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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644398/a-novel-wearable-forehead-eog-measurement-system-for-human-computer-interfaces
#1
Jeong Heo, Heenam Yoon, Kwang Suk Park
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients whose voluntary muscles are paralyzed commonly communicate with the outside world using eye movement. There have been many efforts to support this method of communication by tracking or detecting eye movement. An electrooculogram (EOG), an electro-physiological signal, is generated by eye movements and can be measured with electrodes placed around the eye. In this study, we proposed a new practical electrode position on the forehead to measure EOG signals, and we developed a wearable forehead EOG measurement system for use in Human Computer/Machine interfaces (HCIs/HMIs)...
June 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643564/the-power-of-traditional-design-techniques-the-effects-of-viewing-a-japanese-garden-on-individuals-with-cognitive-impairment
#2
Seiko Goto, Thomas J Gianfagia, John P Munafo, Eijiro Fujii, Xuting Shen, Minkai Sun, Bertram Emil Shi, Congcong Liu, Hiroshi Hamano, Karl Herrup
PURPOSE: This study is to examine how viewing a Japanese garden affects Japanese patients with dementia. BACKGROUND: In a previous study, authors explored the effect on individuals with Alzheimer's disease of viewing an indoor Japanese garden at a nursing home in the United States and reported that viewing the garden significantly reduced the heart rate, evoked short-term and long-term memories, and improved behavioral symptoms. However, it was unclear whether these effects were caused by the design of Japanese garden or unfamiliarity of the design to Caucasians...
July 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643183/dopaminergic-therapies-for-non-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Eva Schaeffer, Daniela Berg
Apart from the typical motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a wide range of different non-motor symptoms, which are highly prevalent in all stages of the disease and have an incisive influence on quality of life. Moreover, their treatment continues to be challenging. In this review, we critically summarize the evidence for the impact of dopaminergic therapies on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. We performed a PubMed search to identify relevant clinical studies that investigated the response of non-motor symptoms to dopaminergic therapy...
June 22, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643035/clinical-and-imaging-presentation-of-a%C3%A2-patient-with-beta-propeller-protein-associated-neurodegeneration-a%C3%A2-rare-and-sporadic-form-of-neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation-nbia
#4
Elke Hattingen, Nikolaus Handke, Kirsten Cremer, Sabine Hoffjan, Guido Matthias Kukuk
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a heterogeneous group of inherited neurologic disorders with iron accumulation in the basal ganglia, which share magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, histopathologic and clinical features. According to the affected basal nuclei, clinical features include extrapyramidal movement disorders and varying degrees of intellectual disability status. The most common NBIA subtype is caused by pathogenic variants in PANK2. The hallmark of MR imaging in patients with PANK2 mutations is an eye-of-the-tiger sign in the globus pallidus...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642572/disrupted-pursuit-compensation-during-self-motion-perception-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Jingru Wang, Xiaojun Guo, Xianbo Zhuang, Tuanzhi Chen, Wei Yan
Our perception of the world is remarkably stable despite of distorted retinal input due to frequent eye movements. It is considered that the brain uses corollary discharge, efference copies of signals sent from motor to visual regions, to compensate for distortions and stabilize visual perception. In this study, we tested whether patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have impaired corollary discharge functions as evidenced by reduced compensation during the perception of optic flow that mimics self-motion in the environment...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642284/excitation-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-triggers-immediate-transition-from-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-to-wakefulness-in-mice
#6
Shota Kodani, Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient situations usually trigger arousal along with autonomic and neuroendocrine reactions. To examine whether the extended amygdala plays a role in sleep/wakefulness regulation, we examined the effects of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (GABA(BNST) neurons). Acute optogenetic excitation of these cells during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep resulted in immediate state transition to wakefulness, while stimulation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed no effect on sleep/wakefulness states in male mice...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641453/accuracy-of-limited-montage-electroencephalography-in-monitoring-postanoxic-comatose-patients
#7
Sandipan Pati, Lauren McClain, Lidia Moura, Yuan Fan, M Brandon Westover
BACKGROUND: Continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring may help to identify the small percentage of adults with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) who will regain consciousness if allowed sufficient time. However, the limited yield in this population has led some to question the cost-effectiveness cEEG monitoring in this population. We hypothesized that limited-montage cEEG could provide essentially the same neurophysiologic information at lower cost. In this proof of concept study, we aim to demonstrate the potentials of limited channel EEG in prognostication in postanoxic patients...
