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Intervertebral Disc Mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536643/icariin-prevents-h2o2-induced-apoptosis-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-rat-nucleus-pulposus-intervertebral-disc-cells
#1
Xiangyu Deng, Sheng Chen, Dong Zheng, Zengwu Shao, Hang Liang, Hongzhi Hu
Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside derived from the Chinese herb Epimedium sagittatum. This study investigated the mechanism by which icariin prevents H2O2-induced apoptosis in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. NP cells were isolated from the rat intervertebral disc and they were divided into five groups after 3 passages: (A) blank control; (B) 200 μM H2O2; (C) 200 μM H2O2 + 20 μM icariin; (D) 20 μM icariin + 200 μM H2O2 + 25 μM LY294002; (E) 200 μM H2O2 + 25 μM LY294002. LY294002 is a selective inhibitor of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526629/the-ultra-structural-organization-of-the-elastic-network-in-the-intra-and-inter-lamellar-matrix-of-the-intervertebral-disc
#2
J Tavakoli, D M Elliott, J J Costi
The inter-lamellar matrix (ILM) -located between adjacent lamellae of the annulus fibrosus- consists of a complex structure of elastic fibres, while elastic fibers of the intra-lamellar region are aligned predominantly parallel to the collagen fibers. The organization of elastic fibres under low magnification, in both inter- and intra-lamellar regions, was studied by light microscopic analysis of histologically prepared samples; however, little is known about their ultrastructure. An ultrastructural visualization of elastic fibres in the inter-lamellar matrix is crucial for describing their contribution to structural integrity, as well as mechanical properties of the annulus fibrosus...
May 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526405/hypoxia-inducible-factor-l%C3%AE-mediates-aggrecan-and-collagen-%C3%AE-expression-via-notch1-signaling-in-nucleus-pulposus-cells-during-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#3
Zhuochao Liu, Changwei Li, Xiangchao Meng, Yunting Bai, Jin Qi, Jun Wang, Qi Zhou, Weibin Zhang, Xingkai Zhang
Although hypoxia-inducible factor-lα (HIF-lα) has been reported to have an important role in the metabolism and synthesis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs), the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. Here, we show for the first time that NOTCH1 expression is decreased in NPs isolated from degenerated human intervertebral discs (IVDs), as well as in the NPs of NP-specific HIF-1α(-/-) mice. Our study reveals that overexpression of HIF-1α leads to increased expression of NOTCH1, the NOTCH1 ligand JAGGED1, and its target gene hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1), while also upregulating collagen Π and aggrecan expression in human NPCs...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520505/early-blockade-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-spinal-cord-injured-dogs-results-in-a-long-term-increase-in-bladder-compliance
#4
Jonathan Michael Levine, Noah D Cohen, Thomas Fandel, Gwendolyn Joan Levine, Joseph M Mankin, John F Griffin, Sharon C Kerwin, C Elizabeth Boudreau, Alpa Trivedi, Linda Noble-Haeusslein
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is often accompanied by reduced bladder compliance, which contributes to adverse conditions including urinary tract infections and vesicoureteral reflux. Reduced compliance is, in part, attributed to extensive remodeling of the bladder wall including the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we tested the hypothesis that blockade of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), known for their ability to remodel the ECM, improves bladder compliance in dogs with SCI. We first evaluated dogs with naturally occurring SCIs resulting from intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514734/inflammatory-microrna-194-and-515-attenuate-the-biosynthesis-of-chondroitin-sulfate-during-human-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#5
Bo Hu, Chen Xu, Ye Tian, Changgui Shi, Ying Zhang, Lianfu Deng, Hongyu Zhou, Peng Cao, Huajiang Chen, Wen Yuan
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is characterized by dehydration and loss of extracellular matrixes in the nucleus pulposus region. Chondroitin sulfate has been found to be the water-binding molecule that played a key role in IDD. Although investigators have reported that inflammatory cytokines are involved in the reduction of chondroitin sulfate in IDD, but the underlying mechanism is unrevealed. Since chondroitin sulfate synthesis is controlled by chondroitin sulfate glycosyltransferases CHSY-1/2/3 and CSGALNACT-1/2, their functional role and regulatory mechanism in IDD is not fully studied...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501720/characterization-and-restoration-of-degenerated-ivd-function-with-an-injectable-in-situ-gelling-alginate-hydrogel-an-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-study
#6
Emily A Growney Kalaf, Meghana Pendyala, J Gary Bledsoe, Scott A Sell
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a naturally, irreparable process that causes loss in IVD hydration, cellularity, and, mechanical stability. Invasive surgical attempts to ease back pain and, radiculopathy have shown to cause increased degeneration along the rest, of the spine. Due to its highly tunable mechanical and degradation, properties, alginate is a viable option for a less-invasive injectable, repair for IVD degeneration. This study centers on the characterization, of in situ gelling alginate and subsequent injection into enzymatically, degraded motion segments...
