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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222695/the-effects-of-enhanced-attention-and-working-memory-on-smooth-pursuit-eye-movement
#1
Jacob L Stubbs, Sherryse L Corrow, Benjamin Kiang, William J Panenka, Jason J S Barton
It has long been suggested that increasing attentional demands can alter smooth pursuit eye movements, but the precise nature of the changes generated is not clear. Our goal was to examine smooth pursuit with a task that enhanced attention to the target and that increased demands on working memory, without distracting from the target. 15 subjects tracked a target moving around a predictable circular trajectory at a constant tangential velocity. An n-back task with two levels of additional working memory load was integrated into the pursuit target to increase cognitive demands...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221784/assessment-of-intervention-related-changes-in-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-depth-importance-of-sleep-depth%C3%A2-changes-within-stage-2
#2
Sultan Qanash, Eleni Giannouli, Magdy Younes
OBJECTIVES: Depth of sleep within non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) stage-2 (N2-depth) varies from being nearly similar to stage-1 to nearly similar to stage-3. Differences in N2-depth are not captured by conventional indices of sleep depth (N1-N3 times, arousal/awakening index) when comparing sleep depth under different conditions. Magnitude of changes in N2-depth in the same individual under different experimental conditions, and the importance of measuring these changes are unknown...
December 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221779/effect-of-sodium-oxybate-modafinil-and-their-combination-on-disrupted-nighttime-sleep-in-narcolepsy
#3
Yves Dauvilliers, Thomas Roth, Diane Guinta, Sarah Alvarez-Horine, Efim Dynin, Jed Black
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of three narcolepsy treatment modalities on sleep stage shifts associated with disrupted nighttime sleep (DNS) using data from a clinical trial. METHODS: Polysomnograms were reviewed from 155 patients (who had these data available at baseline and 8 weeks) of the 278 patients who were randomized to placebo, 9-g sodium oxybate (SXB)/nightly, 200-600 mg/d modafinil, or SXB + modafinil. Major outcomes of these post hoc analyses, analyzed using analysis of covariance, were change from baseline in number of shifts from Stages N2/3/rapid eye movement (REM) to Stage N1/Wake, and from Stage N1/Wake to REM...
December 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221774/sleep-dependent-motor-sequence-memory-consolidation-in-individuals-with-periodic-limb-movements
#4
Valya Sergeeva, Jeremy Viczko, Laura B Ray, Adrian M Owen, Stuart M Fogel
Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during sleep increase with age and are associated with striatal neurodegeneration and dopamine deficiency. Limb movements are often associated with disruptions to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Motor skill memory consolidation recruits the striatum, and learning-dependent striatal activation is associated with NREM sleep. Therefore, we investigated whether de novo individuals who significantly experience elevated levels of PLMs but have not been formally diagnosed with periodic limb movement disorder had learning and sleep-related memory deficits and whether these deficits were related to sleep quality and symptom severity...
December 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220126/can-the-retina-be-used-to-diagnose-and-plot-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Deepti Mahajan, Marcela Votruba
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of senile dementia. It impairs the quality of life of a person and their family, posing a serious economic and social threat in developed countries. The fact that the diagnosis can only be definitively made post-mortem, or when the disease is fairly advanced, presents a serious problem if novel therapeutic interventions are to be devised and used early in the course of the disease. There is therefore a pressing need for more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests with which we can detect AD in the preclinical stage...
December 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219119/density-overwrites-of-internal-tumor-volumes-in-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-plans-for-mobile-lung-tumors
#6
Pablo Botas, Clemens Grassberger, Gregory Sharp, Harald Paganetti
The purpose of this study was to investigate Internal Tumor Volume (ITV) density overwrite strategies to minimize Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) plan degradation of mobile lung tumors. Four planning paradigms were compared for nine lung cancer patients. IGTV and ICTV structures were defined encompassing their respective volumes in every 4DCT phase. The paradigms use different planning CT (pCT) created from the Average Intensity Projection (AIP) of the 4DCT, overwriting the density within the IGTV to account for movement...
