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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913430/cortical-circuit-for-binding-object-identity-and-location-during-multiple-object-tracking
#1
Lauri Nummenmaa, Lauri Oksama, Erico Glerean, Jukka Hyönä
Sustained multifocal attention for moving targets requires binding object identities with their locations. The brain mechanisms of identity-location binding during attentive tracking have remained unresolved. In 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, we measured participants' hemodynamic activity during attentive tracking of multiple objects with equivalent (multiple-object tracking) versus distinct (multiple identity tracking, MIT) identities. Task load was manipulated parametrically. Both tasks activated large frontoparietal circuits...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913362/learning-to-predict-eye-fixations-via-multiresolution-convolutional-neural-networks
#2
Nian Liu, Junwei Han, Tianming Liu, Xuelong Li
Eye movements in the case of freely viewing natural scenes are believed to be guided by local contrast, global contrast, and top-down visual factors. Although a lot of previous works have explored these three saliency cues for several years, there still exists much room for improvement on how to model them and integrate them effectively. This paper proposes a novel computation model to predict eye fixations, which adopts a multiresolution convolutional neural network (Mr-CNN) to infer these three types of saliency cues from raw image data simultaneously...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913216/spatiotopic-updating-across-saccades-revealed-by-spatially-specific-fmri-adaptation
#3
Scott L Fairhall, Jens Schwarzbach, Angelika Lingnau, Martijn Gerbrand Van Koningsbruggen, David Melcher
Brain representations of visual space are predominantly eye-centred (retinotopic) yet our experience of the world is largely world-centred (spatiotopic). A long-standing question is how the brain creates continuity between these reference frames across successive eye movements (saccades). Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to address whether spatially specific repetition suppression (RS) is evident during trans-saccadic perception. We presented two successive Gabor patches (S1 and S2) in either the upper or lower visual field, left or right of fixation...
November 29, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913167/gamma-band-directional-interactions-between-basal-forebrain-and-visual-cortex-during-wake-and-sleep-states
#4
Jayakrishnan Nair, Arndt-Lukas Klaassen, Jordan Poirot, Alexei Vyssotski, Björn Rasch, Gregor Rainer
The basal forebrain (BF) is an important regulator of cortical excitability and responsivity to sensory stimuli, and plays a major role in wake-sleep regulation. While the impact of BF on cortical EEG or LFP signals has been extensively documented, surprisingly little is known about LFP activity within BF. Based on bilateral recordings from rats in their home cage, we describe endogenous LFP oscillations in the BF during quiet wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS) states. Using coherence and Granger causality methods, we characterize directional influences between BF and visual cortex (VC) during each of these states...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912885/tetrandrine-an-alkaloid-from-s-tetrandra-exhibits-anti-hypertensive-and-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-shr-via-different-mechanisms
#5
Yuan-Li Huang, Su-Ying Cui, Xiang-Yu Cui, Qing Cao, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Xiao Hu, Hui Ye, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders have been found to be associated with hypertension in both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies. Tetrandrine, a major component of Stephania tetrandra, is well known as an antihypertensive agent. The anti-hypertension mechanism mainly relies on its L-type calcium channel blocking property. In the previous study, tetrandrine revealed both anti-hypertension and hypnotic effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). PURPOSE: This study aims to elucidate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of tetrandrine in SHRs is relevant to its hypnotic effect...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912882/tenuifolin-a-saponin-derived-from-radix-polygalae-exhibits-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-mice
#6
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911298/a-24-week-multi-modality-exercise-program-improves-executive-control-in%C3%A2-older-adults-with-a-self-reported-cognitive-complaint-evidence-from%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-antisaccade-task
#7
Matthew Heath, Erin Shellington, Sam Titheridge, Dawn P Gill, Robert J Petrella
Exercise programs involving aerobic and resistance training (i.e., multiple-modality) have shown promise in improving cognition and executive control in older adults at risk, or experiencing, cognitive decline. It is, however, unclear whether cognitive training within a multiple-modality program elicits an additive benefit to executive/cognitive processes. This is an important question to resolve in order to identify optimal training programs that delay, or ameliorate, executive deficits in persons at risk for further cognitive decline...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910232/strategies-of-readers-with-autism-when-responding-to-inferential-questions-an-eye-movement-study
#8
Martina Micai, Holly Joseph, Mila Vulchanova, David Saldaña
Previous research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with inference generation in reading tasks. However, most previous studies have examined how well children understand a text after reading or have measured on-line reading behavior without response to questions. The aim of this study was to investigate the online strategies of children and adolescents with autism during reading and at the same time responding to a question by monitoring their eye movements. The reading behavior of participants with ASD was compared with that of age-, language-, nonverbal intelligence-, reading-, and receptive language skills-matched participants without ASD (control group)...
