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Intervertebral Disc Mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772868/-significance-of-cell-autophagy-in-resorption-of-lumbar-disc-herniation
#1
REVIEW
Zhi-Jun Diao, Hong Jiang, Jin-Tao Liu
As a self-protective mechanism of cells, autophagy of cells can maintain cell stability by degrading self-aging substances, and it can be highly induced. The ability of autophagy to degraded cells will decrease with age. The resorption phenomenon after lumbar disc herniation is one of the effective mechanisms in conservative treatment of lumbar disc herniation. The degenerative lesion of intervertebral disc is one of the main reasons of lumbar disc herniation. Cell autophagy is extensive participation in the degeneration of lumbar intervertebral disc, delaying the occurrence of degenerative disease...
April 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765419/low-magnitude-of-compression-enhances-biosynthesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-nucleus-pulposus-cells-via-the-trpv4-dependent-pathway
#2
Yibo Gan, Bing Tu, Pei Li, Jixing Ye, Chen Zhao, Lei Luo, Chengmin Zhang, Zetong Zhang, Linyong Zhu, Qiang Zhou
Mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) based therapy is regarded as a promising tissue engineering strategy to achieve nucleus pulposus (NP) regeneration for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). However, it is still a challenge to promote the biosynthesis of MSC to meet the requirement of NP regeneration. The purpose of this study was to optimize the compressive magnitude to enhance the extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition towards discogenesis of MSCs. Thus, we constructed a 3D culture model for MSCs to bear different magnitudes of compression for 7 days (5%, 10%, and 20% at the frequency of 1...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758454/biomechanical-investigation-on-the-influence-of-the-regional-material-degeneration-of-an-intervertebral-disc-in-a-lower-lumbar-spinal-unit-a-finite-element-study
#3
Masni-Azian, Masao Tanaka
Intervertebral disc degeneration involves changes in its material properties that affect the mechanical functions of the spinal system. However, the alteration of the biomechanics of a spinal segment through specific material degradation in a specific region is poorly understood. In this study, the influence of the constitutive material degeneration of disc tissues on the mechanics of a lower lumbar spinal unit was examined using a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of the L4-L5 functional spinal unit...
May 6, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754321/chronic-low-back-pain-a-mini-review-on-pharmacological-management-and-pathophysiological-insights-from-clinical-and-pre-clinical-data
#4
REVIEW
Thomas S W Park, Andy Kuo, Maree T Smith
Globally, low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common health problems affecting humans. The lifetime prevalence of non-specific LBP is approximately 84%, with the chronic prevalence at about 23%. Chronic LBP in humans is defined as LBP that persists for more than 12 weeks without a significant pain improvement. Although there are numerous evidence-based guidelines on the management of acute LBP, this is not the case for chronic LBP, which is regarded as particularly difficult to treat. Research aimed at discovering new drug treatments for alleviation of chronic mechanical LBP is lacking due to the paucity of knowledge on the pathobiology of this condition, despite its high morbidity in the affected adult population...
May 12, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753911/aggrecan-like-biomimetic-proteoglycans-bpgs-composed-of-natural-chondroitin-sulfate-bristles-grafted-onto-poly-acrylic-acid-core-for-molecular-engineering-of-the-extracellular-matrix
#5
K Prudnikova, S E Lightfoot Vidal, S Sarkar, T Yu, R W Yucha, N Ganesh, L S Penn, L Han, C L Schauer, E J Vresilovic, M S Marcolongo
Biomimetic proteoglycans (BPGs) were designed to mimic the three-dimensional (3D) bottlebrush architecture of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycans, such as aggrecan. BPGs were synthesized by grafting native chondroitin sulfate bristles onto a synthetic poly(acrylic acid) core to form BPGs at a molecular weight of approximately ∼1.6 MDa. The aggrecan mimics were characterized chemically, physically, and structurally, confirming the 3D bottlebrush architecture as well as a level of water uptake, which is greater than that of the natural proteoglycan, aggrecan...
May 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746847/csa-attenuates-compression-induced-nucleus-pulposus-mesenchymal-stem-cells-apoptosis-via-alleviating-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Zhiliang Li, Songfeng Chen, Kaige Ma, Xiao Lv, Hui Lin, Binwu Hu, Ruijun He, Zengwu Shao
AIMS: This study aims to investigate the protective effects and potential mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA), which efficiently inhibits mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, on compression-induced apoptosis of human nucleus pulposus mesenchymal stem cells (NP-MSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human NP-MSCs were subjected to various periods of 1.0 MPa compression. Cell viability was evaluated using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The cellular ultrastructure and ATP level were analyzed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ATP detection kit respectively...
