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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731920/eye-movement-disorders-following-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation-on-fk506-tacrolimus-and-ganciclovir
#1
Barbaros S Karagun, Tugana Akbas, Taner Arpaci, Bulent Antmen
FK506 (tacrolimus) is an immunosuppressive drug and more potent than cyclosporine. FK506 is widely used for immunosuppression in the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and solid organ transplantation. Neurotoxicity is a recognized complication of FK506 therapy, but ptosis and weakness of eye abduction unilaterally has not been reported in association with FK506 administration to date. We discuss a 13-year-old male patient who developed ptosis and weakness of eye abduction unilaterally 90 days after transplantation with bone marrow from an unrelated donor, for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in this case report...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729073/reeducation-of-vergence-dynamics-improves-postural-control
#3
Aurélien Morize, Zoï Kapoula
INTRODUCTION: The purpose was to investigate the effect of vergence reeducation on postural control, in subjects with isolated vergence disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the dynamics of vergence in 19 subjects (20-44 years old) using video-oculography (Eye See Cam). On the basis of orthoptic and symptomatology assessments, ten of the subjects were diagnosed for vergence disorders then vergence eye movements were reeducated with the REMOBI method (US8851669, 5 weekly sessions lasting for 35min)...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729022/boldness-psychopathic-traits-predict-reduced-gaze-toward-fearful-eyes-in-men-with-a-history-of-violence
#4
Steven M Gillespie, Pia Rotshtein, Anthony R Beech, Ian J Mitchell
Research with developmental and adult samples has shown a relationship of psychopathic traits with reduced eye gaze. However, these relationships remained to be investigated among forensic samples. Here we examined the eye movements of male violent offenders during an emotion recognition task. Violent offenders performed similar to non-offending controls, and their eye movements varied with the emotion and intensity of the facial expression. In the violent offender group Boldness psychopathic traits, but not Meanness or Disinhibition, were associated with reduced dwell time and fixation counts, and slower first fixation latencies, on the eyes compared with the mouth...
July 17, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728802/-psychotherapies-for-the-treatment-of-phantom-limb-pain
#5
Katherine Cárdenas, Mariana Aranda
INTRODUCTION: The phantom limb pain has been described as a condition in which patients experience a feeling of itching, spasm or pain in a limb or body part that has been previously amputated. Such pain can be induced by a conflict between the representation of the visual and proprioceptive feedback of the previously healthy limb. The phantom limb pain occurs in at least 42 to 90% of amputees. Regular drug treatment of phantom limb pain is almost never effective. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in Medline and Cochrane using the MESH terms "phantom limb pain" and "psychotherapy", published in the last 10 years, in English and Spanish, finding 49 items...
July 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728619/restless-genital-syndrome-differential-diagnosis-and-treatment-with-pramipexole
#6
Emilia Sforza, David Hupin, Frédéric Roche
Restless genital syndrome refers to excessive and persistent sensations of genital and clitoral arousal with the absence of conscious feeling of sexual desire. These sensations have been linked to symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) or an overactive bladder. Restless genital syndrome may be related to small fiber sensory neuropathy of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris, so it more frequently occurs in women. The association with RLS suggests a possible dopaminergic mechanism. We report a case of a 74-year-old woman who presented restless genital symptoms every night in association with RLS symptoms...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724824/late-onset-descemet-s-membrane-detachment-20-years-after-penetrating-keratoplasty
#7
Sharon D'Souza, Narpat Solanki, K R Sushma, Priyank Solanki
This paper reports a case of spontaneous Descemet's Membrane (DM ) detachment 20-years after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). The patient presented with acute onset blurred vision in the right eye associated with mild ocular discomfort. There was no prior history of trauma. The patient had undergone PK in the right eye 20 years back. Detailed ophthalmic examination showed best corrected visual acuity of hand movements close to face in the right eye and 20/80 in the left eye. The right eye showed diffuse graft edema but no congestion, epithelial defect, or loss of continuity of graft-host junction to suggest a traumatic etiology...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724782/dissecting-patterns-of-preparatory-activity-in-the-frontal-eye-fields-during-pursuit-target-selection