May 7, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486958/exosomes-as-potential-alternatives-to-stem-cell-therapy-for-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-in-vitro-study-on-exosomes-in-interaction-of-nucleus-pulposus-cells-and-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Kang Lu, Hai-Yin Li, Kuang Yang, Jun-Long Wu, Xiao-Wei Cai, Yue Zhou, Chang-Qing Li
BACKGROUND: The stem cell-based therapies for intervertebral disc degeneration have been widely studied. However, the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells interacting with intervertebral disc cells, such as nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs), remain unknown. Exosomes as a vital paracrine mechanism in cell-cell communication have been highly focused on. The purpose of this study was to detect the role of exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and NPCs in their interaction with corresponding cells...
May 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486045/in-vitro-generated-intervertebral-discs-towards-engineering-tissue-integration
#8
Jonathan Iu, Eric Massicotte, Shu-Qiu Li, Mark B Hurtig, Ehsan Toyserkani, J Paul Santerre, Rita Kandel
The intervertebral disc (IVD) is composed of nucleus pulposus (NP) surrounded by multilamellated annulus fibrosus (AF), and is located between the vertebral bodies. Current treatments for chronic neck or low back pain do not completely restore the functionality of degenerated IVDs. Thus developing biological disc replacements is an approach of great interest. Given the complex structure of the IVD, tissue engineering of the individual IVD components and then combining them together may be the only way to achieve this...
May 9, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478734/development-and-validation-of-a-subject-specific-finite-element-model-of-the-functional-spinal-unit-to-predict-vertebral-strength
#9
Chu-Hee Lee, Priyan R Landham, Richard Eastell, Michael A Adams, Patricia Dolan, Lang Yang
Finite element models of an isolated vertebral body cannot accurately predict compressive strength of the spinal column because, in life, compressive load is variably distributed across the vertebral body and neural arch. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a patient-specific finite element model of a functional spinal unit, and then use the model to predict vertebral strength from medical images. A total of 16 cadaveric functional spinal units were scanned and then tested mechanically in bending and compression to generate a vertebral wedge fracture...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475020/anterior-cage-dislodgement-in-posterior-lumbar-interbody-fusion-a-review-of-12-patients
#10
Shuhei Murase, Yasushi Oshima, Yujiro Takeshita, Kota Miyoshi, Kazuhito Soma, Naohiro Kawamura, Junichi Kunogi, Takashi Yamazaki, Dai Ariyoshi, Shigeo Sano, Hirohiko Inanami, Katsushi Takeshita, Sakae Tanaka
OBJECTIVE Interbody fusion cages are widely used to achieve initial fixation and secure spinal fusion; however, there are certain technique-related complications. Although anterior cage dislodgement can cause major vascular injury, the incidence is extremely rare. Here, the authors performed a review of anterior cage dislodgement following posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the cases of 4625 patients who had undergone PLIF at 6 institutions between December 2007 and March 2015...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472100/a-novel-finite-element-model-of-the-ovine-lumbar-intervertebral-disc-with-anisotropic-hyperelastic-material-properties
#11
Gloria Casaroli, Fabio Galbusera, René Jonas, Benedikt Schlager, Hans-Joachim Wilke, Tomaso Villa
The Ovine spine is an accepted model to investigate the biomechanical behaviour of the human lumbar one. Indeed, the use of animal models for in vitro studies is necessary to investigate the mechanical behaviour of biological tissue, but needs to be reduced for ethical and social reasons. The aim of this study was to create a finite element model of the lumbar intervertebral disc of the sheep that may help to refine the understanding of parallel in vitro experiments and that can be used to predict when mechanical failure occurs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464119/structural-and-chemical-modification-to-improve-adhesive-and-material-properties-of-fibrin-genipin-for-repair-of-annulus-fibrosus-defects-in-intervertebral-discs
#12
Michelle A Cruz, Steven McAnany, Nikita Gupta, Rose Long, Phillip R Nasser, David Eglin, Andrew Hecht, Svenja Illien-Junger, James C Iatridis
Annulus fibrosus (AF) defects from intervertebral disc herniation and degeneration are highly correlated with back pain. Genipin crosslinked fibrin hydrogel (FibGen) is an injectable, space-filling AF sealant that was optimized to match AF shear properties and partially restored disc biomechanics. This study enhanced mechanical behaviors of FibGen to more closely match AF compressive, tensile and shear properties by adjusting genipin crosslink density and by creating a composite formulation by adding Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLGA)...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450317/the-segment-dependent-changes-in-lumbar-intervertebral-space-height-during-flexion-extension-motion
#13
M Fu, Q Ye, C Jiang, L Qian, D Xu, Y Wang, P Sun, J Ouyang
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated the kinematics of the lumbar spine and the morphological features of the lumbar discs. However, the segment-dependent immediate changes of the lumbar intervertebral space height during flexion-extension motion are still unclear. This study examined the changes of intervertebral space height during flexion-extension motion of lumbar specimens. METHODS: First, we validated the accuracy and repeatability of a custom-made mechanical loading equipment set-up...
