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Spine Mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781786/sitagliptin-rescues-memory-deficits-in-parkinsonian-rats-via-upregulating-bdnf-to-prevent-neuron-and-dendritic-spine-loss
#1
Jing Li, Shuhu Zhang, Chenye Li, Mei Li, Lan Ma
OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with high morbidity among adults worldwide that causes tremendous trouble to people's lives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of sitagliptin on PD and its potential mechanism. METHODS: First, the memory of rats in each group was evaluated with the Morris water maze (MWM) test and the passive avoidance test. Then, both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and mRNA levels were detected by ELISA and qPCR assays, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778761/preferential-stabilization-of-newly-formed-dendritic-spines-in-motor-cortex-during-manual-skill-learning-predicts-performance-gains-but-not-memory-endurance
#2
Taylor A Clark, Min Fu, Andrew K Dunn, Yi Zuo, Theresa A Jones
Previous findings that skill learning is associated with the formation and preferential stabilization of new dendritic spines in cortex have raised the possibility that this preferential stabilization is a mechanism for lasting skill memory. We investigated this possibility in adult mice using in vivo two-photon imaging to monitor spine dynamics on superficial apical dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons in motor cortex during manual skill learning. Spine formation increased over the first 3 days of training on a skilled reaching task, followed by increased spine elimination...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777688/proteomic-changes-during-adult-stage-in-pre-optic-hypothalamus-hippocampus-and-pituitary-regions-of-female-rat-brain-following-neonatal-exposure-to-estradiol-17%C3%AE
#3
Vijayakumar Govindaraj, Radhika Nagamangalam Shridharan, Addicam Jagannadha Rao
Although neonatal exposure to estrogen or estrogenic compounds results in irreversible changes in the brain function and reproductive abnormalities during adulthood but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. The present study has attempted to compare the protein profiles of sexually dimorphic brain regions of adult female rats which were exposed to estradiol- 17β during neonatal period. The total proteins extracted from pre-optic area (POA), hypothalamus, hippocampus and pituitary of control and neonatally E2 treated female rats was subjected to 2D-SDS-PAGE and differentially expressed proteins were identification by MALDI TOF/TOF-MS...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775766/miyazaki-syndrome-due-to-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-treatment-a-case-report
#4
Anita Kovács, Tamás Németh, Angéla Csomor, Tímea Novák, Ferenc Kövér, Erika Vörös
The signs and pathomechanism of Miyazaki syndrome is presented through the case of a young female patient. The patient underwent placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt with a pressure-adjustable valve for communicating hydrocephalus years before presenting to our department with the complaints of constant headache and unsteady gait. On the basis of the clinical picture and her history, plain and contrast-enhanced cranial and whole spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) examinations were performed, with the scans revealing signs indicative of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypotension typical of Miyazaki syndrome...
May 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770222/recurrent-vertebral-fractures-in-a-young-adult-a-closer-look-at-bone-health-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Eleanor P Thong, Sarah Catford, Julie Fletcher, Phillip Wong, Peter J Fuller, Helena Teede, Frances Milat
The association between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and bone health has garnered interest over the years. Fracture risk is known to be increased in individuals with T1DM, although bone health assessment is not often performed in the clinical setting. We describe the case of a 21-year-old male with longstanding T1DM with multilevel vertebral fractures on imaging, after presenting with acute back pain without apparent trauma. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) revealed significantly reduced bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768358/spastic-paraparesis-caused-by-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-mimicking-vacuolar-myelopathy-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patient-a-case-report
#6
Jin-Sung Park, Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Vacuolar myelopathy is one of most common cause of spastic paresis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which is a metabolic disorder caused by impairment of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), also manifests as various neurological deteriorations including adult onset spastic paraparesis. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of newly developed spastic paresis due to X-ALD in a patient with HIV infection...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766142/improving-life-expectancy-a-broken-neck-doesn-t-have-to-be-a-terminal-diagnosis-for-the-elderly
#7
Laura N Godat, Leslie M Kobayashi, David C Chang, Raul Coimbra