#8
Ramanujan T Raghavan, Mati Joshua
We investigated the composition of preparatory activity of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons in monkeys performing a pursuit target selection task. In response to the orthogonal motion of a large and a small reward target, monkeys initiated pursuit biased towards the direction of large reward target motion. FEF neurons exhibited robust preparatory activity preceding movement initiation in this task. Preparatory activity consisted of two components, ramping activity that was constant across target selection conditions and a flat offset in firing rates that signaled the target selection condition...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723947/the-effect-of-order-of-dwells-on-the-first-dwell-gaze-bias-for-eventually-chosen-items
#9
Takuya Onuma, Yuwadee Penwannakul, Jun Fuchimoto, Nobuyuki Sakai
The relationship between choice and eye movement has gained marked interest. The gaze bias effect, i.e., the tendency to look longer at items that are eventually chosen, has been shown to occur in the first dwell (initial cohesion of fixations for an item). In the two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) paradigm, participants would look at one of the items first (defined as first look; FL), and they would then move and look at another item (second look; SL). This study investigated how the order in which the chosen items were looked at modulates the first dwell gaze bias effect...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722302/a-novel-neurological-function-of-rice-bran-a-standardized-rice-bran-supplement-promotes-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-in-mice-through-histamine-h1-receptors
#10
Min Young Um, Sojin Kim, Young-Ho Jin, Minseok Yoon, Hyejin Yang, Jaekwang Lee, Jonghoon Jung, Yoshihiro Urade, Zhi-Li Huang, Sangoh Kwon, Suengmok Cho
SCOPE: Although rice bran has been shown to be associated with a wide spectrum of health benefits, to date, there are no reports on its effects on sleep. We investigated the effect of rice bran on sleep and the mechanism underlying this effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: Electroencephalography was used to evaluate the effects of standardized rice bran supplement (RBS) and doxepin hydrochloride (DH), a histamine H1 receptor (H1 R) antagonist used as a positive control, on sleep in mice...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720523/sensory-attenuation-of-self-initiated-sounds-maps-onto-habitual-associations-between-motor-action-and-sound
#11
Nathan G Mifsud, Thomas J Whitford
Sensory attenuation refers to reduced brain responses to self-initiated sensations relative to those produced by the external world, a distinction that is vital for dynamic motor control and our sense of agency. Typically, willed vocalizations elicit larger N1 reduction of the auditory evoked potential compared to indirectly evoked sounds, such as tones generated by button-presses, which is attributed to the prediction and cancellation of incoming signals enabled by speech motor commands. However, physical confounds exist, including different stimuli and the increased motor artefact associated with mouth vs...
July 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720127/parasomnia-overlap-disorder-parkinson-s-disease-and-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-three-case-reports
#12
Panagiotis Bargiotas, Julia Muellner, W M Michael Schuepbach, Claudio L Bassetti
BACKGROUND: Parasomnia overlap disorder (POD) is a distinct parasomnia and characterized by concomitant manifestation of rapid-eye-movement (REM)- and non-REM (NREM)-parasomnias. Although not uncommon among patients with Parkinson's disease, POD is often under-investigated. CASE PRESENTATION: This is the first report of patients with PD and features of POD that underwent deep brain stimulation. Our patients exhibited different outcomes of POD features after subthalamic deep brain stimulation...
July 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719906/a-common-ancestral-asn242ser-mutation-in-tmem67-identified-in-multiple-iranian-families-with-joubert-syndrome
#13
MohammadReza Dehghani, Majid Mojarad, Ehsan Ghayoor Karimiani, Mohammad Yahya Vahidi Mehrjardi, Afsaneh Sahebalzamani, Farah Ashrafzadeh, Mehran Beiraghi Toosi, Atiyeh Eslahi, Najmeh Ahangari, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini, Afsaneh Hassanbeigi, Azam Rasti, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Reza Maroofian
BACKGROUND: Joubert syndrome (JS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by peculiar midbrain-hindbrain malformation, known as the "molar tooth" sign. JS can manifest a broad range of signs and symptoms. The most common features of JS are hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay/intellectual disability, abnormal eye movements, and neonatal breathing abnormalities. To date, 29 genes have been shown to cause JS. METHODS: We employed whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping in a group of Iranian families with JS and Sanger sequencing of a known mutation associated with JS located in a single homozygous regions shared by affected members of the families...