April 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448052/an-in-vitro-organ-culture-model-of-the-murine-intervertebral-disc
#14
Jennifer W Liu, Kevin H Lin, Christian Weber, Sameer Bhalla, Sean Kelso, Kaixi Wang, Simon Y Tang
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a significant contributor to low back pain. The IVD is a fibrocartilaginous joint that serves to transmit and dampen loads in the spine. The IVD consists of a proteoglycan-rich nucleus pulposus (NP) and a collagen-rich annulus fibrosis (AF) sandwiched by cartilaginous end-plates. Together with the adjacent vertebrae, the vertebrae-IVD structure forms a functional spine unit (FSU). These microstructures contain unique cell types as well as unique extracellular matrices...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430617/estrogen-receptors-involvement-in-intervertebral-discogenic-pain-of-the-elderly-women-colocalization-and-correlation-with-the-expression-of-substance-p-in-nucleus-pulposus
#15
Xiao-Xing Song, Sheng Shi, Zhen Guo, Xin-Feng Li, Bu-Wei Yu
Estrogenic modulation of pain is an exceedingly complex phenomenon. However, whether estrogen is involved in discogenic low back pain still remains unclear. Here, immunoreactivity staining technique was used to examine the expression level of the estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) and a pain related neuropeptide, Substance P in the lumbar intervertebral discs to analyze the relationship between the ERs and Substance P. Nucleus pulposus tissues of 23 elderly female patients were harvested during spinal surgeries and made to detect the immunoreactivity staining of ERα, ERβ and Substance P...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418040/the-height-width-depth-ratios-of-the-intervertebral-discs-and-vertebral-bodies-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-vs-controls-in-a-chinese-population
#16
Hao Chen, Tom P C Schlösser, Rob C Brink, Dino Colo, Marijn van Stralen, Lin Shi, Winnie C W Chu, Pheng-Ann Heng, René M Castelein, Jack C Y Cheng
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients have been reported to be taller and more slender than normal controls, suggesting less mechanical stiffness of their trunk and spine. For assessment of mechanical stiffness, to our best knowledge this is the first to study height-width-depth relations at the level of the individual vertebra and disc in 3-D and to evaluate its relation with the Cobb angle severity. A unique series of high-resolution pre-operative computed tomographic (CT) scans of a total of 105 Chinese patients with moderate to severe AIS and 11 age-matched non-scoliotic controls were used for this study...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413490/noninvasive-cumulative-axial-load-may-induce-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-a-potential-rabbit-model
#17
Xuedong Bai, Deli Wang, Mingyue Zhou, Cheng Xu, Wei Li, Hui Tao, Qing He, Dike Ruan
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is considered to be the main cause of many spinal disorders; however, its underlying pathophysiology is not clearly understood. Recent studies indicate that excessive mechanical loading may serve a major role in the initiation of IDD. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of noninvasive cumulative axial loading on the intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine using a novel rabbit model. Rabbits in the experimental group were placed into individual tubes specifically designed to force maintenance of an upright posture and were loaded with a heavy collar to increase the intradiscal pressure of their lumbar spine...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407705/delayed-spondylodiscitis-presenting-as-a-skip-lesion
#18
Dong Min Kim, Seok Won Kim
Spondylodiscitis is believed to be caused by an infection that affects vertebral bodies and the intervening intervertebral disc. Usually, typical spondylodiscitis involves a mobile vertebra-disc-vertebra unit, and in most cases, the condition is managed successfully by surgical intervention and intravenous antibiotic therapy. Here, the authors report an unusual case of a spondylodiscitis presenting as a skip lesion, which progressed from L4/L5 to L1/L2, despite open surgical biopsy and empirical intravenous antibiotics...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392965/mechanosignaling-activation-of-tgf%C3%AE-maintains-intervertebral-disc-homeostasis
#19
Qin Bian, Lei Ma, Amit Jain, Janet L Crane, Khaled Kebaish, Mei Wan, Zhengdong Zhang, X Edward Guo, Paul D Sponseller, Cheryle A Séguin, Lee H Riley, Yongjun Wang, Xu Cao
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is the leading cause of disability with no disease-modifying treatment. IVD degeneration is associated with instable mechanical loading in the spine, but little is known about how mechanical stress regulates nucleus notochordal (NC) cells to maintain IVD homeostasis. Here we report that mechanical stress can result in excessive integrin αvβ6-mediated activation of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), decreased NC cell vacuoles, and increased matrix proteoglycan production, and results in degenerative disc disease (DDD)...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392887/ros-crucial-intermediators-in-the-pathogenesis-of-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#20
REVIEW
Chencheng Feng, Minghui Yang, Minghong Lan, Chang Liu, Yang Zhang, Bo Huang, Huan Liu, Yue Zhou
Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in degenerative intervertebral disc (IVD) indicates the contribution of oxidative stress to IVD degeneration (IDD), giving a novel insight into the pathogenesis of IDD. ROS are crucial intermediators in the signaling network of disc cells. They regulate the matrix metabolism, proinflammatory phenotype, apoptosis, autophagy, and senescence of disc cells. Oxidative stress not only reinforces matrix degradation and inflammation, but also promotes the decrease in the number of viable and functional cells in the microenvironment of IVDs...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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