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Intervertebral Disc Mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917706/the-effects-of-needle-damage-on-annulus-fibrosus-micromechanics
#1
Claudio Vergari, Jessica C Mansfield, Daniel Chan, Andrew Clarke, Judith R Meakin, Peter C Winlove
Needle puncture of the intervertebral disc can initiate a mechanical and biochemical cascade leading to disc degeneration. Puncture's mechanical effects have been shown near the puncture site, mechanical effects should be observed far, relative to needle size, from the puncture site, given the disc-wide damage induced by the stab. The aim of this work was to quantify these far-field effects, and to observe the local structural damage provoked by the needle. Strips of cow tail annulus fibrosus underwent two consecutive mechanical loadings to 5% tensile strain; fifteen samples were punctured in a radial direction with a randomly assigned needle between the two loadings (needle gauges between 19 and 23)...
September 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915712/formation-function-and-exhaustion-of-notochordal-cytoplasmic-vacuoles-within-intervertebral-disc-current-understanding-and-speculation
#2
REVIEW
Feng Wang, Zeng-Xin Gao, Feng Cai, Arjun Sinkemani, Zhi-Yang Xie, Rui Shi, Ji-Nan Wei, Xiao-Tao Wu
Notochord nucleus pulposus cells are characteristic of containing abundant and giant cytoplasmic vacuoles. This review explores the embryonic formation, biological function, and postnatal exhaustion of notochord vacuoles, aiming to characterize the signal network transforming the vacuolated nucleus pulposus cells into the vacuole-less chondrocytic cells. Embryonically, the cytoplasmic vacuoles within vertebrate notochord originate from an evolutionarily conserved vacuolation process during neurulation, which may continue to provide mechanical and signal support in constructing a mammalian intervertebral disc...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911837/quantifying-center-of-pressure-variability-in-chondrodystrophoid-dogs
#3
S R Blau, L M Davis, A M Gorney, C S Dohse, K D Williams, J-H Lim, W G Pfitzner, E Laber, G S Sawicki, N J Olby
The center of pressure (COP) position reflects a combination of proprioceptive, motor and mechanical function. As such, it can be used to quantify and characterize neurologic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the movement of COP and its variability in healthy chondrodystrophoid dogs while walking to provide a baseline for comparison to dogs with spinal cord injury due to acute intervertebral disc herniations. Fifteen healthy adult chondrodystrophoid dogs were walked on an instrumented treadmill that recorded the location of each dog's COP as it walked...
August 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900134/minimally-invasive-micro-indentation-mapping-tissue-mechanics-at-the-tip-of-an-18g-needle
#4
Steven V Beekmans, Kaj S Emanuel, Theodoor H Smit, Davide Iannuzzi
Experiments regarding the mechanical properties of soft tissues mostly rely on data collected on specimens that are extracted from their native environment. During the extraction and in the time period between the extraction and the completion of the measurements, however, the specimen may undergo structural changes which could generate unwanted artifacts. To further investigate the role of mechanics in physiology and possibly use it in clinical practices, it is thus of paramount importance to develop instruments that could measure the viscoelastic response of a tissue without necessarily excising it...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887038/resveratrol-protects-against-mitochondrial-dysfunction-through-autophagy-activation-in-human-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#5
Baolong Zhang, Linfei Xu, Naiqiang Zhuo, Jieliang Shen
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is closely related with aging, whereas mitochondrial damage is a common feature of aging that results in cell apoptosis. Resveratrol (RES) is a natural antioxidant that protects against mitochondrial dysfunction in various cells. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of RES against mitochondrial dysfunction and human nucleus pulposus cell (NPC) apoptosis. We found that mitochondrial dysfunction and NPC apoptosis could be induced under oxidative stress by 100 μmol/l of H2O2...
