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Vertebral Bone Remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886163/dynamic-adaptation-of-vertebral-endplate-and-trabecular-bone-following-annular-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-degenerative-disc-disease
#1
Tristan Maerz, Michael Newton, Abigail A Marek, Michael Planalp, Kevin Baker
BACKGROUND/CONTEXT: Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is associated with longitudinal remodeling of paravertebral tissues. While chronic vertebral changes in advanced stages of DDD are well-studied, very little data exists on acute vertebral bone remodeling at the onset and progression of DDD. PURPOSE: To longitudinally characterize bony remodeling in a rodent model of disc injury-induced DDD. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: In vivo animal study involving a rat annulus fibrosus injury model of DDD...
June 7, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879544/reversal-of-loss-of-bone-mass-in-old-mice-treated-with-mefloquine
#2
Rafael Pacheco-Costa, Hannah M Davis, Emily G Atkinson, Julian E Dilley, Innocent Byiringiro, Mohammad W Aref, Matthew R Allen, Teresita Bellido, Lilian I Plotkin
Aging is accompanied by imbalanced bone remodeling, elevated osteocyte apoptosis, and decreased bone mass and mechanical properties; and improved pharmacologic approaches to counteract bone deterioration with aging are needed. We examined herein the effect of mefloquine, a drug used to treat malaria and systemic lupus erythematosus and shown to ameliorate bone loss in glucocorticoid-treated patients, on bone mass and mechanical properties in young and old mice. Young 3.5-month-old and old 21-month-old female C57BL/6 mice received daily injections of 5 mg/kg/day mefloquine for 14 days...
June 4, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871576/-multiple-vertebral-fractures-after-denosumab-discontinuation-how-to-avoid-them
#3
Olivier Lamy, Elena Gonzalez Rodriguez, Delphine Stoll, Bérengère Aubry-Rozier, Françoise Livio
Multiple Vertebral Fractures after Denosumab Discontinuation: How to Avoid Them? Abstract. Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody raised against the RANK ligand that inhibits the maturation and activity of osteoclasts. It decreases bone resorption, increases bone density and reduces fracture risk. However, after its discontinuation, a significant rebound effect appears that lasts about two years. It results in increased markers of bone remodeling, a loss of bone density that may be greater than gain, and an increased risk of multiple vertebral fractures...
June 2018: Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793000/effect-of-a-bisphosphonate-and-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulator-on-bone-remodeling-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-and-ovariectomized-rat-model
#4
Young-Seok Lee, Rishab Gupta, Jeong-Taik Kwon, Dae-Chul Cho, Ye Jin Seo, Sung Young Seu, Eui Kyun Park, Inbo Han, Chi-Heon Kim, Joo-Kyung Sung, Kyoung-Tae Kim
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Diabetes and menopause can cause severe osteoporosis. In general, menopause and diabetes can lead to an imbalance in bone turnover, which results in secondary osteoporosis. However, the efficacy of antiresorptive drugs against this form of osteoporosis has not been extensively evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the changes in vertebral bone remodeling when postmenopausal osteoporosis is accompanied by diabetes and the efficacy of bisphosphonates and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs) against these outcomes...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691807/glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Juliet Compston
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common secondary cause of osteoporosis and the resulting fractures cause significant morbidity. Following initiation of oral glucocorticoids, rapid bone loss occurs, and fracture risk increases within a few months in a dose-dependent manner. These adverse effects are due to inhibition of bone formation accompanied by an early but transient increase in bone resorption. Multiple mechanisms underlie these changes in bone remodeling; direct effects include upregulation of PPARγR2, increased expression of sclerostin and increased RANKL/OPG ratio, whilst hypogonadism, altered renal and intestinal calcium handling, and reduced production of insulin-like growth factor 1 also contribute...
April 24, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593116/tgf%C3%AE-facilitated-optic-fissure-fusion-and-the-role-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-antagonism
#6
Max D Knickmeyer, Juan L Mateo, Priska Eckert, Eleni Roussa, Belal Rahhal, Aimee Zuniga, Kerstin Krieglstein, Joachim Wittbrodt, Stephan Heermann
The optic fissure is a transient gap in the developing vertebrate eye, which must be closed as development proceeds. A persisting optic fissure, coloboma, is a major cause for blindness in children. Although many genes have been linked to coloboma, the process of optic fissure fusion is still little appreciated, especially on a molecular level. We identified a coloboma in mice with a targeted inactivation of transforming growth factor β2 (TGFβ2). Notably, here the optic fissure margins must have touched, however failed to fuse...
March 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559365/in-vivo-response-to-a-low-modulus-pmma-bone-cement-in-an-ovine-model
#7
Céline Robo, Gry Hulsart-Billström, Malin Nilsson, Cecilia Persson
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is the most commonly used material for the treatment of osteoporosis-induced vertebral compression fractures. However, its high stiffness may introduce an increased risk of adjacent vertebral fractures post-surgery. One alternative in overcoming this concern is the use of additives. This presents its own challenge in maintaining an adequate biocompatibility when modifying the base cement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of linoleic acid (LA)-modified acrylic bone cement using a large animal model for the first time, in order to further advance towards clinical use...
