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Spine Mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323705/etiology-of-adult-onset-stress-fracture-in-the-lumbar-spine
#1
Fumitake Tezuka, Koichi Sairyo, Toshinori Sakai, Akira Dezawa
STUDY DESIGN: This study was a case series. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper was to present a case series of fresh stress fractures (spondylolysis) in the lumbar spines of adult athletes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Lumbar spondylolysis is a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis, which is generally considered a disease of children or adolescence. There is only 1 case series written in English reporting on adult-onset fresh spondylolysis...
April 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319550/continuous-transversus-abdominis-plane-nerve-blocks-does-varying-local-anesthetic-delivery-method-automatic-repeated-bolus-versus-continuous-basal-infusion-influence-the-extent-of-sensation-to-cold-a-randomized-triple-masked-crossover-study-in-volunteers
#2
Bahareh Khatibi, Engy T Said, Jacklynn F Sztain, Amanda M Monahan, Rodney A Gabriel, Timothy J Furnish, Johnathan T Tran, Michael C Donohue, Brian M Ilfeld
BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether continuous or scheduled intermittent bolus local anesthetic administration is preferable for transversus abdominis plane (TAP) catheters. We therefore tested the hypothesis that when using TAP catheters, providing local anesthetic in repeated bolus doses increases the cephalad-caudad cutaneous effects compared with a basal-only infusion. METHODS: Bilateral TAP catheters (posterior approach) were inserted in 24 healthy volunteers followed by ropivacaine 2 mg/mL administration for a total of 6 hours...
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319509/a-high-preoperative-pain-and-symptom-profile-predicts-worse-pain-outcomes-for-children-after-spine-fusion-surgery
#3
Terri Voepel-Lewis, Michelle S Caird, Alan R Tait, Shobha Malviya, Frances A Farley, Ying Li, Matthew D Abbott, Tara van Veen, Afton L Hassett, Daniel J Clauw
BACKGROUND: Preoperative pain predicts persistent pain after spine fusion, yet little is understood about the nature of that pain, related symptoms, and how these symptoms relate to postoperative pain outcomes. This prospective study examined children's baseline pain and symptom profiles and the association between a high symptom profile and postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Seventy children (aged 10-17 years) scheduled for correction of idiopathic scoliosis completed pain and symptom surveys during their preoperative visit (ie, pain intensity [0-10 numeric rating scores], a pediatric version of the 2011 fibromyalgia survey criteria [including pain locations and symptom severity scale], neuropathic pain symptoms [painDETECT], and Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement System measures of fatigue, depression, function, pain interference, and pain catastrophizing)...
March 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318982/vertebral-artery-injury-in-patients-with-isolated-transverse-process-fractures
#4
Phillip A Bonney, Joshua D Burks, Andrew K Conner, Chad A Glenn, Cordell M Baker, Ahmed A Cheema, Jacob B Archer, Bryan E Buster, Roxie M Albrecht, Bradley N Bohnstedt
We sought to assess the rate of CTA-diagnosed vertebral artery injury in patients with isolated transverse process fractures, with and without extension into the transverse foramen, in the blunt-trauma population served by our hospital. We queried our universities trauma registry between January 2009 and July 2014 for ICD-9 codes pertaining to cervical spine fractures. Of 330 patients identified, 45 patients had fractures limited to the transverse process and were selected for the study population. For each patient identified, demographics, injury mechanism, imaging reports, angiography findings, and treatments were recorded...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318784/kinetics-of-endogenous-camkii-required-for-synaptic-plasticity-revealed-by-optogenetic-kinase-inhibitor
#5
Hideji Murakoshi, Myung Eun Shin, Paula Parra-Bueno, Erzsebet M Szatmari, Akihiro C E Shibata, Ryohei Yasuda
Elucidating temporal windows of signaling activity required for synaptic and behavioral plasticity is crucial for understanding molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena. Here, we developed photoactivatable autocamtide inhibitory peptide 2 (paAIP2), a genetically encoded, light-inducible inhibitor of CaMKII activity. The photoactivation of paAIP2 in neurons for 1-2 min during the induction of LTP and structural LTP (sLTP) of dendritic spines inhibited these forms of plasticity in hippocampal slices of rodents...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317323/a-functional-snp-regulated-by-mir-196a-3p-in-the-3-utr-of-fgf2-is-associated-with-bone-mineral-density-in-the-chinese-population
#6
Dong-Li Zhu, Yan Guo, Yan Zhang, Shan-Shan Dong, Wen Xu, Ruo-Han Hao, Xiao-Feng Chen, Han Yan, Shui-Yun Yang, Tie-Lin Yang
Previous studies have identified FGF2 as a susceptibility gene for osteoporosis in Caucasians. Evaluating the genetic associations in different ethnicities is necessary. Moreover, elucidating the functional mechanism for the susceptibility loci is important to offer new targets for therapeutic studies. Here, we genotyped ten SNPs in FGF2 and tested for associations with bone mineral density (BMD) in a discovery sample of 1300 Chinese subjects. Nominally significant results were subjected to replication in another sample of 1039 Chinese subjects...
