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Intervertebral Disc Mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624722/age-related-differences-in-the-response-of-the-l5-s1-intervertebral-disc-to-spinal-traction
#1
Ulrike H Mitchell, Paul F Beattie, Jennifer Bowden, Robert Larson, Hanuan Wang
BACKGROUND: Lumbar traction is a common treatment for low back pain; however its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that a key effect of lumbar traction is its capacity to influence fluid movement within the intervertebral disc (IVD). OBJECTIVES: To determine differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained with lumbar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the L5-S1 IVD before, and during, the application of lumbar traction...
June 9, 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620118/role-of-p38-mapk-pathway-in-the-effects-of-high-magnitude-compression-on-nucleus-pulposus-cell-senescence-in-a-disc-perfusion%C3%A2-culture
#2
Pei Li, Ruijie Zhang, Yuan Xu, Lei Song, Qiang Zhou
Nucleus pulposus (NP) cell senescence is a typical pathological feature within the degenerative intervertebral disc. As a potential inducing and aggregating factor of disc degeneration, mechanical overloading affects disc biology in multiple ways. This study was to investigate the NP cell senescence-associated phenotype under intermittent high compression in an ex vivo disc bioreactor culture, and the role of the p38-MAPK pathway in this regulatory process. Porcine discs were cultured in culture chambers of a self-developed mechanically active bioreactor and subjected to different magnitudes of dynamic compression (low-magnitude and high-magnitude: 0...
June 15, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615510/formation-function-and-exhaustion-of-notochordal-cytoplasmic-vacuoles-within-intervertebral-disc-current-understanding-and-speculation
#3
REVIEW
Feng Wang, Zeng-Xin Gao, Feng Cai, Arjun Sinkemani, Zhi-Yang Xie, Rui Shi, Ji-Nan Wei, Xiao-Tao Wu
Notochord nucleus pulposus cells are characteristic of containing abundant and giant cytoplasmic vacuoles. This review explores the embryonic formation, biological function, and postnatal exhaustion of notochord vacuoles, aiming to characterize the signal network transforming the vacuolated nucleus pulposus cells into the vacuole-less chondrocytic cells. Embryonically, the cytoplasmic vacuoles within vertebrate notochord originate from an evolutionarily conserved vacuolation process during neurulation, which may continue to provide mechanical and signal support in constructing a mammalian intervertebral disc...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612187/enhancement-of-energy-production-of-the-intervertebral-disc-by-the-implantation-of-polyurethane-mass-transfer-devices
#4
Yu-Fu Wang, Howard B Levene, Weiyong Gu, C -Y Charles Huang
Insufficient nutrient supply has been suggested to be one of the etiologies for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. We are investigating nutrient transport into the IVD as a potential treatment strategy for disc degeneration. Most cellular activities in the IVD (e.g., cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production) are mainly driven by adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) which is the main energy currency. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of increased mass transfer on ATP production in the IVD by the implantation of polyurethane (PU) mass transfer devices...
June 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608941/tgf-%C3%AE-stimulates-expression-of-chondroitin-polymerizing-factor-in-nucleus-pulposus-cells-through-the-smad3-rhoa-rock1-and-mapk-signaling-pathways
#5
Bo Hu, Chen Xu, Peng Cao, Ye Tian, Ying Zhang, Changgui Shi, Jun Xu, Wen Yuan, Huajiang Chen
The enzyme chondroitin polymerizing factor (ChPF) is primarily involved in extension of the chondroitin sulfate backbone required for the synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG). Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) upregulates sGAG synthesis in nucleus pulposus cells; however, the mechanisms mediating this induction are incompletely understood. Our study demonstrated that ChPF expression was negatively correlated with the grade of degenerative intervertebral disc disease. Treatment of nucleus pulposus cells with TGF-β induced ChPF expression and enhanced Smad2/3, RhoA/ ROCK activation, and the JNK, p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606605/cervical-and-thoracic-intervertebral-disc-hydration-increases-with-recumbency-a-study-in-101-healthy-volunteers
#6
Daniel L Belavy, Matthew Quittner, Yuan Ling, David Connell, Timo Rantalainen
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Variation in water content and size of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) is known to occur due to recumbency and has been associated with lumbar IVD herniation risk through the impact of IVD hydration on tissue mechanical properties. It is not clear if similar changes in the cervical or thoracic IVDs occur with recumbency. PURPOSE: Determine whether increases in hydration of thoracic and cervical IVDs occur with short-duration recumbency...