June 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641325/superior-canal-dehiscence-syndrome-associated-with-scuba-diving
#8
Naoharu Kitajima, Akemi Sugita-Kitajima, Seiji Kitajima
A 28-year-old female diver presented with dizziness and difficulty clearing her left ear whilst scuba diving. Her pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry were normal. Testing of Eustachian tube function revealed tubal stenosis. Video-oculography revealed a predominantly torsional nystagmus while the patient was in the lordotic position. Fistula signs were positive. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the temporal bone revealed a diagnosis of bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCDS). Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) testing showed that the amplitude of the cVEMP measured from her left ear was larger than that from the right...
June 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641264/a-single-channel-eog-based-speller
#9
Shenghong He, Yuanqing Li
Electrooculography (EOG) signals, which can be used to infer the intentions of a user based on eye movements, are widely used in human-computer interface (HCI) systems. Most existing EOG-based HCI systems incorporate a limited number of commands because they generally associate different commands with a few different types of eye movements, such as looking up, down, left, or right. This paper presents a novel single-channel EOG-based HCI that allows users to spell asynchronously by only blinking. Forty buttons corresponding to 40 characters displayed to the user via a graphical user interface (GUI) are intensified in a random order...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639878/exploring-the-phenotype-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-aid-the-prediction-of-those-at-risk-of-transitioning-to-parkinson-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#10
Jennifer Y Y Szeto, Glenda M Halliday, Sharon L Naismith, Simon J G Lewis
To date, only limited research has concurrently investigated the presence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and other features associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in people presenting with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As a first step towards a longitudinal research project, the present study explored the relationships between MCI, RBD, and depression in 108 older adults who presented with subjective memory complaints but were not known to have a neurodegenerative condition...
July 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638974/categorical-templates-are-more-useful-when-features-are-consistent-evidence-from-eye-movements-during-search-for-societally-important-vehicles
#11
Michael C Hout, Arryn Robbins, Hayward J Godwin, Gemma Fitzsimmons, Collin Scarince
Unlike in laboratory visual search tasks-wherein participants are typically presented with a pictorial representation of the item they are asked to seek out-in real-world searches, the observer rarely has veridical knowledge of the visual features that define their target. During categorical search, observers look for any instance of a categorically defined target (e.g., helping a family member look for their mobile phone). In these circumstances, people may not have information about noncritical features (e...
June 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638211/psychogenic-blepharospasm-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#12
Soumitra DAS, Roopchand Pandrantil Sreedharan, Prasanth Sudhakaran Remadevi, Cheruvallil Velayudhan Saji
Blepharospasm is an uncontrolled spasmodic contraction of the orbicularis muscles of the eye resulting in an abnormal tic or twitch of eyes. It usually lasts for seconds to minutes but in severe cases eyes may be closed for hours. It may be essentially benign or secondary due to a lesion in basal ganglia, pyramidal tract, and trauma, local pathology in the eyes or drug induced. Here we are presenting a case of psychogenic blepharospasm. A 65 year old woman presented with a history of episodic inability of opening her eyes for the past 6 months...
December 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638208/eye-movement-indices-in-the-study-of-depressive-disorder
#13
Yu Li, Yangyang Xu, Mengqing Xia, Tianhong Zhang, Junjie Wang, Xu Liu, Yongguang He, Jijun Wang
BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is one of the most common core symptoms of depressive disorder. Eye movement testing mainly reflects patients' cognitive functions, such as cognition, memory, attention, recognition, and recall. This type of testing has great potential to improve theories related to cognitive functioning in depressive episodes as well as potential in its clinical application. AIMS: This study investigated whether eye movement indices of patients with unmedicated depressive disorder were abnormal or not, as well as the relationship between these indices and mental symptoms...
