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Eye movements

Sumitash Jana, Aditya Murthy
While inhibitory control of single effector movements has been widely studied, the control of coordinated eye-hand movements has received less attention. Nevertheless, previous studies have contradictorily suggested that either a common or separate signal/s is/are responsible for inhibition of coordinated eye-hand movements. In continuation of our previous study, we varied behavioural contexts and used a stochastic accumulation to threshold model which predicts a scaling of the mean reaction time distribution with its variance, to study the inhibitory control of eye-hand movements...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Phillip Bedggood, Fumi Tanabe, Allison M McKendrick, Andrew Turpin, Andrew J Anderson, Bang V Bui
PURPOSE: To determine the extent to which (1) optic nerve tissue is displaced following mild acute elevation of intraocular pressure, and (2) clinically accessible measures at the anterior eye can be used as a surrogate for such displacements. METHODS: We imaged the optic disc of 21 healthy subjects before and after intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation of ~10 mmHg delivered by ophthalmodynamometry. Steady-state tissue displacement during IOP elevation was assessed axially from OCT data, and laterally from SLO data...
July 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Stefan Heim, Franziska von Tongeln, Rebekka Hillen, Josefine Horbach, Ralph Radach, Thomas Günther
The Landolt paradigm is a visual scanning task intended to evoke reading-like eye-movements in the absence of orthographic or lexical information, thus allowing the dissociation of (sub-) lexical vs. visual processing. To that end, all letters in real word sentences are exchanged for closed Landolt rings, with 0, 1, or 2 open Landolt rings as targets in each Landolt sentence. A preliminary fMRI block-design study (Hillen et al. in Front Hum Neurosci 7:1-14, 2013) demonstrated that the Landolt paradigm has a special neural signature, recruiting the right IPS and SPL as part of the endogenous attention network...
June 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Daniel S Asfaw, Pete R Jones, Nicholas D Smith, David P Crabb
Eye movements of glaucoma patients have been shown to differ from age-similar control groups when performing everyday tasks, such as reading (Burton et al., 2012; Smith et al., 2014) [1], [2], visual search (Smith et al., 2012) [3], face recognition (Glen et al., 2013) [4], driving, and viewing static images (Smith et al., 2012) [5]. Described here is the dataset from a recent publication in which we compared the eye-movements of 44 glaucoma patients and 32 age-similar controls, while they watched a series of short video clips taken from television programs (Crabb et al...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Anna Brameli, Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Dror Giloni, Ronit Friling, Gabriel Chodick, Daniel Landau, Oded Scheuerman
Orbital cellulitis infects the orbital tissues, with chemosis and periorbital swelling accompanied by limited eye movements, proptosis or decreased visual acuity (1). The most common cause is rhino-sinusitis extending into the orbit, especially when the ethmoidal sinuses are involved (1). Reported complications have included subperiosteal abscesses, orbital abscesses and cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis (1). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 19, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Agnieszka Szarkowska, Olivia Gerber-Morón
People watch subtitled audiovisual materials more than ever before. With the proliferation of subtitled content, we are also witnessing an increase in subtitle speeds. However, there is an ongoing controversy about what optimum subtitle speeds should be. This study looks into whether viewers can keep up with increasingly fast subtitles and whether the way people cope with subtitled content depends on their familiarity with subtitling and on their knowledge of the language of the film soundtrack. We tested 74 English, Polish and Spanish viewers watching films subtitled at different speeds (12, 16 and 20 characters per second)...
2018: PloS One
Gianina Ungurean, Niels C Rattenborg
Northern fur seals forego large amounts of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep when sleeping in water, but remain healthy and do not recover this loss once back on land, challenging current theories for the function of REM sleep.
June 18, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Kirsten Lochbuehler, E Paul Wileyto, Melissa Mercincavage, Valentina Souprountchouk, Jordan Z Burdge, Kathy Z Tang, Joseph N Cappella, Andrew A Strasser
Objectives: Recent research has shown that message congruency is beneficial to recall of pictorial health warning label (PWL) content after initial exposure. Despite less attention to the text warning, smokers exposed to congruent PWLs were more likely to recall the text and the message. This study aimed to replicate these findings and to examine whether congruency also affects recall after multiple exposures over time. Methods: 320 daily smokers (39.7% female; cigarettes/day: M = 15...
June 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Bo Kyung Lee, An Na Jung, Yi-Sook Jung
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has an essential role in the process of learning and memory in the hippocampus. It has been reported that linalool, a major component of Lavandula angustifolia , has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects, along with other effects. However, the effect of linalool on the cognitive impairment and behavioral alterations that are induced by REM-sleep deprivation has not yet been elucidated. Several studies have reported that REM-sleep deprivation-induced memory deficits provide a well-known model of behavioral alterations...
June 19, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Katharina A Schindlbeck, David Eidelberg
Parkinson's disease presents several practical challenges: it can be difficult to distinguish from atypical parkinsonian syndromes, clinical ratings can be insensitive as markers of disease progression, and its non-motor manifestations are not readily assessed in animal models. These challenges, along with others, are beginning to be addressed by innovative imaging methods to characterise Parkinson's disease-specific functional networks across the whole brain and measure their expression in each patient. These signatures can help improve differential diagnosis, guide selection of patients for clinical trials, and quantify treatment responses and placebo effects in individual patients...