July 19, 2017: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716611/predictability-of-action-sub-steps-modulates-motor-system-activation-during-the-observation-of-goal-directed-actions
#14
Ricarda Braukmann, Harold Bekkering, Margreeth Hidding, Edita Poljac, Jan K Buitelaar, Sabine Hunnius
Action perception and execution are linked in the human motor system, and researchers have proposed that this action-observation matching system underlies our ability to predict observed behavior. If the motor system is indeed involved in the generation of action predictions, activation should be modulated by the degree of predictability of an observed action. This study used EEG and eye-tracking to investigate whether and how predictability of an observed action modulates motor system activation as well as behavioral predictions in the form of anticipatory eye-movements...
July 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716259/roald-dahl-and-the-complete-locked-in-syndrome-cold-dead-body-living-brain
#15
Daniel Kondziella
The classical locked-in syndrome in which partially preserved eye movements allow for communication is well-recognized by most neurologists. Yet, it is much less well-known that patients exist who are clearly conscious but have lost all means of communicating it to the outside world because they no longer have any motor output at all. Of note, Roald Dahl, the internationally acclaimed children book author, described this complete locked-in syndrome in one of his short stories, William and Mary (1959), almost half a century before the medical community became aware of this devastating condition...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715575/saccadic-suppression-during-voluntary-versus-reactive-saccades
#16
Svenja Gremmler, Markus Lappe
Saccades are fast eye movements that reorient gaze. They can be performed voluntarily-for example, when viewing a scene-but they can also be triggered in reaction to suddenly appearing targets. The generation of these voluntary and reactive saccades have been shown to involve partially different cortical pathways. However, saccades of either type confront the visual system with a major challenge from massive image motion on the retina. Despite the fact that the whole scene is swept across the retina, a saccade usually does not elicit a percept of motion...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714555/evidence-that-eye-movement-profiles-do-not-explain-slow-binocular-rivalry-rate-in-bipolar-disorder-support-for-a-perceptual-endophenotype
#17
Phillip Cf Law, Caroline T Gurvich, Trung T Ngo, Steven M Miller
OBJECTIVES: Presenting conflicting images simultaneously, one to each eye, produces perceptual alternations known as binocular rivalry (BR). Slow BR rate has been proposed as an endophenotype for bipolar disorder (BD) for use in large-scale genome-wide association studies. However, the trait could conceivably reflect eye movement (EM) dysfunction in BD rather than anomalous perceptual processing per se. To address this question, we examined the relationship between EM profiles and BR rate for various stimulus types in BD and healthy subjects...
July 17, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714081/combining-two-model-systems-of-psychosis-the-effects-of-schizotypy-and-sleep-deprivation-on-oculomotor-control-and-psychotomimetic-states
#18
Inga Meyhöfer, Maria Steffens, Eliana Faiola, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Veena Kumari, Ulrich Ettinger
Model systems of psychosis, such as schizotypy or sleep deprivation, are valuable in informing our understanding of the etiology of the disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. Schizophrenia patients, high schizotypes, and sleep-deprived subjects are known to share deficits in oculomotor biomarkers. Here, we aimed to further validate the schizotypy and sleep deprivation models and investigated, for the first time, their interactive effects on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades, antisaccades, predictive saccades, and measures of psychotomimetic states, anxiety, depression, and stress...
July 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712570/electron-microscopic-reconstruction-of-functionally-identified-cells-in-a-neural-integrator
#19
Ashwin Vishwanathan, Kayvon Daie, Alexandro D Ramirez, Jeff W Lichtman, Emre R F Aksay, H Sebastian Seung
Neural integrators are involved in a variety of sensorimotor and cognitive behaviors. The oculomotor system contains a simple example, a hindbrain neural circuit that takes velocity signals as inputs and temporally integrates them to control eye position. Here we investigated the structural underpinnings of temporal integration in the larval zebrafish by first identifying integrator neurons using two-photon calcium imaging and then reconstructing the same neurons through serial electron microscopic analysis...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712567/perceived-object-trajectory-is-influenced-by-others-tracking-movements
#20
Colin J Palmer, Colin W G Clifford
In social interactions, it is highly salient to us where other people are looking. The ability to recover this information is critical to typical social development, helping us to coordinate our attention and behavior with others and understand their intentions and mental states [1-3]. The depth and direction in which another individual is fixating are specified jointly by their head position, eye deviation, and binocular vergence [4, 5]. It is hereto unknown, however, whether this dynamic visual information about others' focus of attention affects how we ourselves see the world...
July 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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