December 2, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909987/orexin-ox2-receptor-antagonists-as-sleep-aids
#9
Laura H Jacobson, Sui Chen, Sanjida Mir, Daniel Hoyer
The discovery of the orexin system represents the single major progress in the sleep field of the last three to four decades. The two orexin peptides and their two receptors play a major role in arousal and sleep/wake cycles. Defects in the orexin system lead to narcolepsy with cataplexy in humans and dogs and can be experimentally reproduced in rodents. At least six orexin receptor antagonists have reached Phase II or Phase III clinical trials in insomnia, five of which are dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) that target both OX1 and OX2 receptors (OX2Rs)...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909457/the-severity-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-induces-different-decrease-in-the-oxygen-saturation-during-rapid-eye-movement-and-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#10
Eunkyung Choi, Doo-Heum Park, Jae-Hak Yu, Seung-Ho Ryu, Ji-Hyeon Ha
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how differences in oxygen saturation between non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep in patients according to the severity of sleep apnea. METHODS: We studied 396 male patients diagnosed with simple snoring or obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on nocturnal polysomnography. Patients were divided into groups by the OSAS severity. We compared the average oxygen saturation between REM and NREM sleep in each group. RESULTS: In the simple snoring group, average oxygen saturation was significantly greater during REM than during NREM sleep...
November 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909402/upright-perception-and-ocular-torsion-change-independently-during-head-tilt
#11
Jorge Otero-Millan, Amir Kheradmand
We maintain a stable perception of the visual world despite continuous movements of our eyes, head and body. Perception of upright is a key aspect of such orientation constancy. Here we investigated whether changes in upright perception during sustained head tilt were related to simultaneous changes in torsional position of the eyes. We used a subjective visual vertical (SVV) task, modified to track changes in upright perception over time, and a custom video method to measure ocular torsion simultaneously. We tested 12 subjects in upright position, during prolonged (~15 min) lateral head tilts of 20 degrees, and also after the head returned to upright position...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906119/degrading-traumatic-memories-with-eye-movements-a-pilot-functional-mri-study-in-ptsd
#12
Kathleen Thomaes, Iris M Engelhard, Marit Sijbrandij, Danielle C Cath, Odile A Van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs). Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality of traumatic memories, but the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Recent studies support a "working-memory" (WM) theory, which states that the two tasks (recall and EMs) compete for limited capacity of WM resources...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905666/spectral-electroencephalography-profile-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-at-sleep-onset-in-narcolepsy-type-1
#13
F Pizza, R Ferri, S Vandi, F Rundo, M Iloti, G Neccia, G Plazzi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) period (SOREMP), the hallmark of narcolepsy, may be a specific state and not the simple anticipation of REM sleep. METHODS: We analyzed the electroencephalographic spectral content in untreated patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) during the sleep-onset period (SOP) and during nocturnal REM sleep in two consecutive nocturnal recordings from 31 patients with NT1 (mean age 34 ± 15 years, 18 males) and a single nocturnal recording from 36 controls (mean age 38 ± 13 years, 21 males)...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905363/-sleep-disorders-in-the-early-stage-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-untreated-patients
#14
N A Amosova, I G Smolentseva, P M Guseinova, O A Maslyuk, E L Gavrilov
Disorders of sleep and wakefulness occur in about 60-98% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The majority of research on the scale and nature of the disorders was performed in patients treated with antiparkinsonian drugs, and, therefore, the true picture of sleep disorders was interfering with side effects of therapy. The spectrum of these disorders in PD patients is broad and includes insomnia, parasomnia and hypersomnia. The main symptoms of insomnia are difficulty in maintaining sleep, associated with nocturia, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), night cramps, akinesia and tremor...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903814/blink-associated-contralateral-eccentric-saccades-as-a-rare-sign-of-unilateral-brain-injury
#15