June 9, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591802/systemic-inflammatory-and-th17-immune-activation-among-patients-treated-for-lumbar-radiculopathy-exceeds-that-of-patients-treated-for-persistent-postoperative-neuropathic-pain
#7
Mohammed F Shamji, Daipayan Guha, Darcia Paul, Alina Shcharinsky
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of lumbar radiculopathy includes both mechanical compression and biochemical irritation of apposed neural elements. Inflammatory and immune cytokines have been implicated, induced by systemic exposure of immune-privileged intervertebral disc tissue. Surgical intervention provides improved symptoms and quality of life, but persistent postoperative neuropathic pain (PPNP) afflicts a significant fraction of patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare the inflammatory and immune phenotypes among patients undergoing structural surgery for lumbar radiculopathy and spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain...
June 7, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590060/structure-function-relationships-at-the-human-spinal-disc-vertebra-interface
#8
Britta Berg-Johansen, Aaron J Fields, Ellen C Liebenberg, Alfred Li, Jeffrey C Lotz
Damage at the intervertebral disc-vertebra interface associates with back pain and disc herniation. However, the structural and biomechanical properties of the disc-vertebra interface remain underexplored. We sought to measure mechanical properties and failure mechanisms, quantify architectural features, and assess structure-function relationships at this vulnerable location. Vertebra-disc-vertebra specimens from human cadaver thoracic spines were scanned with micro-computed tomography (μCT), surface speckle-coated, and loaded to failure in uniaxial tension...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587986/angle-ply-biomaterial-scaffold-for-annulus-fibrosus-repair-replicates-native-tissue-mechanical-properties-restores-spinal-kinematics-and-supports-cell-viability
#9
Ryan Borem, Allison Madeline, Joshua Walters, Henry Mayo, Sanjitpal Gill, Jeremy Mercuri
Annulus fibrosus (AF) damage commonly occurs due to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration/herniation. The dynamic mechanical role of the AF is essential for proper IVD function and thus it is imperative that biomaterials developed to repair the AF withstand the mechanical rigors of the native tissue. Furthermore, these biomaterials must resist accelerated degradation within the proteolytic environment of degenerate IVDs while supporting integration with host tissue. We have previously reported a novel approach for developing collagen-based, multi-laminate AF repair patches (AFRPs) that mimic the angle-ply architecture and basic tensile properties of the human AF...
June 3, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582905/a-comparative-study-on-the-mechanical-behavior-of-intervertebral-disc-using-hyperelastic-finite-element-model
#10
Feng Xie, Honghai Zhou, Wenju Zhao, Lixin Huang
BACKGROUND: Lumbar disc herniation may result in excruciating pain due to it being one of the most common diseases related to changes of intervertebral disc (IVD). In order to find a better clinical treatment and prevention scheme for relieving the pain caused by spine degeneration, the mechanical behavior analysis of IVD must be studied. OBJECTIVE: A finite element method (FEM) is used in this study to analyze the mechanical behaviors of healthy and herniated IVD...
