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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691763/are-two-spaces-better-than-one-the-effect-of-spacing-following-periods-and-commas-during-reading
#1
Rebecca L Johnson, Becky Bui, Lindsay L Schmitt
The most recent edition of the American Psychological Association (APA) Manual states that two spaces should follow the punctuation at the end of a sentence. This is in contrast to the one-space requirement from previous editions. However, to date, there has been no empirical support for either convention. In the current study, participants performed (1) a typing task to assess spacing usage and (2) an eye-tracking experiment to assess the effect that punctuation spacing has on reading performance. Although comprehension was not affected by punctuation spacing, the eye movement record suggested that initial processing of the text was facilitated when periods were followed by two spaces, supporting the change made to the APA Manual...
April 24, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687595/the-area-of-fixation-covaries-with-short-term-changes-in-visual-acuity-after-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-treatment-in-patients-with-diabetic-macular-oedema
#2
Nanna Staehr Jakobsen, Dorte Ancher Larsen, Toke Bek
PURPOSE: Diabetic maculopathy can be treated with intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. However, the therapy is not effective in all patients, and it would be desirable to have parameters for differentiating patients who will benefit from treatment from those who will not. Retinal fixation has been shown to be impaired in patients with low visual acuity (VA) secondary to macular disease, but the changes in fixational eye movements after anti-VEGF treatment for diabetic maculopathy have not been investigated...
April 24, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686598/sleep-related-problems-as-a-nonmotor-symptom-of-dentatorubropallidoluysian-atrophy
#3
Hyeyun Kim, Ji Young Yun, Kyoung-Gyu Choi, Heasoo Koo, Hyun Jeong Han
Dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat encoding a polyglutamine tract in the atrophin-1 protein. Unlike other CAG repeat diseases, sleep related problems have not been reported in patients with DRPLA. There was a 65-year-old man and his family with DRPLA. They suffered from seizure, gait disturbance, and cognitive decline. The patients commonly showed dream enacting sleep disorder, insomnia. The results from overnight polysomnography showed rapid eye movement (REM) without atonia in patients with DRPLA...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685773/dynamic-tracking-of-purkinje-images-for-the-comparison-of-pseudophakodonesis-between-in-the-bag-and-secondary-fixated-intraocular-lenses
#4
Dhivya Ashok Kumar, Amar Agarwal, Nivean Madhivanan, Soundari Sivagnanam, Radika Chandrasekar, Srinivasan Venugopal
PURPOSE: To compare the pseudophakodonesis of in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) and a secondary fixated IOL by tracking the Purkinje image IV. SETTING: Dr. Agarwal's Eye Hospital and Eye Research Centre, Chennai, India. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: The IOL movement was recorded via slitlamp videography (DC3), streamed in video editor (Pinnacle), and evaluated by ImageJ analysis. The positional difference of Purkinje IV in relation to the stationary image Purkinje I at 3 random timeframes was measured...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682834/the-nature-of-delayed-dream-incorporation-dream-lag-effect-personally-significant-events-persist-but-not-major-daily-activities-or-concerns
#5
Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Elaine van Rijn, Mairéad Phelan, Larnia Ryder, M Gareth Gaskell, Penelope A Lewis, Matthew P Walker, Mark Blagrove
Incorporation of details from waking life events into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the 2 nights after, and then 5-7 nights after, the event. These are termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects. This study is the first to categorize types of waking life experiences and compare their incorporation into dreams across multiple successive nights. Thirty-eight participants completed a daily diary each evening and a dream diary each morning for 14 days. In the daily diary, three categories of experiences were reported: major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs)...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681880/exploring-the-role-of-temporoparietal-cortex-in-upright-perception-and-the-link-with-torsional-eye-position
#6
Jorge Otero-Millan, Ariel Winnick, Amir Kheradmand
Upright perception is a key aspect of orientation constancy, as we maintain a stable perception of the world despite continuous movements of our eyes, head, and body. Torsional position of the eyes can impact perception of upright by changing orientation of the images on the retina relative to gravity. Here, we investigated the role of temporoparietal cortex in upright perception with respect to ocular torsion, by means of the inhibitory effect of continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681530/more-than-the-sum-of-its-parts-a-role-for-the-hippocampus-in-configural-reinforcement-learning
#7
Katherine Duncan, Bradley B Doll, Nathaniel D Daw, Daphna Shohamy
People often perceive configurations rather than the elements they comprise, a bias that may emerge because configurations often predict outcomes. But how does the brain learn to associate configurations with outcomes and how does this learning differ from learning about individual elements? We combined behavior, reinforcement learning models, and functional imaging to understand how people learn to associate configurations of cues with outcomes. We found that configural learning depended on the relative predictive strength of elements versus configurations and was related to both the strength of BOLD activity and patterns of BOLD activity in the hippocampus...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680498/sleep-eeg-spectral-power-is-correlated-with-subjective-objective-discrepancy-of-sleep-onset-latency-in-major-depressive-disorder
#8
Seung-Gul Kang, Sara Mariani, Stephanie A Marvin, Kwang-Pil Ko, Susan Redline, John W Winkelman
We aimed to identify the sleep electroencephalography (EEG) spectral power correlates of the subjective-objective discrepancy (SOD) of sleep onset latency (SOL) in major depressive disorder (MDD), primary insomnia (PI), and normal sleeping control (NSC) groups. We examined relative power values in standard frequency bands of the EEG spectra during the first Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep period as correlates of SOD of SOL between sleep diary and polysomnography in MDD (n = 36), PI (n = 19), and NSC (n = 23) groups...
