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Spine Mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213193/anterior-surgical-fixation-for-cervical-spine-flexion-distraction-injuries
#1
Andrew Jack, Godefroy Hardy-St-Pierre, Mitchell Wilson, Godwin Choy, Richard Fox, Andrew Nataraj
BACKGROUND: Optimal surgical management for flexion-distraction cervical spine injuries remains controversial with current guidelines recommending anterior, posterior, and circumferential approaches. Here, we determined the incidence of and examined risk factors for clinical and radiographic failure in patients with one segment cervical distraction injuries having undergone anterior surgical fixation. METHODS: A retrospective review of 57 consecutive patients undergoing anterior fixation for subaxial flexion-distraction cervical injuries between 2008-2012 at our institution was performed...
February 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207663/role-of-ethnicity-in-alignment-compensation-propensity-matched-analysis-of-differential-compensatory-mechanism-recruitment-patterns-for-sagittal-malalignment-in-288-asd-patients-from-japan-korea-and-united-states
#2
Bassel G Diebo, Isaac Gammal, Yoon Ha, Seung Hwan Yoon, Jae Won Chang, Byeongwoo Kim, Morio Matsumoto, Yu Yamato, Daisaku Takeuchi, Naobumi Hosogane, Mitsuru Yagi, Hiroshi Taneichi, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Christopher Ames
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of adult spinal deformity patients in a multiethnic database. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of ethnicity on recruitment of compensatory mechanisms for sagittal spinal deformity. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: While the impacts of age, sex, and pelvic morphology on the ability to compensate for sagittal malalignment have been investigated, the role of ethnicity in compensatory mechanism recruitment is poorly understood...
February 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207656/biomechanical-evaluation-of-transpedicular-nucleotomy-with-intact-annulus-fibrosus
#3
Fabrizio Russo, Robert A Hartman, Kevin M Bell, Nam Vo, Gwendolyn A Sowa, James D Kang, Gianluca Vadalà, Vincenzo Denaro
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical testing of partially nucleotomized ovine cadaveric spines. OBJECTIVE: To explore how the nucleus pulposus (NP) affects the biomechanical behavior of the intervertebral disc (IVD) by performing a partial nucleotomy via the transpedicular approach. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Mechanical loading represents a crucial part of IVD homeostasis. However, traditional regenerative strategies require violation of the annulus fibrosus (AF) resulting in significant alteration of joint mechanics...
February 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198431/investigation-of-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-and-plasticity-in-mice-deficient-in-the-actin-binding-protein-drebrin
#4
Claudia G Willmes, Till G A Mack, Julia Ledderose, Dietmar Schmitz, Christian Wozny, Britta J Eickholt
The dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in controlling the structure and function of synapses. It is vital for activity-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission and long-term changes in synaptic morphology associated with memory consolidation. Several regulators of actin dynamics at the synapse have been identified, of which a salient one is the postsynaptic actin stabilising protein Drebrin (DBN). It has been suggested that DBN modulates neurotransmission and changes in dendritic spine morphology associated with synaptic plasticity...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195572/dna-methylation-as-a-putative-mechanism-for-reduced-dendritic-spine-density-in-the-superior-temporal-gyrus-of-subjects-with-schizophrenia
#5
B McKinney, Y Ding, D A Lewis, R A Sweet
Reduced dendritic spine density (DSD) in cortical layer 3 of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), and multiple other brain regions, is consistently observed in postmortem studies of schizophrenia (SZ). Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of this intermediate phenotype holds promise for understanding SZ pathophysiology, identifying SZ treatment targets and developing animal models. DNA methylation (DNAm), the addition of a methyl group to a cytosine nucleotide, regulates gene transcription and is a strong candidate for such a mechanism...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192396/metabotropic-action-of-postsynaptic-kainate-receptors-triggers-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation
#6
Milos M Petrovic, Silvia Viana da Silva, James P Clement, Ladislav Vyklicky, Christophe Mulle, Inmaculada M González-González, Jeremy M Henley
Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat hippocampus is the most extensively studied cellular model for learning and memory. Induction of classical LTP involves an NMDA-receptor- and calcium-dependent increase in functional synaptic AMPA receptors, mediated by enhanced recycling of internalized AMPA receptors back to the postsynaptic membrane. Here we report a physiologically relevant NMDA-receptor-independent mechanism that drives increased AMPA receptor recycling and LTP. This pathway requires the metabotropic action of kainate receptors and activation of G protein, protein kinase C and phospholipase C...