September 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886203/a-novel-method-for-repeatable-failure-testing-of-annulus-fibrosus
#6
Benjamin Werbner, Minhao Zhou, Grace O'Connell
Tears in the annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disc can result in herniation of the nucleus pulposus and progressive disc degeneration. Understanding AF failure mechanics is particularly important as research moves towards developing biological repair strategies for herniated discs. Unfortunately, failure mechanics of fiber-reinforced tissues, particularly those with fibers oriented off-axis from the applied load, is not well understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mid-length notch geometries in producing repeatable and consistent tissue failure within the gauge region of AF mechanical test specimens...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879014/annulus-fibrosus-functional-extrafibrillar-and-fibrous-mechanical-behaviour-experimental-and-computational-characterisation
#7
Marlène Mengoni, Oluwasegun Kayode, Sebastien N F Sikora, Fernando Y Zapata-Cornelio, Diane E Gregory, Ruth K Wilcox
The development of current surgical treatments for intervertebral disc damage could benefit from virtual environment accounting for population variations. For such models to be reliable, a relevant description of the mechanical properties of the different tissues and their role in the functional mechanics of the disc is of major importance. The aims of this work were first to assess the physiological hoop strain in the annulus fibrosus in fresh conditions (n = 5) in order to extract a functional behaviour of the extrafibrillar matrix; then to reverse-engineer the annulus fibrosus fibrillar behaviour (n = 6)...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863006/intervertebral-disc-degeneration-in-a-percutaneous-mouse-tail-injury-model
#8
Zuozhen Tian, Xiaoyuan Ma, Miersalijiang Yasen, Robert L Mauck, Ling Qin, Frances S Shofer, Lachlan J Smith, Maurizio Pacifici, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Yejia Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Intervertebral disc (IVD) degenerates progressively with age and after injuries. In this study, we aimed to characterize early molecular events underlying disc degeneration using a mouse tail IVD injury model. DESIGN: We have established a transcutaneous minimally invasive approach to induce mouse tail IVD injury under fluoroscopic guidance. Morphological and molecular changes in the injured IVDs are compared with the baseline features of adjacent intact levels...
August 31, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853179/hyperosmolarity-induces-notochordal-cell-differentiation-with-aquaporin3-upregulation-and-reduced-n-cadherin-expression
#9
Paolo E Palacio-Mancheno, Thomas W Evashwick-Rogler, Damien M Laudier, Devina Purmessur, James C Iatridis
The nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs (IVD) undergoes dramatic changes with aging including loss of its gelatinous structure and large, vacuolated notochordal cells (NCs) in favor of a matrix-rich structure populated by small NP cells (sNPCs). NP maturation also involves a loading-pattern shift from pressurization to matrix deformations, and these events are thought to predispose to degeneration. Little is known of the triggering events and cellular alterations involved with NP maturation, which remains a fundamental open spinal mechanobiology question...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822738/a-study-of-the-damage-behaviour-of-porcine-intervertebral-discs-in-a-bioreactor-environment
#10
M Azarnoosh, M Stoffel, B Markert
The intervertebral discs are cartilaginous, articulating structures that lie between vertebral bodies, allowing flexibility, transmission, modification, and also distribution of the forces to the spinal column. Disc degeneration is characterised by progressive loss of disc height and exaggerated radial bulging. Therefore, the spine becomes shorter, stiffer, and less mobile. In the last several decades, there is a strong need for a tissue engineering strategy that alleviates pain and restores spine function by directly addressing the underlying biological causes of disc degeneration...
August 9, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819180/egfr-is-a-pivotal-regulator-of-thrombin-mediated-inflammation-in-primary-human-nucleus-pulposus-culture
#11
Bor-Ren Huang, Tzu-Sheng Chen, Da-Tian Bau, I-Chen Chuang, Cheng-Fang Tsai, Pei-Chun Chang, Dah-Yuu Lu
We found that the coagulation and cytokine pathways were important mechanisms involve in the degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVD) using a microarray approach to analyze gene expression in different grades of specimens. Furthermore, using a cytokine/chemokine array, a significant increase in CXCL8 expression was observed in human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells after thrombin treatment. The enhancement of CXCL8 expression by thrombin was activated by the PAR1 receptor. Importantly, analysis of degenerated human NP tissue samples showed that EGFR expression positively correlated with the grade of tissue degeneration...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810608/mechanism-of-microrna-21-regulating-il-6-inflammatory-response-and-cell-autophagy-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#12
Hao Lin, Wenzhi Zhang, Tao Zhou, Wansu Li, Ziao Chen, Chaochao Ji, Chao Zhang, Fang He
This study investigated the mechanism of microRNA-21 in regulating IL-6 inflammatory response and cell autophagy in intervertebral disc degeneration. A total of 10 patients with lumbar disc herniation accompanied by nerve root pain (observation group) and 10 patients with lumbar burst fractures (control group) were selected. The nucleus pulposus tissues of the lesion were obtained during operation for cell culture. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the expression of microRNA-21...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810570/research-on-the-function-and-related-mechanism-of-p27-gene-in-the-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-of-mice
#13
Xiao Liu, Deguo Wang, Zhengzheng Zhang, Fenghui Zhu, Aiming Yao, Jiwei Tian, Dengshun Miao