Ilaria Zivi, Eugenio Bertelli, Giacinta Bilotti, Ignazio Alessandro Clemente, Leopold Saltuari, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare sign of unilateral brain injury as a form of unwanted blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient who underwent an ischemic stroke affecting the entire right middle cerebral artery territory came to our attention 1 year after stroke, manifesting with transient contralateral conjugate gaze deviations associated with spontaneous blinking. We complemented the regular neurologic evaluation with brain MRI, study of evoked potentials, electroneurography of the facial nerve, and infrared video-oculoscopy...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903636/spatiotopic-maps-during-dynamic-head-tilt
#16
Kyriaki Mikellidou, Marco Turi, David Charles Burr
Humans maintain a stable representation of the visual world effortlessly, despite constant movements of the eyes, head and body, across multiple planes. Whereas visual stability in the face of saccadic eye-movements has been intensely researched, fewer studies have investigated retinal image transformations induced by head movements, especially in the frontal plane. Unlike head rotations in the horizontal and sagittal planes, tilting the head in the frontal plane is only partially counteracted by torsional eye-movements, and consequently induces a distortion of the retinal image to which we seem to be completely oblivious...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900778/predicting-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-treatment-response-in-refugees-multilevel-analysis
#17
Joris F G Haagen, F Jackie June Ter Heide, Trudy M Mooren, Jeroen W Knipscheer, Rolf J Kleber
OBJECTIVES: Given the recent peak in refugee numbers and refugees' high odds of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), finding ways to alleviate PTSD in refugees is of vital importance. However, there are major differences in PTSD treatment response between refugees, the determinants of which are largely unknown. This study aimed at improving PTSD treatment for adult refugees by identifying PTSD treatment response predictors. DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal multilevel modelling design was used to predict PTSD severity scores over time...
November 30, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899887/saccadic-adaptation-alters-the-attentional-field
#18
Farahnaz A Wick, Tyler W Garaas, Marc Pomplun
It is currently unknown whether changes to the oculomotor system can induce changes to the distribution of spatial attention around a fixated target. Previous studies have used perceptual performance tasks to show that adaptation of saccadic eye movements affects dynamic properties of visual attention, in particular, attentional shifts to a cued location. In this study, we examined the effects of saccadic adaptation on the static distribution of visual attention around fixation (attentional field). We used the classic double step adaptation procedure and a flanker task to test for differences in the attentional field after forward and backward adaptation...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894921/alterations-of-awake-eeg-in-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-without-cognitive-impairment
#19
Young Rong Bang, Hong Jun Jeon, Soyoung Youn, In-Young Yoon
The aim of this study was to find electroencephalographic (EEG) changes in subjects with drug-naïve idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) who had no cognitive impairment. A total of 57 iRBD patients confirmed by polysomnography (PSG) and 33 sex and age-matched healthy controls were included and their waking EEG was recorded from five cortical regions for 15minutes. Power spectral analyses by fast Fourier transforms were performed on EEG data. In PSG data, the iRBD patients showed sleep disturbances of short total sleep time, decreased sleep efficiency, increased sleep latency and frequent awakening compared to controls...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894830/the-multiple-process-model-of-goal-directed-reaching-revisited
#20
REVIEW
Digby Elliott, James Lyons, Spencer J Hayes, James J Burkitt, James W Roberts, Lawrence E M Grierson, Steve Hansen, Simon J Bennett
Recently our group forwarded a model of speed-accuracy relations in goal-directed reaching. A fundamental feature of our multiple process model was the distinction between two types of online regulation: impulse control and limb-target control. Impulse control begins during the initial stages of the movement trajectory and involves a comparison of actual limb velocity and direction to an internal representation of expectations about the limb trajectory. Limb-target control involves discrete error-reduction based on the relative positions of the limb and the target late in the movement...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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