May 19, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572152/temporal-evolution-of-disc-in-young-patients-with-low-back-pain-and-stress-reaction-in-lumbar-vertebrae
#11
A Sharma, K Sargar, A Salter
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although stress-induced bony changes often resolve with conservative treatment, the long-term effects of such mechanical stresses on intervertebral discs have not been studied. We aimed to assess the differences in the temporal evolution of disc in segments of the lumbar spine with and without signs of increased mechanical stresses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using MR imaging performed >6 months apart, 2 radiologists evaluated lumbar intervertebral discs for degenerative changes affecting the annulus fibrosus, the nucleus pulposus, and the endplates in 42 patients (22 male, 20 female; mean age, 16...
June 1, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570296/adamts5-deficiency-protects-mice-from-chronic-tobacco-smoking-induced-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#12
Kevin Ngo, Pedro Pohl, Adriana S Leme, Joon Lee, Peter Di, Peter Roughley, Paul D Robbins, Laura J Niedernhofer, Gwendolyn Sowa, James D Kang, Steven S Shapiro, Nam V Vo
STUDY DESIGN: ADAMTS5-deficient and WT mice were chronically exposed to tobacco smoke to investigate effects on intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a role for ADAMTS5 in mediating tobacco smoking-induced IDD SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: We previously demonstrated that chronic tobacco smoking causes IDD in mice due, in part, to proteolytic destruction of disc aggrecan. However, it was unknown which matrix proteinase(s) drive these detrimental effects...
May 31, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560408/collagen-derived-n-acetylated-proline-glycine-proline-upregulates-the-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-extracellular-matrix-proteases-in-nucleus-pulposus-cells-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-signaling-pathways
#13
Chencheng Feng, Jinyue He, Yang Zhang, Minghong Lan, Minghui Yang, Huan Liu, Bo Huang, Yong Pan, Yue Zhou
N-acetylated proline-glycine-proline (N-Ac-PGP) is a chemokine involved in inflammatory diseases and is found to accumulate in degenerative discs. N-Ac-PGP has been demonstrated to have a pro-inflammatory effect on human cartilage endplate stem cells. However, the effect of N-Ac-PGP on human intervertebral disc cells, especially nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of N-Ac-PGP on the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteases in NP cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this effect...
May 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559201/dysregulated-mir-127-5p-contributes-to-type-ii-collagen-degradation-by-targeting-matrix-metalloproteinase-13-in-human-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#14
Wen-Bin Hua, Xing-Huo Wu, Yu-Kun Zhang, Yu Song, Ji Tu, Liang Kang, Kang-Cheng Zhao, Shuai Li, Kun Wang, Wei Liu, Zeng-Wu Shao, Shu-Hua Yang, Cao Yang
BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a chronic disease associated with the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 is a major enzyme that mediates the degradation of ECM components. MMP-13 has been predicted to be a potential target of miR-127-5p. However, the exact function of miR-127-5p in IDD is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: We designed this study to evaluate the correlation between miR-127-5p level and the degeneration of human intervertebral discs and explore the potential mechanisms...
May 27, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555313/uneven-intervertebral-motion-sharing-is-related-to-disc-degeneration-and-is-greater-in-patients-with-chronic-non-specific-low-back-pain-an-in-vivo-cross-sectional-cohort-comparison-of-intervertebral-dynamics-using-quantitative-fluoroscopy
#15
Alan Breen, Alexander Breen
PURPOSE: Evidence of intervertebral mechanical markers in chronic, non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) is lacking. This research used dynamic fluoroscopic studies to compare intervertebral angular motion sharing inequality and variability (MSI and MSV) during continuous lumbar motion in CNSLBP patients and controls. Passive recumbent and active standing protocols were used and the relationships of these variables to age and disc degeneration were assessed. METHODS: Twenty patients with CNSLBP and 20 matched controls received quantitative fluoroscopic lumbar spine examinations using a standardised protocol for data collection and image analysis...