December 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638094/microsaccades-are-sensitive-to-word-structure-a-novel-approach-to-study-language-processing
#14
Maya Yablonski, Uri Polat, Yoram S Bonneh, Michal Ben-Shachar
Microsaccades are miniature eye movements that occur involuntarily during fixation. They are typically inhibited following stimulus onset and are released from inhibition about 300 ms post-stimulus. Microsaccade-inhibition is modulated by low level features of visual stimuli, but it is currently unknown whether they are sensitive to higher level, abstract linguistic properties. To address this question, we measured the timing of microsaccades while subjects were presented with written Hebrew words and pronounceable nonwords (pseudowords)...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637659/enduring-effects-of-perinatal-nicotine-exposure-on-murine-sleep-in-adulthood
#15
Jeremy Charles Borniger, Reuben F Don, Ning Zhang, Robert Thomas Boyd, Randy J Nelson
The long-term consequences of early life nicotine exposure are poorly defined. Approximately 8-10% of women report smoking during pregnancy, and this may promote aberrant development in the offspring. To this end, we investigated potential enduring effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on murine sleep and affective behaviors in adulthood (~13-15 weeks of age) in C57Bl6j mice. Mothers received a water bottle containing 200 µg/ml nicotine bitartrate dihydrate in 2% w/v saccharin or pH-matched 2% saccharin with 0...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637637/alternating-hemiplegia-of-childhood-and-a-pathogenic-variant-of-atp1a3-a-case-report-and-pathophysiological-considerations
#16
Elena Pavlidis, Peter Uldall, Camilla Gøbel Madsen, Marina Nikanorova, Martin Fabricius, Hans Høgenhaven, Francesco Pisani, Rikke S Møller, Elena Gardella, Guido Rubboli
We describe a case of a child suffering from alternating hemiplegia with a heterozygous p. E815K pathogenic variant of ATP1A3. The patient started to present abnormal eye movements in the first days of life, followed by the appearance at 2 months of dystonic episodes, and later on, by recurrent episodes of alternating hemiplegia more often on the right side. A severe epilepsy started at the age of 2 years with episodes of status epilepticus since the onset which frequently recurred, requiring admission to the intensive care unit...
June 19, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637525/eye-tracking-evidence-of-a-maintenance-bias-in-social-anxiety
#17
Catarina Fernandes, Susana Silva, Joana Pires, Alexandra Reis, Antónia Jimenez Ros, Luís Janeiro, Luís Faísca, Ana Teresa Martins
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms and triggers of the attentional bias in social anxiety are not yet fully determined, and the modulating role of personality traits is being increasingly acknowledged. AIMS: Our main purpose was to test whether social anxiety is associated with mechanisms of hypervigilance, avoidance (static biases), vigilance-avoidance or the maintenance of attention (dynamic biases). Our secondary goal was to explore the role of personality structure in shaping the attention bias...
June 22, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637052/subtle-eye-movement-metrics-reveal-task-relevant-representations-prior-to-visual-search
#18
Anouk M van Loon, Katya Olmos-Solis, Christian N L Olivers
Visual search is thought to be guided by an active visual working memory (VWM) representation of the task-relevant features, referred to as the search template. In three experiments using a probe technique, we investigated which eye movement metrics reveal which search template is activated prior to the search, and distinguish it from future relevant or no longer relevant VWM content. Participants memorized a target color for a subsequent search task, while being instructed to keep central fixation. Before the search display appeared, we briefly presented two task-irrelevant colored probe stimuli to the left and right from fixation, one of which could match the current target template...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636664/looking-at-paintings-in-the-vincent-van-gogh-museum-eye-movement-patterns-of-children-and-adults
#19
Francesco Walker, Berno Bucker, Nicola C Anderson, Daniel Schreij, Jan Theeuwes
In the present study, we examined the eye movement behaviour of children and adults looking at five Van Gogh paintings in the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. The goal of the study was to determine the role of top-down and bottom-up attentional processes in the first stages of participants' aesthetic experience. Bottom-up processes were quantified by determining a salience map for each painting. Top-down processing was manipulated by first allowing participants to view the paintings freely, then providing background information about each painting, and then allowing them to view the paintings a second time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629961/tortoises-in-front-of-mirrors-brain-asymmetries-and-lateralized-behaviours-in-the-tortoise-testudo-hermanni
#20
Valeria Anna Sovrano, Caterina Quaresmini, Gionata Stancher
Brain lateralization in response to social stimuli is well known for its involvement of the right hemisphere in several vertebrate species, including humans. This study aimed to investigate the laterality of the social behavior during the mirror-images inspection in tortoises (Testudo hermanni). In a rectangular apparatus, in presence or in absence of two mirrors as the longer walls, we assessed: 1) the animal's position and 2) the monocular viewing compared to the longer walls, 3) the paw used to start a movement from a resting position...
June 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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