May 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544018/low-dose-of-bisphosphonate-enhances-sclerostin-antibody-induced-trabecular-bone-mass-gains-in-brtl-osteogenesis-imperfecta-mouse-model
#8
Diana Olvera, Rachel Stolzenfeld, Joan C Marini, Michelle S Caird, Kenneth M Kozloff
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by altered bone quality and imbalanced bone remodeling, leading to skeletal fractures that are most prominent during childhood. Treatments for OI have focused on restoring pediatric bone density and architecture to recover functional strength and consequently reduce fragility. Though antiresorptive agents like bisphosphonates (BPs) are currently the most common intervention for the treatment of OI, a number of studies have shown efficacy of sclerostin antibody (SclAb) in inducing gains in bone mass and reducing fragility in OI mouse models...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522194/neutralization-of-cd40-ligand-costimulation-promotes-bone-formation-and-accretion-of-vertebral-bone-mass-in-mice
#9
Susanne Roser-Page, Tatyana Vikulina, Kanglun Yu, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, M Neale Weitzmann
Objective: Immunosuppressive biologics are used in the management of RA and additional immunomodulators are under investigation including modulators of the CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) costimulation pathway. Tampering with immune function can have unanticipated skeletal consequences due to disruption of the immuno-skeletal interface, a nexus of shared cells and cytokine effectors serving discrete functions in both immune and skeletal systems. In this study, we examined the effect of MR1, a CD40L neutralizing antibody, on physiological bone remodelling in healthy mice...
June 1, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417027/back-pain-an-unusual-manifestation-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#10
Magatha Sneha Latha, Ram Prakash Thirugnanasambandam, Padmasani Venkatraman, Julius Xavier Scott
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) presented with bone pain and leukopenia is a well-recognized complex. Bone and joint pain are seen as presenting symptoms in 25% of patients with acute leukemia, but generalized osteopenia and vertebral complications are less common. Back pain due to vertebral changes as an early feature has been infrequently reported. We report a case of a 9-year-old female child who presented with back pain for 3 weeks. Blood counts and peripheral smear were normal. X-ray of the spine showed wedge-shaped deformity in L3-L5 vertebrae...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363151/low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-accelerates-traumatic-vertebral-fracture-healing-by-coupling-proliferation-of-type-h-microvessels
#11
Suiyi Wu, Ximing Xu, Jingchuan Sun, Yao Zhang, Jiangang Shi, Tianming Xu
OBJECTIVES: Patients with traumatic vertebral fractures often have major associated postoperative morbidities such as healing failure and kyphosis. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (US) has been found to promote bone fracture healing. The objectives of our study were to determine whether low-intensity pulsed US could promote traumatic vertebral fracture healing and to explore its inner mechanisms. METHODS: A rat model of traumatic vertebral fracture was created and treated with low-intensity pulsed US after surgery...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230102/specific-deletion-of-%C3%AE-catenin-in-col2-expressing-cells-leads-to-defects-in-epiphyseal-bone
#12
Tingyu Wang, Jun Li, Guang-Qian Zhou, Peter Ma, Yue Zhao, Baoli Wang, Di Chen
The role of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in postnatal bone growth has not been fully defined. In the present studies, we generated β-catenin conditional knockout (KO) mice and deleted β-catenin in Col2 -expressing chondrocytes and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Findings from analyzing the β - cateninCol2CreER KO mice revealed severe bone destruction and bone loss phenotype in epiphyseal bone, probably due to the increase in osteoclast formation and the accumulation of adipocytes in this area. In addition, we also found bone destruction and bone loss phenotype in vertebral bone in β - cateninCol2CreER KO mice...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180199/dose-dependent-effect-of-parathyroid-hormone-on-fracture-healing-and-bone-formation-in-mice
#13
Alexander Milstrey, Britta Wieskoetter, Daniel Hinze, Niklas Grueneweller, Richard Stange, Thomas Pap, Michael Raschke, Patric Garcia
BACKGROUND: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the only clinically approved osteoanabolic drug for osteoporosis treatment. However, PTH is not established for the treatment of fracture healing, and doses of PTH diverge significantly between different studies. We hypothesized that the effect of PTH on promoting fracture healing and bone formation is dose dependent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo, mice were treated with PTH (10, 40, and 200 μg/kg) in a closed femoral fracture model...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103161/multiple-vertebral-osteonecroses-k%C3%A3-mmell-s-disease-after-10-years-on-denosumab-is-osteocyte-apoptosis-to-blame
#14
Yves Maugars, Géraldine Bart, Pascale Guillot, Marguerite Chemel-Mary, Joëlle Glémarec, Mélanie Gahier-Penhoat, Benoit Le Goff, Christelle Darrieutort-Laffite
We report here a case of multiple vertebral osteonecroses with intrasomatic gaseous dissection (Kümmell's disease) occurring 1 year after the end of a 10-year course of denosumab treatment for osteoporosis without fractures. Histomorphometry and bone remodeling markers revealed major bone resorption and the persistence of an inhibition of bone formation. The presence of multiple empty lacunae in the bone provided evidence for high levels of osteocyte apoptosis. Osteocytes direct bone resorption (via the RANK/RANK-L/osteoprotegerin system) and formation (Wnt system, with SOST and DKK1) pathways...