March 19, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303382/a-rare-case-of-non-traumatic-multi-level-bilateral-pedicle-fractures-of-the-lumbar-spine-in-a-60-year-old-patient
#7
Timo Schmid, Paul Heini, Lorin Benneker
INTRODUCTION: We report a 60-year-old patient who sustained non-traumatic, multi-level, bilateral lumbar pedicle fractures in the setting of unilateral lumbar spondylolysis. A possible fracture mechanism is evaluated and a review of the literature is presented. Whereas contralateral pedicle fractures of lumbar vertebrae with unilateral spondylosis are well described in young athletes, there is only one case report of multi-level, bilateral pedicle fractures of the lumbar spine in a young patient who sustained a high-impact motorcycle accident...
March 16, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300721/characterization-of-facet-joint-cartilage-properties-in-the-human-and-interspecies-comparisons
#8
Siobhan A O'Leary, Jarrett M Link, Eric O Klineberg, Jerry C Hu, Kyriacos A Athanasiou
The facet joint, a synovial joint located on the posterior-lateral spine, is highly susceptible to degenerative changes and plays a significant role in back-related morbidities. Despite its significance, the facet is rarely studied and thus current treatment strategies are lacking. This study aimed to characterize, for the first time, the properties of human, pig, monkey, and rabbit lumbar facet cartilage providing much-needed design criteria for tissue engineering approaches. In this study, where possible, the facet's morphological, histological, mechanical, and biochemical properties were evaluated...
March 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300467/association-of-cyp1a1-and-cyp1b1-polymorphisms-with-bone-mineral-density-variations-in-postmenopausal-mexican-mestizo-women
#9
Bertha Chávez, Felipe Vilchis, David Rojano-Mejía, Ramón Mauricio Coral Vázquez, María Del Carmen Aguirre-García, Patricia Canto
Herein, we investigated potential associations between polymorphisms of genes related to estrogen metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. This was a cross-sectional study, in which two hundred and ninety postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women were studied. The BMD of the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) was measured. The distribution of the genetic polymorphisms, including rs1799814 and rs1048943 at CYP1A1 as well as rs1056836 at CYP1B1, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP), and DNA sequencing...
March 16, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297673/%C3%AE-protocadherins-interact-with-neuroligin-1-and-negatively-regulate-dendritic-spine-morphogenesis
#10
Michael J Molumby, Rachel M Anderson, Dillan J Newbold, Norah K Koblesky, Andrew M Garrett, Dietmar Schreiner, Jason J Radley, Joshua A Weiner
The 22 γ-Protocadherin (γ-Pcdh) cell adhesion molecules are critical for the elaboration of complex dendritic arbors in the cerebral cortex. Here, we provide evidence that the γ-Pcdhs negatively regulate synapse development by inhibiting the postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule, neuroligin-1 (Nlg1). Mice lacking all γ-Pcdhs in the forebrain exhibit significantly increased dendritic spine density in vivo, while spine density is significantly decreased in mice overexpressing one of the 22 γ-Pcdh isoforms...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297335/on-the-accuracy-of-dose-prediction-near-metal-fixation-devices-for-spine-sbrt
#11
Zhangkai J Cheng, Regina M Bromley, Brad Oborn, Martin Carolan, Jeremy T Booth
The metallic fixations used in surgical procedures to support the spine mechanically usually consist of high-density materials. Radiation therapy to palliate spinal cord compression can include prophylactic inclusion of potential tumor around the site of such fixation devices. Determination of the correct density and shape of the spine fixation device has a direct effect on the dose calculation of the radiation field. Even with the application of modern computed tomography (CT), under- or overestimation of dose, both immediately next to the device and in the surrounding tissues, can occur due to inaccuracies in the dose prediction algorithm...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295281/structure-composition-mechanics-and-growth-of-spines-of-the-dorsal-fin-of-blue-tilapia-oreochromis-aureus-and-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#12
N Kalish-Achrai, E Monsonego-Ornan, R Shahar
The structural, compositional and mechanical properties of the spines of the dorsal fin in mature anosteocytic blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus and osteocytic common carp Cyprinus carpio are described, as well as their temporal growth pattern and regenerative capacities. The three-dimensional architecture of both spines, from macro to sub-micron levels, is shown to be axially oriented and therefore highly anisotropic and the spines of both species are able to regenerate after partial amputation.
March 14, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293486/sacral-insufficiency-fractures-recognition-and-treatment-in-patients-with-concurrent-lumbar-vertebral-compression-fractures
#13
Jesse Hatgis, Michelle Granville, Robert E Jacobson, Aldo Berti
INTRODUCTION: In reviewing a larger group of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), we found that the overall incidence of sacral insufficiency fractures (SIFs) is higher than commonly reported values. This is especially seen in patients with previous or concurrent lumbar VCFs and also in a subgroup that had lumbar stenosis or hip arthroplasty. The altered biomechanics due to associated lumbar stenosis or hip arthroplasty lead to increased mechanical stress on already weakened and deficient sacral alae, which are more vulnerable to osteoporotic weakening than other parts of the sacrum...