This study aims to investigate the function and related mechanism of P27 gene in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration of mice. X-ray, immunohistochemical staining, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) histochemical staining were used to analyze the phenotypic difference of the intervertebral discs of 4-week-old mice with P27 gene knockout (P27(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice in the same brood. Protein in the intervertebral disc was extracted and western blot analysis was employed to detect the changes in the expression of related molecules in the Shh-signal pathways, including Shh, Patched, Smoothened and Gli2...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810568/mechanism-of-microrna-146a-mediated-il-6-stat3-signaling-in-lumbar-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#14
Tao Zhou, Hao Lin, Ziao Cheng, Chaochao Ji, Chao Zhang, Jiwei Tian
The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanism of microRNA (miR)-146a-mediated activation of interleukin-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (IL-6/STAT3) in lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. To obtain intervertebral tissue, we recruited 5 patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (experimental group) and 5 patients with lumbar burst fracture (control group). Nucleus pulposus tissue was extracted by surgery and cultured. miR-146a empty vector, mimic, and inhibitor were transfected into the two groups of cells for 24 h and the levels of IL-6, type II collagen (Col II), aggrecan, STAT3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motifs (ADAMTS) were detected...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805297/mesenchymal-stem-cells-deliver-exogenous-mir-21-via-exosomes-to-inhibit-nucleus-pulposus-cell-apoptosis-and-reduce-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#15
Xiaofei Cheng, Guoying Zhang, Liang Zhang, Ying Hu, Kai Zhang, Xiaojiang Sun, Changqing Zhao, Hua Li, Yan Michael Li, Jie Zhao
Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation into the IVD (intervertebral disc) may be beneficial in inhibiting apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and alleviating IVD degeneration, the underlying mechanism of this therapeutic process has not been fully explained. The purpose of this study was to explore the protective effect of MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-exosomes) on NPC apoptosis and IVD degeneration and investigate the regulatory effect of miRNAs in MSC-exosomes and associated mechanisms for NPC apoptosis...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772392/numerical-prediction-of-the-mechanical-failure-of-the-intervertebral-disc-under-complex-loading-conditions
#16
Gloria Casaroli, Tomaso Villa, Tito Bassani, Nikolaus Berger-Roscher, Hans-Joachim Wilke, Fabio Galbusera
Finite element modeling has been widely used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the intervertebral disc. Previous models have been generally limited to the prediction of the disc behavior under simple loading conditions, thus neglecting its response to complex loads, which may induce its failure. The aim of this study was to generate a finite element model of the ovine lumbar intervertebral disc, in which the annulus was characterized by an anisotropic hyperelastic formulation, and to use it to define which mechanical condition was unsafe for the disc...
January 3, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767637/osmotic-pressure-alters-time-dependent-recovery-behavior-of-the-intervertebral-disc
#17
Semih E Bezci, Grace D O'Connell
STUDY DESIGN: Disc recovery behavior under hypo- and hyper-osmotic pressure OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the effect of osmotic pressure on the unloaded recovery response of healthy discs SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: The intervertebral disc is a poroviscoelastic material that experiences large fluctuations in water composition throughout a diurnal loading cycle. Fluid flow out of the disc occurs through mechanical loading, while fluid flow into the disc occurs through passive diffusion due to an imbalance of ions between the disc and its surrounding environment...
August 1, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767620/effects-of-training-and-overtraining-on-intervertebral-disc-proteoglycans
#18
Renato H S Ueta, Victor A F Tarini, Carlos E Franciozi, Marcel J S Tamaoki, Valquíria P Medeiros, Helena B Nader, Flávio Faloppa
STUDY DESIGN: Animal experimental study OBJECTIVE.: Evaluate the effect of physical activity and overtraining condition on glycosaminoglycan concentration on the intervertebral disc (IVD) using a rat running model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Some guidelines recommend the implementation of a physical exercise program as treatment for low back pain, however cyclic loading impact on the health of the intervertebral disc and whether there is a dose-response relationship is still incompletely understood...
August 1, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765874/upregulation-of-nuclear-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-acid-sensing-ion-channel-3-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-following-application-of-nucleus-pulposus-onto-the-nerve-root-in-rats
#19
Dong Wang, Hao Pan, Hang Zhu, Li Zhu, Yong-Jiang He, Jian Wang, Gao-Yong Jia
The nucleus pulposus (NP) is an avascular, hydrated tissue that permits the intervertebral disc to resist compressive loads to the spine. To determine the mechanisms by which intervertebral disc degeneration is caused by the nucleus pulposus, the expression and regulation of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) were examined. For the intervertebral disc degeneration model, NP was harvested from the tail of rats and applied to the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG). The mechanical pain withdrawal threshold (PWT) in NP model rats was assessed...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764957/an-anisotropic-multiphysics-damage-model-with-application-to-annulus-fibrosus
#20
Xin Gao, Qiaoqiao Zhu, Weiyong Gu
An anisotropic multiphysics damage model is developed to characterize the couplings among multiple physical fields within soft tissues and the tissue damage based on thermodynamic principles. This anisotropic multiphysics damage model integrates the continuum mixture theory and a continuum damage model, and the anisotropic damage is considered by evolution of internal damage variables governing the anisotropic mechanical behaviors of tissues. The energy dissipation associated with the transport of fluid and ions is generally related to tissue damage...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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