April 19, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680423/nocturnal-sleep-architecture-in-idiopathic-hypersomnia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
David T Plante
BACKGROUND: Current sleep medicine nosology places increased importance on nocturnal polysomnographic sleep recordings in the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders of hypersomnolence, particularly idiopathic hypersomnia (IH). OBJECTIVE: Determine what differences in sleep staging and architecture exist between IH and healthy controls using meta-analysis. METHODS: Systematic review identified relevant studies that included nocturnal polysomnography data for IH and healthy control groups...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680416/electrocardiographic-variables-in-children-with-syndromic-craniosynostosis-and-primary-snoring-to-mild-obstructive-sleep-apnea-significance-of-identifying-respiratory-arrhythmia-during-sleep
#10
Ellaha Kakar, Linda J A Corel, Robert C Tasker, Robbin de Goederen, Eppo B Wolvius, Irene M J Mathijssen, Koen F M Joosten
BACKGROUND: In the spectrum of children with symptomatic sleep disordered breathing (SDB), some individuals - such as those with upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) - do not have abnormalities on polysomnography (PSG). In this study we have assessed whether assessment of respiratory arrhythmia (RA) and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis helps in management of children with syndromic craniosynostosis and none-to-mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Prospective cohort study in children aged 1-18 years old with syndromic craniosynostosis...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680308/oculomotor-apraxia-and-disrupted-sleep-with-nocturnal-ballistic-bouts-in-adcy5-related-disease
#11
Bettina Balint, Elena Antelmi, Niccolò E Mencacci, Amit Batla, Sofia H Eriksson, Matthew C Walker, Adolfo M Bronstein, Kailash P Bhatia
OBJECTIVE: To characterise the distinctive eye movement disorder and the sleep-related dyskinesia in Adenylate cyclase 5 (ADCY5) related disease. METHODS: Formal eye movement examination and video-polysomnography in a cohort of patients with ADCY5 mutations. RESULTS: All three patients had an eye movement disorder characterised by oculomotor apraxia with gaze limitation most prominently in the vertical plane. All patients had disrupted sleep architecture with reduced sleep efficiency due to frequent and prolonged arousals and awakenings in the context of dyskinesia, which could arise from any sleep stage...
April 10, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680273/effects-of-early-eye-removal-on-the-morphology-of-a-multisensory-neuron-in-the-chicken-optic-tectum
#12
Katharina Lischka, Jiamin Yan, Stefan Weigel, Harald Luksch
The midbrain is a subcortical area involved in central functions such as integrating sensory modalities, movement initiation and bottom-up and top-down attention. In chicken, the midbrain roof is termed optic tectum (TeO) and consists of 15 layers with distinct in- and output regions. Visual input targets the superficial layers, while auditory input terminates in deeper layers. It has been shown that ablation of sensory epithelia leads to changes in the cellular patterning and structural organization of the sensory pathways...
April 19, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679170/light-localization-with-low-contrast-targets-in-a-patient-implanted-with-a-suprachoroidal-transretinal-stimulation-retinal-prosthesis
#13
Takao Endo, Takashi Fujikado, Masakazu Hirota, Hiroyuki Kanda, Takeshi Morimoto, Kohji Nishida
PURPOSE: To evaluate the improvement in targeted reaching movements toward targets of various contrasts in a patient implanted with a suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation (STS) retinal prosthesis. METHODS: An STS retinal prosthesis was implanted in the right eye of a 42-year-old man with advanced Stargardt disease (visual acuity: right eye, light perception; left eye, hand motion). In localization tests during the 1-year follow-up period, the patient attempted to touch the center of a white square target (visual angle, 10°; contrast, 96, 85, or 74%) displayed at a random position on a monitor...