February 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291179/the-influence-of-direct-inoculation-of-propionibacterium-acnes-on-modic-changes-in-the-spine-evidence-from-a-rabbit-model
#14
Zhi Shan, Xuyang Zhang, Shengyun Li, Tianming Yu, Maiwulanjiang Mamuti, Fengdong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Modic changes (inflammatory-like changes visible on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] scans of a vertebral end plate) are common and are associated with low back pain, but their origin is unclear. To our knowledge, there have been no previous in vivo animal models of Modic changes. We hypothesized that Modic changes may be related to Propionibacterium acnes. METHODS: Ten New Zealand White rabbits were injected percutaneously with 1 mL of P. acnes (1.6 × 10 colony forming units/mL) into the subchondral bone superior to the L4-L5 and L5-L6 discs; 10 other control rabbits received sham injections at L4-L5 and 1 mL of normal saline solution (vehicle) at L5-L6...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288900/the-mechanism-of-back-pain-relief-by-spinal-manipulation-relies-on-decreased-temporal-summation-of-pain
#15
Christopher Randoll, Vincent Gagnon-Normandin, Jessica Tessier, Suzie Bois, Nabi Rustamov, Julie O'Shaughnessy, Martin Descarreaux, Mathieu Piché
The aim of the present study was to determine whether thoracic spinal manipulation (SM) decreases temporal summation of back pain. The study comprised 2 controlled experiments including 16 and 15 healthy participants, respectively. Each study included 6 sessions during which painful or non-painful electrical stimulations were delivered in three conditions: 1) control 2) light mechanical stimulus (MS) or 3) SM. Electrical stimulation was applied on the thoracic spine (T4), in the area where SM and MS were performed...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285031/evolution-and-complications-after-surgery-for-spine-deformation-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Bouyer Benjamin, Scemama Caroline, P Roussouly, F Laouissat, I Obeid, L Boissière, F-H Parent, S Schuller, J-P Steib, H Pascal-Moussellard, P Guigui, Wolff Stéphane, Riouallon Guillaume
INTRODUCTION: Surgical treatment of spinal deformity is high risk in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). Several series have already reported a high rate of complications. However, none of these studies included more than 40 patients and none of the risk factors of complications were described. The aim of this study was to describe the rate and risk factors of revision surgery as well as the clinical outcome at the last visit in a large multicenter study of PD patients operated for spinal deformities...
March 8, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284898/role-of-probdnf-and-bdnf-in-dendritic-spine-plasticity-and-depressive-like-behaviors-induced-by-an-animal-model-of-depression
#17
Hui Qiao, Shu-Cheng An, Chang Xu, Xin-Ming Ma
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorder, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Increasing evidence shows that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the structural plasticity induced by depression. Considering the opposite effects of BDNF and its precursor proBDNF on neural plasticity, we hypothesized that the balance of BDNF and proBDNF plays a critical role in chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behaviors and structural plasticity in the rodent hippocampus...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282756/the-effect-of-short-term-isometric-training-on-core-torso-stiffness
#18
Benjamin Lee, Stuart McGill
"Core" exercise is a basic part of many physical training regimens with goals ranging from rehabilitation of spine and knee injuries to improving athletic performance. Core stiffness has been proposed to perform several functions including reducing pain by minimising joint micro-movements, and enhancing strength and speed performance. This study probes the links between a training approach and immediate but temporary changes in stiffness. Passive and active stiffness was measured on 24 participants; 12 having little to no experience in core training (inexperienced), and the other 12 being athletes experienced to core training methods; before and after a 15 min bout of isometric core exercises...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279204/a-study-to-compare-the-efficacy-of-polyether-ether-ketone-rod-device-with-titanium-devices-in-posterior-spinal-fusion-in-a-canine-model
#19
Nanxiang Wang, Huanxin Xie, Chunyang Xi, Han Zhang, Jinglong Yan
BACKGROUND: The benefits of posterior lumbar fusion surgery with orthotopic paraspinal muscle-pediculated bone flaps are well established. However, the problem of non-union due to mechanical support is not completely resolved. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) rod device with conventional titanium devices in the posterior lumbar fusion surgery with orthotopic paraspinal muscle-pediculated bone flaps. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled study with an experimental animal model...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274703/spines-of-the-porcupine-fish-structure-composition-and-mechanical-properties
#20
Frances Y Su, Eric A Bushong, Thomas J Deerinck, Kyungah Seo, Steven Herrera, Olivia A Graeve, David Kisailus, Vlado A Lubarda, Joanna McKittrick
This paper explores the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of porcupine fish spines for the first time. The spine was found to be composed of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, protein (collagen), and water using X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Microstructures have mineralized fibrillar sheets in the longitudinal direction and in a radial orientation in the transverse direction that were observed using light and electron microscopy. Based on the images, the hierarchical structure of the spine shows both concentric and radial reinforcement...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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