February 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190519/matrix-metalloproteinase-9-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-central-amygdala-in-control-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior
#7
Marzena Stefaniuk, Anna Beroun, Tomasz Lebitko, Olga Markina, Szymon Leski, Ksenia Meyza, Anna Grzywacz, Jerzy Samochowiec, Agnieszka Samochowiec, Kasia Radwanska, Leszek Kaczmarek
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system has been implicated in alcohol addiction; however, the molecular underpinnings of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. In the current study we have investigated the possible function of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in alcohol addiction because this protein has recently emerged as an important regulator of excitatory synaptic plasticity. METHODS: For long-term studies of alcohol drinking in mice we used IntelliCages...
January 5, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187797/airway-management-and-mechanical-ventilation-in-acute-brain-injury
#8
D B Seder, J Bösel
Patients with acute neurologic disease often develop respiratory failure, the management of which profoundly affects brain physiology and long-term functional outcomes. This chapter reviews airway management and mechanical ventilation of patients with acute brain injury, offering practical strategies to optimize treatment of respiratory failure and minimize secondary brain injury. Specific concerns that are addressed include physiologic changes during intubation and ventilation such as the effects on intracranial pressure and brain perfusion; cervical spine management during endotracheal intubation; the role of tracheostomy; and how ventilation and oxygenation are utilized to minimize ischemia-reperfusion injury and cerebral metabolic distress...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187075/investigating-the-association-between-lower-extremity-and-low-back-symptoms-among-saskatchewan-farmers-using-the-standardized-nordic-questionnaire
#9
Samuel Kwaku Essien, Catherine Trask, James Dosman, Brenna Bath
STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional survey OBJECTIVE.: To investigated the association between self-reported low back symptoms and symptoms in the hip, knee, and ankle in a high-risk occupational group SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Low back pain, with or without lower extremity referral, poses a major challenge to occupational productivity, especially in farming. Although low back symptoms can occur independent of lower extremity symptoms, anatomical positioning of nerves supplying the lower limbs means structural and physiological changes in the spine can lead to referred pain in the lower limbs, but the magnitude of the association between low back and lower extremity symptoms is unclear...
February 9, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186942/use-of-combination-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-primary-osteoporosis-protocol-for-a-network-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#10
Shenghan Lou, Houchen Lv, Yuxiang Chen, Licheng Zhang, Peifu Tang
INTRODUCTION: The existing medications approved for treatment of primary osteoporosis can be divided into antiresorptive drugs and anabolic drugs. According to the mechanisms of action, the combined therapy may produce a synergistic effect on bone mineral density (BMD) compared with monotherapy, and thus improves the efficacy of fracture resistance. This network meta-analysis aims to compare the efficacies of different combined methods for the treatment of primary osteoporosis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases will be searched to identify all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that evaluate the effectiveness of combined therapy versus monotherapy for primary osteoporosis...
November 8, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181426/site-specific-difference-of-bone-geometry-indices-in-hypoparathyroid-patients
#11
Hye Sun Park, Da Hea Seo, Yumie Rhee, Sung Kil Lim
BACKGROUND: Hypoparathyroid patients often have a higher bone mineral density (BMD) than the general population. However, an increase in BMD does not necessarily correlate with a solid bone microstructure. This study aimed to evaluate the bone microstructure of hypoparathyroid patients by using hip structure analysis (HSA). METHODS: Ninety-five hypoparathyroid patients >20 years old were enrolled and 31 of them had eligible data for analyzing bone geometry parameters using HSA...
February 8, 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178750/prolonged-maternal-separation-attenuates-bdnf-erk-signaling-correlated-with-spine-formation-in-the-hippocampus-during-early-brain-development
#12
Ken-Ichi Ohta, Shingo Suzuki, Katsuhiko Warita, Tomohiro Kaji, Takashi Kusaka, Takanori Miki
Maternal separation (MS) is known to affect hippocampal function such as learning and memory, yet the molecular mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that these impairments are attributed to abnormities of neural circuit formation by MS, and focused on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as key factor because BDNF signaling has an essential role in synapse formation during early brain development. Using rat offspring exposed to MS for 6 h/day during postnatal days (PD) 2-20, we estimated BDNF signaling in the hippocampus during brain development...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176604/c5-nerve-root-palsy-after-posterior-cervical-spine-surgery
#13
Fu-Min Pan, Shan-Jin Wang, Bin Ma, De-Sheng Wu
BACKGROUND: C5 palsy is a serious complication after cervical decompression surgery in which the patient shows a deterioration in power of the deltoid or biceps brachii by at least one grade in the manual muscle test without aggravation of lower extremity function. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the etiology of C5 palsy, the pathogenesis and preventive measures remain unidentified and many other controversies remain. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the clinical features, risk factors, mechanism, and preventive measures of C5 palsy after posterior cervical decompression surgery...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174188/cervical-spine-arteriovenous-fistula-associated-with-hereditary-haemorrhagic-telangiectasia
#14
Iain John McGurgan, Roisin Lonergan, Ronan Killeen, Christopher McGuigan
Reported is a case of a man aged 55 years who presented with progressive spastic paraparesis. Examination demonstrated multiple cutaneous telangiectases. Subsequent development of upper limb weakness, acute urinary retention and eventual respiratory compromise resulted in the requirement for intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. MRI spine revealed diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cervical cord with enhancement and cord expansion. Immunomodulatory therapy for a presumed diagnosis of transverse myelitis yielded no response, so a vascular aetiology was suspected...