July 2018: Lancet Neurology
Hong Wei, Jin-Lu Huang, Bin Hao, Yan-Chao Wang, Gong Nian, Ai-Niu Ma, Xin-Yan Li, Yong-Xiang Wang, Antti Pertovaara
Background Sleep deprivation as well as peripheral neuropathy and cutaneous neurogenic inflammation has a facilitatory effect on pain perception. Here we studied whether oxidative stress-related mechanisms in the spinal cord that have been shown to contribute to pain facilitation in peripheral neuropathy and cutaneous neurogenic inflammation play a role in sleep deprivation-induced pain hypersensitivity Methods Flower pot method was used to induce rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REMSD) of 48 h duration in the rat that had a chronic intrathecal (i...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Wenche Iglebekk, Carsten Tjell, Peter Borenstein
Background and aim A diagnosis of chronic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is based on brief attacks of rotatory vertigo and concomitant nystagmus elicited by rapid changes in head position relative to gravity. However, the clinical course of BPPV may vary considerably from a self-limiting to a persisting and/or recurrent disabling problem. The authors' experience is that the most common complaints of patients with chronic BPPV are nautical vertigo or dizziness with other symptoms including neck pain, headache, widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and visual disturbances...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Keren Taub, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
As you read this text, your brain is busy integrating numerous different processes-perceptual, cognitive and motor. While you acquire the semantic and linguistic contents of this abstract, your eyes traverse its lines with speed and coordination. The oculomotor response to text is so rapid and precise that it is hypothesized it to be partially based on reflexive orienting mechanisms. In this study we examined the hypothesis that the presentation of written text triggers reflexive orienting toward the direction of reading, similarly to the effect of peripheral stimulation or that of symbolic directional cues (arrows or gazing eyes)...
May 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Revathy Mani, Lisa Asper, Sieu K Khuu
PURPOSE: To conduct a review of literature and quantify the effect that traumatic brain injury (TBI) has on oculomotor functions (OM). METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted from papers that objectively measured saccades and smooth-pursuit eye movements in mild and severe TBI. RESULTS: The overall impact of TBI on OM functions was moderate and significant with an effect size of 0.42 from 181 OM case-control comparisons...
June 18, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Chiara Banfi, Ferenc Kemény, Melanie Gangl, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Kristina Moll, Karin Landerl
An impairment in the visual attention span (VAS) has been suggested to hamper reading performance of individuals with dyslexia. It is not clear, however, if the very nature of the deficit is visual or verbal and, importantly, if it affects spelling skills as well. The current study investigated VAS by means of forced choice tasks with letters and symbols in a sample of third and fourth graders with age-adequate reading and spelling skills (n = 43), a typical dyslexia profile with combined reading and spelling deficits (n = 26) and isolated spelling deficits (n = 32)...
2018: PloS One
Maria Cano Garcia, Steven C Nesbit, Chi C Le, James R Dearworth
After animals are euthanized, their tissues begin to die. Turtles offer an advantage because of a longer survival time of their tissues, especially when compared to warm-blooded vertebrates. Because of this, in vitro experiments in turtles can be performed for extended periods of time to investigate the neural signals and control of their target actions. Using an isolated head preparation, we measured the kinematics of eye movements in turtles, and their modulation by electrical signals carried by cranial nerves...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Shuo Wang, Adam N Mamelak, Ralph Adolphs, Ueli Rutishauser
Neurons in the primate medial temporal lobe (MTL) respond selectively to visual categories such as faces, contributing to how the brain represents stimulus meaning. However, it remains unknown whether MTL neurons continue to encode stimulus meaning when it changes flexibly as a function of variable task demands imposed by goal-directed behavior. While classically associated with long-term memory, recent lesion and neuroimaging studies show that the MTL also contributes critically to the online guidance of goal-directed behaviors such as visual search...
June 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Nicholas M Dotson, Steven J Hoffman, Baldwin Goodell, Charles M Gray
Feature-based visual short-term memory is known to engage both sensory and association cortices. However, the extent of the participating circuit and the neural mechanisms underlying memory maintenance is still a matter of vigorous debate. To address these questions, we recorded neuronal activity from 42 cortical areas in monkeys performing a feature-based visual short-term memory task and an interleaved fixation task. We find that task-dependent differences in firing rates are widely distributed throughout the cortex, while stimulus-specific changes in firing rates are more restricted and hierarchically organized...
June 15, 2018: Neuron
R Delaplace, S Garny de La Rivière, M Bon Saint Come, H Lahaye, I Popov, N Rey, A Visticot, J-M Guilé
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics and motor activity profile during sleep periods of children and adolescents presenting with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). METHOD: Twenty-one youths (mean age±standard deviation, 11.7±3 years) wore a wrist actigraph for 9 consecutive days (including both school days and non-school days), to measure sleep parameters: sleep latency, sleep efficiency and the number and duration of periods of wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO)...
June 14, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Yun-Chung Lin, Chi-Chien Niu, Mohammad Nikkhoo, Meng-Ling Lu, Wen-Chien Chen, Chen-Ju Fu, Chih-Hsiu Cheng
BACKGROUND: Degenerative lumbar diseases (DLDs) are characterized by motor functional deficits and postural instability. In this study, we investigated the differences in the trunk muscle responses to postural control between the presurgical DLD patients and healthy individuals while performing the static and perturbed balance tasks. METHODS: Thirty-five DLD patients (aged 61.1 ± 8.0 years) and thirty-five asymptomatic controls (aged 62.9 ± 3.7 years) participated in this study...
June 11, 2018: Gait & Posture
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