December 8, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218791/a-novel-approach-to-training-attention-and-gaze-in-asd-a-feasibility-and-efficacy-pilot-study
#7
Leanne Chukoskie, Marissa Westerfield, Jeanne Townsend
In addition to the social, communicative and behavioral symptoms that define the disorder, individuals with ASD have difficulty re-orienting attention quickly and accurately. Similarly, fast re-orienting saccadic eye movements are also inaccurate and more variable in both endpoint and timing. Atypical gaze and attention are among the earliest symptoms observed in ASD. Disruption of these foundation skills critically affects development of higher level cognitive and social behavior. We propose that interventions aimed at these early deficits that support social and cognitive skills will be broadly effective...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218588/threats-to-the-validity-of-eye-movement-research-in-psychology
#8
Jacob L Orquin, Kenneth Holmqvist
Eyetracking research in psychology has grown exponentially over the past decades, as equipment has become cheaper and easier to use. The surge in eyetracking research has not, however, been equaled by a growth in methodological awareness, and practices that are best avoided have become commonplace. We describe nine threats to the validity of eyetracking research and provide, whenever possible, advice on how to avoid or mitigate these challenges. These threats concern both internal and external validity and relate to the design of eyetracking studies, to data preprocessing, to data analysis, and to the interpretation of eyetracking data...
December 7, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215823/validation-of-the-korean-version-of-the-scales-for-outcomes-in-parkinson-s-disease-sleep
#9
Young Hee Sung, Hee Jin Kim, Seong Beom Koh, Joong Seok Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Sang Myung Cheon, Jin Whan Cho, Yoon Joong Kim, Hyeo Il Ma, Mee Young Park, Jong Sam Baik, Phil Hyu Lee, Sun Ju Chung, Jong Min Kim, In Uk Song, Han Joon Kim, Ji Young Kim, Do Young Kwon, Jae Hyeok Lee, Jee Young Lee, Ji Seon Kim, Ji Young Yun, Jin Yong Hong, Mi Jung Kim, Jinyoung Youn, Ji Sun Kim, Eung Seok Oh, Hui Jun Yang, Won Tae Yoon, Sooyeoun You, Kyum Yil Kwon, Hyung Eun Park, Su Yun Lee, Younsoo Kim, Hee Tae Kim, Tae Beom Ahn
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems commonly occur in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and are associated with a lower quality of life. The aim of the current study was to translate the English version of the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Sleep (SCOPA-S) into the Korean version of SCOPA-S (K-SCOPA-S), and to evaluate its reliability and validity for use by Korean-speaking patients with PD. METHODS: In total, 136 patients with PD from 27 movement disorder centres of university-affiliated hospitals in Korea were enrolled in this study...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215387/historical-trends-in-the-diagnosis-of-peduncular-hallucinosis
#10
Kristin M Galetta, Sashank Prasad
BACKGROUND: Peduncular hallucinosis (PH) describes the clinical syndrome of vivid, dream-like visual hallucinations that intrude on normal wakefulness. Additional clinical deficits, especially ophthalmoparesis, have historically been an important part of the diagnosis and localization of this syndrome. We examined how modern neuroimaging has impacted the diagnosis of PH. METHODS: We reviewed all available cases of PH, including 3 of ours and all previously reported in the literature...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214604/abilities-to-explicitly-and-implicitly-infer-intentions-from-actions-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Eleanor J Cole, Katie E Slocombe, Nick E Barraclough
Previous research suggests that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) might be associated with impairments on implicit but not explicit mentalizing tasks. However, such comparisons are made difficult by the heterogeneity of stimuli and the techniques used to measure mentalizing capabilities. We tested the abilities of 34 individuals (17 with ASD) to derive intentions from others' actions during both explicit and implicit tasks and tracked their eye-movements. Adults with ASD displayed explicit but not implicit mentalizing deficits...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214208/eye-movement-feedback-fails-to-improve-visual-search-performance
#12
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
Many real-world searches (e.g., radiology and baggage screening) have rare targets. When targets are rare, observers perform rapid, incomplete searches, leading to higher miss rates. To improve search for rare (10% prevalence) targets, we provided eye movement feedback (EMF) to observers during their searches. Although the nature of the EMF varied across experiments, each method informed observers about the regions of the display that had not yet been inspected. We hypothesized that feedback would help guide attention to unsearched areas and increase the proportion of the display searched before making a target-absent response, thereby increasing accuracy...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214207/what-is-the-role-of-the-film-viewer-the-effects-of-narrative-comprehension-and-viewing-task-on-gaze-control-in-film
#13
John P Hutson, Tim J Smith, Joseph P Magliano, Lester C Loschky