Background: Elderly patients with cervical spine fractures require optimal care. Treatment with a cervical collar or halo instead of surgical fixation may increase mortality. This investigation intends to describe the life expectancy after injury and evaluate the impact of surgical intervention on mortality. Methods: Patients ≥65 years, with traumatic cervical spine fractures without cord injury were identified in the 1995-2009 California Office of Statewide Health and Planning database...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765302/the-role-of-actin-cytoskeleton-in-dendritic-spines-in-the-maintenance-of-long-term-memory
#8
REVIEW
Sreetama Basu, Raphael Lamprecht
Evidence indicates that long-term memory formation involves alterations in synaptic efficacy produced by modifications in neural transmission and morphology. However, it is not clear how such alterations induced by learning, that encode memory, are maintained over long period of time to preserve long-term memory. This is especially intriguing as the half-life of most of the proteins that underlie such changes is usually in the range of hours to days and these proteins may change their location over time. In this review we describe studies that indicate the involvement of dendritic spines in memory formation and its maintenance...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765299/src-kinase-dependent-rapid-non-genomic-modulation-of-hippocampal-spinogenesis-induced-by-androgen-and-estrogen
#9
Mika Soma, Jonghyuk Kim, Asami Kato, Suguru Kawato
Dendritic spine is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from an axon terminal at the synapse. Memories are stored in synapses which consist of spines and presynapses. Rapid modulations of dendritic spines induced by hippocampal sex steroids, including dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), and estradiol (E2), are essential for synaptic plasticity. Molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid non-genomic modulation through synaptic receptors of androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) as well as its downstream kinase signaling, however, have not been well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761298/lumbar-muscle-atrophy-caused-by-harness-replacement-in-a-chronic-calf-model-of-total-artificial-heart-implantation
#10
Jamshid H Karimov, Kimberly A Such, Raymond Dessoffy, Kiyotaka Fukamachi
The postoperative care of animals implanted with mechanical circulatory support devices is complex. The standard of care requires continuous monitoring of hemodynamic parameters post implant, wound care, and maintenance of the animal's well-being, but also includes controlling the animal's biomechanics under conditions of continuous restraint and harnessing. In such studies, a harness provides secure fixation of the exteriorized device driveline and pressure lines and aids animal handling (lifting, position adjustment, and assistance with standing up)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760965/age-and-other-risk-factors-influencing-long-term-mortality-in-patients-with-traumatic-cervical-spine-fracture
#11
Matthew Bank, Katie Gibbs, Cristina Sison, Nawshin Kutub, Angelos Paptheodorou, Samuel Lee, Adam Stein, Ona Bloom
Objective: To identify clinical or demographic variables that influence long-term mortality, as well as in-hospital mortality, with a particular focus on the effects of age. Summary and Background Data: Cervical spine fractures with or without spinal cord injury (SCI) disproportionately impact the elderly who constitute an increasing percentage of the US population. Methods: We analyzed data collected for 10 years at a state-designated level I trauma center to identify variables that influenced in-hospital and long-term mortality among elderly patients with traumatic cervical spine fracture with or without SCI...
2018: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758361/bone-accrual-in-oligo-amenorrheic-athletes-eumenorrheic-athletes-and-non-athletes
#12
Vibha Singhal, Karen Campoverde Reyes, Brooke Pfister, Kathryn Ackerman, Meghan Slattery, Katherine Cooper, Alexander Toth, Nupur Gupta, Mark Goldstein, Kamryn Eddy, Madhusmita Misra
BACKGROUND: Mechanical loading improves bone mineral density (BMD) and strength while decreasing fracture risk. Cross-sectional studies show that exercise advantage is lost in oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OA). Longitudinal studies examining the opposing effects of exercise and hypogonadism on bone are lacking in adolescents/young adults. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate differences in bone accrual over 12 months in OA, eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and non-athletes (NA). We hypothesized that bone accrual would be lower in OA than EA and NA, with differences most pronounced at non-weight bearing trabecular sites...
May 11, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755234/the-substantiation-of-the-elastic-viscoplastic-model-of-the-human-spine-for-modeling-the-correction-process-of-kyphoscoliotic-deformation
#13
Konstantin S Sergeev, Valery V Piven
Purpose: The relevance of the problem is caused by an increase in the number of spine-related diseases among children, including scoliosis. Currently, there are no methodologies for the treatment of scoliosis, which ensure an unambiguous positive result. The purpose of the article is to justify the spinal model as an elastic viscoplastic body for further mathematical modeling of the process of spine correction and search for its optimal conditions. Methodology: The leading approach to the study of this problem is the development of techniques for the surgical treatment of deformities of the vertebral column with the aid of an external fixation device for the spine, providing for a rigid connection of the elements of the apparatus with each other and with the spine...
