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Spine Mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333872/effects-and-underlying-mechanisms-of-unstable-shoes-on-chronic-low-back-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Juan Francisco Lisón, Borja Ortega-Santana, Álvaro Antón-Nogués, Palmy González-Requena, Cristina Vera-Hervás, Julio Doménech-Fernández, Daniel Sánchez-Zuriaga, Pablo Salvador-Coloma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects that wearing unstable shoes has on disability, trunk muscle activity, and lumbar spine range of motion (ROM) in patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Orthopedic Surgery Service. PARTICIPANTS: We randomized 40 adults with nonspecific CLBP either to an unstable shoes group ( n = 20) or to the control group ( n = 20). INTERVENTION: The participants in the unstable shoes group were advised to wear these shoes for a minimum of six hours a day for four weeks...
January 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330091/cdc42ep4-a-perisynaptic-scaffold-protein-in-bergmann-glia-is-required-for-glutamatergic-tripartite-synapse-configuration
#2
Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Kohtarou Konno, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Makoto Kinoshita
Configuration of tripartite synapses, comprising the pre-, post-, and peri-synaptic components (axon terminal or bouton, dendritic spine, and astroglial terminal process), is a critical determinant of neurotransmitter kinetics and hence synaptic transmission. However, little is known about molecular basis for the regulation of tripartite synapse morphology. Previous studies showed that CDC42EP4, an effector protein of a cell morphogenesis regulator CDC42, is expressed exclusively in Bergmann glia in the cerebellar cortex, that it forms tight complex with the septin heterooligomer, and that it interacts indirectly with the glutamate transporter GLAST and MYH10/nonmuscle myosin ΙΙB...
January 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329879/mir-134-modulates-chronic-stress-induced-structural-plasticity-and-depression-like-behaviors-via-downregulation-of-limk1-cofilin-signaling-in-rats
#3
Cuiqin Fan, Xiuzhi Zhu, Qiqi Song, Peng Wang, Zhuxi Liu, Shu Yan Yu
Increasing evidence has suggested that depression is a neuropsychiatric condition associated with neuroplasticity within specific brain regions. However, the mechanisms by which neuroplasticity exerts its effects in depression remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study we show that chronic stress effectively induces depression-like behaviors in rats, an effect which was associated with structural changes in dendritic spines and synapse abnormalities within neurons of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
January 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329586/il-33-st2-signaling-contributes-to-radicular-pain-by-modulating-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-inflammatory-mediator-expression-in-the-spinal-cord-in-rat-models-of-noncompressive-lumber-disk-herniation
#4
Si-Jian Huang, Jian-Qin Yan, Hui Luo, Lu-Yao Zhou, Jian-Gang Luo
BACKGROUND: Immune and inflammatory responses occurring in the spinal cord play a pivotal role in the progression of radicular pain caused by intervertebral disk herniation. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) orchestrates inflammatory responses in a wide range of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders of the nervous system. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of IL-33 and its receptor ST2 in the dorsal spinal cord and to elucidate whether the inhibition of spinal IL-33 expression significantly attenuates pain-related behaviors in rat models of noncompressive lumbar disc herniation...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328004/thoracolumbar-injury-classification-and-severity-score-in-children-a-reliability-study
#5
Ross L Dawkins, Joseph H Miller, Omar I Ramadan, Michael C Lysek, Elizabeth N Kuhn, Brandon G Rocque, Michael J Conklin, R Shane Tubbs, Beverly C Walters, Bonita S Agee, Curtis J Rozzelle
OBJECTIVE There are many classification systems for injuries of the thoracolumbar spine. The recent Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) has been shown to be a reliable tool for adult patients. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the TLICS system in pediatric patients. The validity of the TLICS system is assessed in a companion paper. METHODS The medical records of pediatric patients with acute, traumatic thoracolumbar fractures at a single Level 1 trauma center were retrospectively reviewed...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327302/diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis-is-associated-with-lumbar-spinal-stenosis-requiring-surgery
#6
Kentaro Yamada, Shigenobu Satoh, Hiroshi Hashizume, Noriko Yoshimura, Ryohei Kagotani, Yuyu Ishimoto, Yuichiro Abe, Hiromitsu Toyoda, Hidetomi Terai, Takeshi Masuda, Shigeyuki Muraki, Hiroaki Nakamura, Munehito Yoshida
Factors related to the onset and progression of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) have not yet been identified. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) increases mechanical loading on the non-fused lumbar levels and may therefore lead to LSS. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify associations between LSS and DISH. This study included 2363 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for LSS and 787 general inhabitants without symptoms of LSS as participants of the population-based cohort study, Research on Osteoarthritis/Osteoporosis Against Disability...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324724/evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-levels-and-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-in-burst-fractures
#7
Fetullah Kuyumcu, Abdurrahman Aycan
BACKGROUND Spinal burst fractures are pathologies that occur in spinal injuries and cause significant mortality and morbidity as a result. Burst fractures in spinal cord injuries can result in rapid and significant oxidative stress. In addition to the primary injury in severe spinal cord injuries, subsequent secondary lesions are mainly due to inflammatory cascade activation and excessive production of free radicals. This study evaluated oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme levels in burst fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty patients with burst fractures were diagnosed and underwent surgery and 20 healthy control subjects were included in the study...