February 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174019/understanding-idiopathic-scoliosis-a-new-zebrafish-school-of-thought
#15
REVIEW
Curtis W Boswell, Brian Ciruna
Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) refers to a 3D rotation of the spine that occurs in the absence of underlying vertebral anomalies or obvious physiological defects. Despite affecting approximately 4% of the population, the etiology and pathogenesis of IS remain poorly understood, largely due to genetic heterogeneity and historical lack of appropriate developmental models. Recently, zebrafish has emerged as a powerful system for studying IS, owing to well-developed genetic resources and a natural susceptibility to spinal curvatures...
February 4, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171773/cervical-traction-therapy-with-and-without-neck-support-a-finite-element-analysis
#16
Kuan Wang, Huihao Wang, Zhen Deng, Zhengyan Li, Hongsheng Zhan, Wenxin Niu
BACKGROUND: Cervical traction is commonly used for treating neck pain. However, few studies have investigated the biomechanical impact such traction has on soft tissues. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the biomechanics of cervical traction therapy in a supine position with and without neck support (NS and non-NS). METHODS: A finite element model of the cervical spine was constructed to investigate the mechanism behind cervical traction therapy. An axial traction force of 100-N was loaded on the upper surface of C0 to simulate traction weight...
January 16, 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169005/nelarabine-associated-reversible-guillain-barr%C3%A3-like-syndrome-or-myelopathy-in-an-adult-patient-with-primary-refractory-t-lymphoblastic-lymphoma
#17
Chrysavgi Lalayanni, Eirini Baldoumi, Sotiris Papayiannopoulos, Konstantia Tziola, Riad Saloum, Achilles Anagnostopoulos
Nelarabine is a purine analogue used for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma mainly as a bridge to stem cell transplantation. The water-soluble prodrug of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl guanine (Ara-G) is phosphorylated within leukemic cells to form ara-G triphosphate (ara-GTP), which terminates DNA chain elongation, resulting in cell death. The drug received accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on October 2005 based on the induction of complete remissions in 2 phase II trials...
November 17, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168835/pregabalin-treatment-of-three-cases-with-brachioradial-pruritus
#18
Güldehan Atış, Başak Bilir Kaya
Brachioradial pruritus (BRP) is a rare type of chronic pruritus that usually localized at the dorsolateral part of the forearms. Itching, burning, or pain are common symptoms at the involved areas. The etiological factors are still unknown but sun exposure and/or cervical spine lesions seem to be trigerring or precipiting factors. Neuropathogenic mechanism plays role in etiopathogenesis of BRP, therefore, antiepileptic drugs such as gabapentin, oxcarbazepine. and pregabalin are suggested medications for BRP...
February 6, 2017: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167249/how-are-adjacent-spinal-levels-affected-by-vertebral-fracture-and-by-vertebroplasty-a-biomechanical-study-on-cadaveric-spines
#19
Jin Luo, Deborah J Annesley-Williams, Michael A Adams, Patricia Dolan
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Spinal injuries and surgery may have important effects at neighbouring spinal levels, but previous investigations of adjacent-level biomechanics have produced conflicting results. We use 'stress profilometry' and non-contact strain measurements to investigate thoroughly this long-standing problem. PURPOSE: To determine how vertebral fracture and vertebroplasty affect compressive load-sharing and vertebral deformations at adjacent spinal levels...
February 3, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158955/rapid-antidepressant-effect-of-hydrogen-sulfide-evidence-for-activation-of-mtorc1-trkb-ampa-receptor-pathways
#20
Xiao-Yi Hou, Zhuang-Li Hu, Deng-Zheng Zhang, Wei Lu, Jun Zhou, Pei-Fei Wu, Xin-Lei Guan, Qian-Qian Han, Si-Long Deng, Hai Zhang, Jian-Guo Chen, Fang Wang
AIMS: We asked whether Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as the third gaseous mediator, provided fast antidepressant effect on major depressive disorders and the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: The decreased level of H2S was detected in the hippocampus of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-treated rats. Acute administration of H2S either by H2S inhalation or by the donor NaHS produced a rapid antidepressant-like behavioral effect. Further investigation demonstrated that this effect of H2S was mediated by reversing the CUMS-induced decrease in dendritic spine density and required the activation of mTORC1 and neurotrophic TrkB receptors, proceeded to increase synaptic protein expression including PSD95, synaptophysin, and AMPA receptor GluR1/2 subunit...
February 3, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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