for life history evolution, efforts to reconstruct life history in paleontological contexts have focused on hard tissues, particularly on dental development. However, among investigators of other vertebrate groups, there is a long tradition of examining primary bone microstructure to decipher growth rates and maturational timing, based on an empirical relationship between the microanatomy of primary bone and the rate at which it is deposited...
March 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
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