January 2018: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754321/chronic-low-back-pain-a-mini-review-on-pharmacological-management-and-pathophysiological-insights-from-clinical-and-pre-clinical-data
#14
REVIEW
Thomas S W Park, Andy Kuo, Maree T Smith
Globally, low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common health problems affecting humans. The lifetime prevalence of non-specific LBP is approximately 84%, with the chronic prevalence at about 23%. Chronic LBP in humans is defined as LBP that persists for more than 12 weeks without a significant pain improvement. Although there are numerous evidence-based guidelines on the management of acute LBP, this is not the case for chronic LBP, which is regarded as particularly difficult to treat. Research aimed at discovering new drug treatments for alleviation of chronic mechanical LBP is lacking due to the paucity of knowledge on the pathobiology of this condition, despite its high morbidity in the affected adult population...
May 12, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746962/posterior-spinal-surgery-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-does-not-induce-compensatory-increases-in-distal-adjacent-segment-motion-a-prospective-gait-analysis-study
#15
R M Holewijn, I Kingma, M de Kleuver, N L W Keijsers
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients perform surprisingly well after spinal correction and fusion. It was previously hypothesized that, during gait, certain mechanisms compensate for the loss in spinal motion. Still, previous studies could not identify such compensatory mechanisms in the lower body. PURPOSE: This study aims to test the hypothesis of a compensatory increased motion of the distal unfused part of the spine during gait after posterior spinal correction and fusion...
May 7, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744453/studies-on-the-cytocompatibility-mechanical-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-3d-printed-poly-methyl-methacrylate-beads
#16
David K Mills, Uday Jammalamadaka, Karthik Tappa, Jeffery Weisman
Osteomyelitis is typically a bacterial infection (usually from Staphylococcus) or, more rarely, a fungal infection of the bone. It can occur in any bone in the body, but it most often affects the long bones (leg and arm), vertebral (spine), and bones of the foot. Microbial success in osteomyelitis is due to their ability to form biofilms which inhibit the wound healing process and increases resistance to anti-infective agents. Also, biofilms do not allow easy penetration of antibiotics into their matrix making clinical treatment a challenge...
June 2018: Bioactive Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744222/chest-wall-stabilization-in-trauma-patients-why-when-and-how
#17
REVIEW
Jose Ribas Milanez de Campos, Thomas W White
Blunt trauma to the chest wall and rib fractures are remarkably frequent and are the basis of considerable morbidity and possible mortality. Surgical remedies for highly displaced rib fractures, especially in cases of flail chest, have been undertaken intermittently for more than 50 years. Rib-specific plating systems have started to be used in the last 10 years. These have ushered in the modern era of rib repair with chest wall stabilization (CWS) techniques that are safer, easier to perform, and more efficient...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738991/digital-tracking-algorithm-reveals-the-influence-of-structural-irregularities-on-joint-movements-in-the-human-cervical-spine
#18
Christian Balkovec, Jim Veldhuis, John W Baird, G Wayne Brodland, Stuart M McGill
BACKGROUND: Disc height loss and osteophytes change the local mechanical environment in the spine; while previous research has examined kinematic dysfunction under degenerative change, none has looked at the influence of disc height loss and osteophytes throughout movement. METHODS: Twenty patients with pain related to the head, neck or shoulders were imaged via videofluoroscopy as they underwent sagittal-plane flexion and extension. A clinician graded disc height loss and osteophytes as "severe/moderate", "mild", or "none"...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736802/management-of-aortic-injury-during-minimally-invasive-lateral-lumbar-interbody-fusion
#19
REVIEW
Michael M Safaee, Devin Zarkowsky, Charles M Eichler, Murat Pekmezci, Aaron J Clark
PURPOSE: Minimally invasive lateral approaches to the lumbar spine allow for interbody fusion with good visualization of the disk space, minimal blood loss, and decreased length of stay. Major neurologic, vascular, and visceral complications are rare with this approach; however, the steps in management for severe vascular injuries are not well defined. We present a case report of aortic injury during lateral interbody fusion and discuss the use of endovascular repair. METHODS: This study is a case report of an intraoperative aortic injury...
May 7, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735530/nmda-receptor-dependent-dephosphorylation-of-serine-387-in-argonaute-2-increases-its-degradation-and-affects-dendritic-spine-density-and-maturation
#20
Nicolas Paradis-Isler, Jannic Boehm
Argonaute (AGO) proteins are essential components of the microRNA (miRNA) pathway. AGO proteins are loaded with miRNAs to target mRNAs and thereby regulate mRNA stability and protein translation. As such, AGO proteins are important actors in controlling local protein synthesis, for instance, at dendritic spines and synapses. Although miRNA-mediated regulation of dendritic mRNAs has become a focus of intense interest over the past years, the mechanisms regulating neuronal AGO proteins remain largely unknown...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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