Film is ubiquitous, but the processes that guide viewers' attention while viewing film narratives are poorly understood. In fact, many film theorists and practitioners disagree on whether the film stimulus (bottom-up) or the viewer (top-down) is more important in determining how we watch movies. Reading research has shown a strong connection between eye movements and comprehension, and scene perception studies have shown strong effects of viewing tasks on eye movements, but such idiosyncratic top-down control of gaze in film would be anathema to the universal control mainstream filmmakers typically aim for...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214205/simple-eye-movement-feedback-during-visual-search-is-not-helpful
#14
Trafton Drew, Lauren H Williams
Searching for targets in the visual world, or visual search, is something we all do every day. We frequently make 'false-negative' errors, wherein we erroneously conclude a target was absent when one was, in fact, present. These sorts of errors can have tremendous costs, as when signs of cancers are missed in diagnostic radiology. Prior research has characterized the cause of many of these errors as being due to failure to completely search the area where targets may be present; indeed, roughly one-third of chest nodules missed in lung cancer screening are never fixated (Drew, Võ, Olwal, Jacobson, Seltzer and Wolfe, Journal of Vision 13:3, 2013)...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214039/clinical-and-genetic-analysis-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-7-sca7-in-zambian-families
#15
Masharip Atadzhanov, Danielle C Smith, Mwila H Mwaba, Omar K Siddiqi, Alan Bryer, L Jacquie Greenberg
Background: To date, 43 types of Spinocerebellar Ataxias (SCAs) have been identified. A subset of the SCAs are caused by the pathogenic expansion of a CAG repeat tract within the corresponding gene. Ethnic and geographic differences are evident in the prevalence of the autosomal dominant SCAs. Few descriptions of the clinical phenotype and molecular genetics of the SCAs are available from the African continent. Established studies mostly concern the South African populations, where there is a high frequency of SCA1, SCA2 and SCA7...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213253/the-role-of-slow-wave-sleep-in-memory-pathophysiology-focus-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing
#16
Sara Carletto, Thomas Borsato, Marco Pagani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212925/done-in-100-ms-path-dependent-visuomotor-transformation-in-the-human-upper-limb
#17
Chao Gu, J Andrew Pruszynski, Paul L Gribble, Brian D Corneil
A core assumption underlying mental chronometry is that more complex tasks increase cortical processing, prolonging reaction times. Here we show that increases in task complexity alter the magnitude, rather than the latency, of the output for a circuit that rapidly transforms visual information into motor actions. We quantified visual stimulus-locked responses (SLRs), which are changes in upper limb muscle recruitment that evolve at a fixed latency ~100 ms after novel visual stimulus onset. First, we studied the underlying reference frame of the SLR, by dissociating initial eye and hand position...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212922/reward-activations-and-face-fields-in-monkey-cingulate-motor-areas
#18
Justine Cléry, Céline Amiez, Olivier Guipponi, Claire Wardak, Emmanuel Procyk, Suliann Ben Hamed
Several premotor areas have been identified within primate cingulate cortex, however their function is yet to be uncovered. Recent brain imaging work in humans revealed a topographic anatomo-functional overlap between feedback processing during exploratory behaviors and the corresponding body fields in the rostral cingulate motor area (RCZa), suggesting an embodied representation of feedback. In particular, a face field in RCZa processes juice feedback. Here we tested an extension of the embodied principle in which unexpected or relevant information obtained through the eye or the face would be processed by face fields in cingulate motor areas, and whether this applied to monkey cingulate cortex...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211506/validity-of-low-resolution-eye-tracking-to-assess-eye-movements-during-a-rapid-number-naming-task-performance-of-the-eyetribe-eye-tracker
#19
Jenelle Raynowska, John-Ross Rizzo, Janet C Rucker, Weiwei Dai, Joel Birkemeier, Julian Hershowitz, Ivan Selesnick, Laura J Balcer, Steven L Galetta, Todd Hudson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the EyeTribe compared to the EyeLink for eye movement recordings during a rapid number naming test in healthy control participants. BACKGROUND: With the increasing accessibility of portable, economical, video-based eye trackers such as the EyeTribe, there is growing interest in these devices for eye movement recordings, particularly in the domain of sports-related concussion. However, prior to implementation there is a primary need to establish the validity of these devices...
December 6, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210008/development-and-surgical-removal-of-an-epiretinal-membrane-in-infantile-nystagmus-syndrome-a-new-type-of-oscillopsia
#20
Louis F Dell'Osso, Suber S Huang
PURPOSE: To report and discuss a focal oscillopsia in a small area of the visual field produced by, and after the removal of, an epiretinal membrane (ERM) in an individual with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) since birth with no associated afferent visual deficits. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case report. METHODS: A chart review, including clinical and electrophysiological data. A 74 y/o man with INS and an epiretinal membrane was studied...
December 5, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
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