April 20, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679009/nucleus-accumbens-controls-wakefulness-by-a-subpopulation-of-neurons-expressing-dopamine-d-1-receptors
#14
Yan-Jia Luo, Ya-Dong Li, Lu Wang, Su-Rong Yang, Xiang-Shan Yuan, Juan Wang, Yoan Cherasse, Michael Lazarus, Jiang-Fan Chen, Wei-Min Qu, Zhi-Li Huang
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) is involved in behaviors that depend on heightened wakefulness, but its impact on arousal remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that NAc dopamine D1 receptor (D1 R)-expressing neurons are essential for behavioral arousal. Using in vivo fiber photometry in mice, we find arousal-dependent increases in population activity of NAc D1 R neurons. Optogenetic activation of NAc D1 R neurons induces immediate transitions from non-rapid eye movement sleep to wakefulness, and chemogenetic stimulation prolongs arousal, with decreased food intake...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678977/minimizing-icu-neurological-dysfunction-with-dexmedetomidine-induced-sleep-mindds-protocol-for-a-randomised-double-blind-parallel-arm-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
Kenneth T Shelton, Jason Qu, Federico Bilotta, Emery N Brown, Gaston Cudemus, David A D'Alessandro, Hao Deng, Alan DiBiasio, Jacob A Gitlin, Eunice Y Hahm, Lauren E Hobbs, Timothy T Houle, Reine Ibala, Marco Loggia, Kara J Pavone, Shahzad Shaefi, George Tolis, M Brandon Westover, Oluwaseun Akeju
INTRODUCTION: Delirium, which is prevalent in postcardiac surgical patients, is an acute brain dysfunction characterised by disturbances in attention, awareness and cognition not explained by a pre-existing neurocognitive disorder. The pathophysiology of delirium remains poorly understood. However, basic science and clinical studies suggest that sleep disturbance may be a modifiable risk factor for the development of delirium. Dexmedetomidine is a α-2A adrenergic receptor agonist medication that patterns the activity of various arousal nuclei similar to sleep...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677335/the-eye-tracks-the-aesthetic-appeal-of-sentences
#16
Hideyuki Hoshi, Winfried Menninghaus
Eye-tracking parameters (fixation and pupillary responses) have been shown to be modulated by the aesthetic perception and evaluation of visual and auditory artworks (e.g., paintings, music). The present study investigated whether similar effects can be found in visual text processing. Participants read four groups of short sentences in which a key predictor of aesthetic liking, i.e., familiarity, was systematically modified to four degrees. Across all four groups, the sentences moreover varied with regard to featuring or not featuring meter...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677334/monocular-microsaccades-do-they-really-occur
#17
Yu Fang, Christopher Gill, Martina Poletti, Michele Rucci
Small saccades, known as microsaccades, occur frequently during fixation. Several recent studies have argued that a considerable fraction of these movements are present in the traces from one eye only. This claim contrasts with the findings of older reports, which concluded that microsaccades, like larger saccades, are virtually always binocular events. Here we examined the characteristics of small saccades by means of two of the most established high-resolution eye-tracking techniques available. A binocular Dual Purkinje Image eye-tracker was used to record eye movements while observers fixated, with their head immobilized, on markers displayed on a monitor...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677325/continuous-flash-suppression-manual-action-affects-eye-movements-but-not-the-reported-percept
#18
Peter Veto, Immo Schütz, Wolfgang Einhäuser
Diverse paradigms, including ambiguous stimuli and mental imagery, have suggested a shared representation between motor and perceptual domains. We examined the effects of manual action on ambiguous perception in a continuous flash suppression (CFS) experiment. Specifically, we asked participants to try to perceive a suppressed grating while rotating a manipulandum. In one condition, the grating's motion was fully controlled by the manipulandum movement; in another condition the coupling was weak; and in a third condition, no movement was executed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677323/probing-transsaccadic-correspondence-with-reverse-correlation
#19
Eva R M Joosten, Thérèse Collins
The phenomenon of visual stability is classically explained by an internal forward model predicting the sensory consequences of an eye movement based on efference copy. However, this model cannot explain why some object displacements go undetected, a phenomenon that may depend on a passive prior belief that the world is stable. With reverse correlation, we investigated saccadic suppression of displacement and found that transsaccadic correspondence operates differently depending on the position of the postsaccadic visual target relative to the primary landing position; when the signal falls within the extent of primary saccadic scatter, observers are less able to remap accurately...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677321/probing-the-temporal-dynamics-of-the-exploration-exploitation-dilemma-of-eye-movements
#20
Benedikt V Ehinger, Lilli Kaufhold, Peter König
When scanning a visual scene, we are in a constant decision process regarding whether to further exploit the information content at the current fixation or to go on and explore the scene. The balance of these two processes determines the distribution of fixation durations. Using a gaze-contingent paradigm, we experimentally interrupt this process to probe its state. Here, we developed a guided-viewing task where only a single 3° aperture of an image ("bubble") is displayed. Subjects had to fixate the bubble for an experimentally controlled time (forced fixation time)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
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