May 7, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745502/-influence-analysis-of-aging-of-spinal-segment-on-the-mechanical-behavior-of-vertebral-cortex
#7
Yongtao Lu, Yue Liu, Chengwei Wu
The risk of vertebral cortical shell fracture increases with aging. However, it remains unclear how aging contributes to cortex fracture at present. The aim of this study is to make understanding of the mechanism of how the spinal aging influences the cortical shell strain. Two finite element (FE) models of spinal segments (mildly and fully aged) were created, and then were compared to the FE models of the healthy spinal segment. The FE models of the aged spinal segments were generated by modifying both the geometry of the intervertebral disc (IVD) and the material properties of the spinal components...
June 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745371/microrna-194-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-response-in-nucleus-pulposus-cells-of-the-intervertebral-disc-by-targeting-tnf-receptor-associated-factor-6-traf6
#8
Lili Kong, Mingxiao Sun, Zhaofu Jiang, Liming Li, Bing Lu
BACKGROUND The dramatic increase of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is considered to be a major cause of discogenic low back pain. The current study focused on the regulatory function of microRNA-194 (miR-194) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS LPS was used to treat NP cells to induce inflammatory responses. MiRNA and gene expression were detected by quantitative PCR. Proteins and protein expression levels were detected by Western blot and ELISA kit...
May 10, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738991/digital-tracking-algorithm-reveals-the-influence-of-structural-irregularities-on-joint-movements-in-the-human-cervical-spine
#9
Christian Balkovec, Jim Veldhuis, John W Baird, G Wayne Brodland, Stuart M McGill
BACKGROUND: Disc height loss and osteophytes change the local mechanical environment in the spine; while previous research has examined kinematic dysfunction under degenerative change, none has looked at the influence of disc height loss and osteophytes throughout movement. METHODS: Twenty patients with pain related to the head, neck or shoulders were imaged via videofluoroscopy as they underwent sagittal-plane flexion and extension. A clinician graded disc height loss and osteophytes as "severe/moderate", "mild", or "none"...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727498/frequency-dependent-shear-properties-of-annulus-fibrosus-and-nucleus-pulposus-by-magnetic-resonance-elastography
#10
P F Beauchemin, P V Bayly, J R Garbow, J L S Schmidt, R J Okamoto, F Chériet, D Périé
Aging and degeneration are associated with changes in mechanical properties in the intervertebral disc, generating interest in the establishment of mechanical properties as early biomarkers for the degenerative cascade. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) of the intervertebral disc is usually limited to the nucleus pulposus, as the annulus fibrosus is stiffer and less hydrated. The objective of this work was to adapt high-frequency needle MRE to the characterization of the shear modulus of both the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus...
May 4, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723636/mechanical-loading-of-intervertebral-disc-modulates-microglia-proliferation-activation-and-chemotaxis
#11
Stefania Elena Navone, Marianna Peroglio, Laura Guarnaccia, Matteo Beretta, Sibylle Grad, Moira Paroni, Chiara Cordiglieri, Marco Locatelli, Mauro Pluderi, Paolo Rampini, Rolando Campanella, Mauro Alini, Giovanni Marfia
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to assess the effects of the neuroinflammatory microenvironment of a mechanically-induced degenerating IVD on neuroinflammatory like cells such as microglia, in order to comprehend the role of microglial cells in degenerative disc disease. METHODS: Bovine caudal IVDs were kept in culture in an ex vivo bioreactor under high frequency loading and limited nutrition or in free swelling conditions as control samples. Conditioned media (CM) were collected, analysed for cytokine and neurotrophin content and applied to microglial cells for neuroinflammatory activation assessment...
April 30, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721452/finite-element-comparison-between-the-human-and-the-ovine-lumbar-intervertebral-disc
#12
Gloria Casaroli, Tomaso Villa, Fabio Galbusera
Introduction: Nowadays it is still not clear which loading conditions are responsible for lumbar intervertebral disc failure. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of different loading conditions on the herniation processes, and many of them were based on the ovine model. However, the biomechanical similarities between the human and the ovine lumbar disc have been demonstrated in the main planes only, whereas it is not known if they are comparable under complex loading conditions too...
October 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721028/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-protects-nucleus-pulposus-cells-from-compression-induced-apoptosis-and-necroptosis-via-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#13
Wenzheng Wang, Xiangcheng Qing, Baichuan Wang, Kaige Ma, Yulong Wei, Zengwu Shao
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a kind of hydrophilic bile acid, which could protect cells from death via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the role of TUDCA in compression-induced intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) has not been elucidated. Here, we used a previously described device to mimic in vivo compression conditions. NP cells treated with DMSO or TUDCA were exposed to compression. Then, cell viability, morphology, and apoptosis were detected. Furthermore, apoptosis-related proteins and necroptosis markers were detected too...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695079/the-role-of-adipokines-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#14
REVIEW
Anirudh Sharma
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is an important cause of low back pain. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to abnormal and excessive mechanical loading, inflammation may be a key driver for both IDD and low back pain. Obesity, a known mechanical risk factor of IDD, is now increasingly being recognized as a systemic inflammatory state with adipokines being postulated as likely inflammatory mediators. The aim of this review was to summarize the current literature regarding the inflammatory role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of IDD...