March 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044725/serum-sclerostin-levels-in-adults-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta-comparison-with-normal-individuals-and-response-to-teriparatide-therapy
#15
Lindsey Nicol, Ying Wang, Rosamund Smith, John Sloan, Sandesh Cs Nagamani, Jay Shapiro, Brendan Lee, Eric Orwoll
Sclerostin (SOST), a glycoprotein primarily derived from osteocytes, is an important regulator of bone remodeling. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable disorder of bone characterized by low bone mass, bone fragility, recurrent fractures, and bone deformities. Altered SOST-mediated signaling may have a role in pathogenesis of type I collagen-related OI; however, this has not been evaluated in humans. We measured serum SOST levels in adults with OI who were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effects of osteoanabolic therapy with teriparatide...
February 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017495/treatment-of-thoracic-or-lumbar-burst-fractures-with-balloon-assisted-endplate-reduction-using-tricalcium-phosphate-cement-histological-and-radiological-evaluation
#16
Joep Kitzen, Martijn G M Schotanus, Herbert S W Plasschaert, Frans-Jan H Hulsmans, Pieter B J Tilman
BACKGROUND: Short-segment pedicle-screw instrumentation is frequently used to stabilize thoracolumbar burst fractures. A recognized disadvantage of this procedure is recurrent kyphosis from intervertebral disc creep into the fractured central endplate. Balloon Assisted Endplate Reduction (BAER) using Tricalcium Phosphate bone cement (TCP) enables elevation of the centrally depressed endplate. Our objective was to evaluate the bone-tissue response to TCP and to analyse whether BAER using TCP can prevent recurrent kyphosis after removal of the instrumentation...
October 10, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883093/role-of-the-ecm-in-notochord-formation-function-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Valeria Trapani, Paolo Bonaldo, Diana Corallo
The notochord is a midline structure common to all chordate animals; it provides mechanical and signaling cues for the developing embryo. In vertebrates, the notochord plays key functions during embryogenesis, being a source of developmental signals that pattern the surrounding tissues. It is composed of a core of vacuolated cells surrounded by an epithelial-like sheath of cells that secrete a thick peri-notochordal basement membrane made of different extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The correct deposition and organization of the ECM is essential for proper notochord morphogenesis and function...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821457/spontaneous-mutation-of-dock7-results-in-lower-trabecular-bone-mass-and-impaired-periosteal-expansion-in-aged-female-misty-mice
#18
Phuong T Le, Kathleen A Bishop, David E Maridas, Katherine J Motyl, Daniel J Brooks, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Mary L Bouxsein, Clifford J Rosen
Misty mice (m/m) have a loss of function mutation in Dock7 gene, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, resulting in low bone mineral density, uncoupled bone remodeling and reduced bone formation. Dock7 has been identified as a modulator of osteoblast number and in vitro osteogenic differentiation in calvarial osteoblast culture. In addition, m/m exhibit reduced preformed brown adipose tissue innervation and temperature as well as compensatory increase in beige adipocyte markers. While the low bone mineral density phenotype is in part due to higher sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive in young mice, it is unclear what effect aging would have in mice homozygous for the mutation in the Dock7 gene...
December 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796721/mechanisms-predisposing-factors-and-prognosis-of-intraoperative-vertebral-subluxation-during-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-in-surgical-correction-of-thoracolumbar-kyphosis-secondary-to-ankylosing-spondylitis
#19
Bang-Ping Qian, Sai-Hu Mao, Jun Jiang, Bin Wang, Yong Qiu
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanisms, predisposing factors, and prognosis of the intraoperative vertebral subluxation (VS) during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VS is one of the most daunting challenges that surgeons encounter during PSO closure, especially in patients with AS with ankylosed and mostly osteoporotic spine...
August 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727345/-denosumab-in-clinical-practice-beware-before-during-and-after
#20
Olivier Lamy, Elena Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Delphine Stoll, Bérengère Aubry-Rozier
Denosumab is a very effective treatment of osteoporosis, easy to use and very well tolerated. Due to some associated risks, a close clinical follow-up is necessary. Before the first injection, it is necessary to correct hypocalcaemia or vitamin D deficiency when present. Calcemia has to be followed in case of renal insufficiency. Injections of denosumab should be done scrupulously every 6 months (± 3 weeks). Discontinuation of denosumab is associated with a severe rebound effect characterized by increased markers of bone remodeling, a rapid decrease of bone density values, and a risk of multiple spontaneous vertebral fractures...
April 19, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
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