May 29, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545772/plasma-vitamin-d-and-osteo-cartilaginous-markers-in-italian-males-affected-by-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-focus-on-seasonal-and-pathological-trend-of-type-ii-collagen-degradation
#16
Marco Brayda-Bruno, Marco Viganò, Sabina Cauci, Jacopo A Vitale, Laura de Girolamo, Paola De Luca, Giovanni Lombardi, Giuseppe Banfi, Alessandra Colombini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma vitamin D and cross-linked C-telopeptides of type I (CTx-I) and type II (CTx-II) collagen concentrations in males with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (IVD) compared to healthy controls. Improved knowledge might suggest to optimize the vitamin D status of IVD patients and contribute to clarify mechanisms of cartilage degradation. METHODS: 79 Italian males with lumbar IVD assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 79 age, sex and BMI-matched healthy controls were enrolled...
May 22, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536643/icariin-prevents-h2o2-induced-apoptosis-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-rat-nucleus-pulposus-intervertebral-disc-cells
#17
Xiangyu Deng, Sheng Chen, Dong Zheng, Zengwu Shao, Hang Liang, Hongzhi Hu
Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside derived from the Chinese herb Epimedium sagittatum. This study investigated the mechanism by which icariin prevents H2O2-induced apoptosis in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. NP cells were isolated from the rat intervertebral disc and they were divided into five groups after 3 passages: (A) blank control; (B) 200 μM H2O2; (C) 200 μM H2O2 + 20 μM icariin; (D) 20 μM icariin + 200 μM H2O2 + 25 μM LY294002; (E) 200 μM H2O2 + 25 μM LY294002. LY294002 is a selective inhibitor of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526629/the-ultra-structural-organization-of-the-elastic-network-in-the-intra-and-inter-lamellar-matrix-of-the-intervertebral-disc
#18
J Tavakoli, D M Elliott, J J Costi
The inter-lamellar matrix (ILM) -located between adjacent lamellae of the annulus fibrosus- consists of a complex structure of elastic fibres, while elastic fibers of the intra-lamellar region are aligned predominantly parallel to the collagen fibers. The organization of elastic fibres under low magnification, in both inter- and intra-lamellar regions, was studied by light microscopic analysis of histologically prepared samples; however, little is known about their ultrastructure. An ultrastructural visualization of elastic fibres in the inter-lamellar matrix is crucial for describing their contribution to structural integrity, as well as mechanical properties of the annulus fibrosus...
May 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526405/hypoxia-inducible-factor-l%C3%AE-mediates-aggrecan-and-collagen-%C3%AE-expression-via-notch1-signaling-in-nucleus-pulposus-cells-during-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#19
Zhuochao Liu, Changwei Li, Xiangchao Meng, Yunting Bai, Jin Qi, Jun Wang, Qi Zhou, Weibin Zhang, Xingkai Zhang
Although hypoxia-inducible factor-lα (HIF-lα) has been reported to have an important role in the metabolism and synthesis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs), the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. Here, we show for the first time that NOTCH1 expression is decreased in NPs isolated from degenerated human intervertebral discs (IVDs), as well as in the NPs of NP-specific HIF-1α(-/-) mice. Our study reveals that overexpression of HIF-1α leads to increased expression of NOTCH1, the NOTCH1 ligand JAGGED1, and its target gene hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1), while also upregulating collagen Π and aggrecan expression in human NPCs...
May 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520505/early-blockade-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-spinal-cord-injured-dogs-results-in-a-long-term-increase-in-bladder-compliance
#20
Jonathan Michael Levine, Noah D Cohen, Thomas Fandel, Gwendolyn Joan Levine, Joseph M Mankin, John F Griffin, Sharon C Kerwin, C Elizabeth Boudreau, Alpa Trivedi, Linda Noble-Haeusslein
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is often accompanied by reduced bladder compliance, which contributes to adverse conditions including urinary tract infections and vesicoureteral reflux. Reduced compliance is, in part, attributed to extensive remodeling of the bladder wall including the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we tested the hypothesis that blockade of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), known for their ability to remodel the ECM, improves bladder compliance in dogs with SCI. We first evaluated dogs with naturally occurring SCIs resulting from intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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