April 24, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673061/decellularization-and-characterization-of-a-whole-intervertebral-disc-xenograft-scaffold
#15
Austin Hensley, Jess Rames, Victor Casler, Christopher Rood, Joshua Walters, Christopher Fernandez, Sanjitpal Gill, Jeremy Mercuri
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a multi-factor process that results in the physical destruction of the nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF). This compromises IVD function and causes significant disability and economic burden. Strategies to replace the entire composite structure of the IVD are limited and most approaches do not recapitulate the heterogenous biochemical composition, micro-architecture or mechanical properties of the native tissue. Our central hypothesis was that donor IVDs which resemble the size and biochemistry of human lumbar IVDs could be successfully decellularized while retaining the tissue's structure and function with the long-term goal of creating a composite scaffold for tissue engineering the human IVD...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663489/high-glucose-induced-excessive-reactive-oxygen-species-promote-apoptosis-through-mitochondrial-damage-in-rat-cartilage-endplate-cells
#16
Zengxin Jiang, Wei Lu, Qingmin Zeng, Defang Li, Lei Ding, Jingping Wu
PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important factor in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Apoptosis of cartilage endplate (CEP) cells is one of the initiators of IDD. However, the effects of high glucose on CEP cells are still unknown. Therefore, we conducted the present study to evaluate the effects of high glucose on CEP cells and to identify the mechanisms of those effects. METHODS: Rat CEP cells were isolated and cultured in 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS, normal control) or high-glucose medium (10% FBS + 0...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653381/swelling-of-fiber-reinforced-soft-tissues-is-affected-by-fiber-orientation-fiber-stiffness-and-lamella-structure
#17
Bo Yang, Grace D O'Connell
Native and engineered fiber-reinforced tissues are composites comprised of stiff collagen fibers embedded within an extrafibrillar matrix that is capable of swelling by absorbing water molecules. Tissue swelling is important for understanding stress distributions between collagen fibers and extrafibrillar matrix, as well as for understanding mechanisms of tissue failure. The swelling behavior of fiber-reinforced tissues in the musculoskeletal system has been largely attributed to the glycosaminoglycan content...
April 3, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651107/circular-rna-circ-4099-is-induced-by-tnf-%C3%AE-and-regulates-ecm-synthesis-by-blocking-mir-616-5p-inhibition-of-sox9-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#18
Hua Wang, Peiheng He, Hehai Pan, Jun Long, Jianru Wang, Zemin Li, Hui Liu, Weiying Jiang, Zhaomin Zheng
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in the initiation and development of different diseases. Here, we detected their role in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. An Arraystar human circular RNA microarray assay was used to detect circRNAs in normal and degenerated human IVD nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues. The role of circ-4099 in IVDD and its mechanism were evaluated by qRT-PCR and gain-of-function/loss-of-function studies. Interaction networks for competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), miRNAs, and miRNA target gene were detected by bioinformatics analysis, RNA immunoprecipitation and luciferase assay...
April 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649568/honokiol-alleviates-the-degeneration-of-intervertebral-disc-via-suppressing-the-activation-of-txnip-nlrp3-inflammasome-signal-pathway
#19
Pan Tang, Jia-Ming Gu, Zi-Ang Xie, Yu Gu, Zhi-Wei Jie, Kang-Mao Huang, Ji-Ying Wang, Shun-Wu Fan, Xue-Sheng Jiang, Zhi-Jun Hu
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a multifactorial disease and responsible for many spine related disorders, causes disability in the workforce and heavy social costs all over the world. Honokiol, a low molecular weight natural product, could penetrate into and distribute in IVDs to achieve therapeutic effect in a rat tail model. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory, antioxidation and chondroprotective effect of honokiol using nucleus pulposus cells and investigate its mechanisms to provide a new basis for future clinical treatment of IVDD...
April 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622665/shock-attenuation-in-the-human-lumbar-spine-during-walking-and-running
#20
Eric R Castillo, Daniel E Lieberman
During locomotion, each step generates a shock wave that travels through the body toward the head. Without mechanisms for attenuation, repeated shocks can lead to pathology. Shock attenuation (SA) in the lower limb has been well studied, but little is known about how posture affects SA in the spine. To test the hypothesis that lumbar lordosis (LL) contributes to SA, 27 adults (14 male, 13 female) walked and ran on a treadmill. Two lightweight, tri-axial accelerometers were affixed to the skin overlying T12/L1 and L5/S1...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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