January 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323806/spine-and-spinal-cord-injuries-after-falls-from-tree-stands-during-the-wisconsin-deer-hunting-season
#8
Kimberly Hamilton, Brandon Rocque, Nathaniel Brooks
BACKGROUND: Deer hunting is popular in much of the United States. In Wisconsin, use of tree stands for hunting is common. Spine surgeons at a Level 1 Trauma Center observed a high incidence of spine and spinal cord injury due to falls from tree stands while hunting. This study's purpose is to systematically characterize and classify those injuries. METHODS: We reviewed the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics' trauma database for tree stand-related injuries from 1999 to 2013...
November 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320399/on-farm-evaluation-of-a-novel-mechanical-cervical-dislocation-device-for-poultry
#9
Jessica E Martin, Victoria Sandilands, Julian Sparrey, Laurence Baker, Dorothy E F McKeegan
Urgent development of alternative on-farm killing methods for poultry is required following the number restrictions placed on the use of traditional manual cervical dislocation by European Legislation (EU 1099/2009). Alternatives must be proven to be humane and, crucially, practical in commercial settings with multiple users. We assessed the performance and reliability of a novel mechanical cervical dislocation device (NMCD) compared to the traditional manual cervical dislocation (MCD) method. NMCD was based on a novel device consisting of a thin supportive glove and two moveable metal finger inserts designed to aid the twisting motion of cervical dislocation...
January 10, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317696/unraveling-individual-differences-in-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-therapeutic-efficacy-of-methylphenidate
#10
Kristen A McLaurin, Hailong Li, Rosemarie M Booze, Amanda J Fairchild, Charles F Mactutus
Despite the heterogeneity of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), assignment of categorical diagnoses based on the level of impairment (e.g., Frascati criteria) obfuscates the well-acknowledged variability observed within the population of HIV-1+ individuals. The present study sought to elucidate the natural heterogeneity in adult HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats using three interrelated aims. First, heterogeneity of the HIV-1 transgene was examined using a pretest-posttest design to assess therapeutic efficacy of oral self-administration (OSA) of methylphenidate (MPH; 2...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317530/the-polarity-protein-angiomotin-p130-controls-dendritic-spine-maturation
#11
Michael Wigerius, Dylan Quinn, Antonios Diab, Leanne Clattenburg, Annette Kolar, Jiansong Qi, Stefan R Krueger, James P Fawcett
The actin cytoskeleton is essential for the structural changes in dendritic spines that lead to the formation of new synapses. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying spine formation are well characterized, the events that drive spine maturation during development are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that Angiomotin (AMOT-130) is necessary for spine stabilization. AMOT-130 is enriched in mature dendritic spines and functions to stabilize the actin cytoskeleton by coupling F-actin to postsynaptic protein scaffolds...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317155/compensatory-mechanism-of-the-spine-after-corrective-surgery-without-lumbar-sacral-fixation-for-traumatic-thoracolumbar-kyphotic-spine-deformity
#12
Koji Matsumoto, Masahiro Hoshino, Keita Omori, Hidetoshi Igarashi, Takashi Tsuruta, Koji Yamasaki, Hiromi Matsuzaki, Takanori Iriuchishima, Yasuaki Tokuhashi
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether long fusion including lumbar-sacral fixation is needed in corrective surgery to obtain good global sagittal balance (GSB) for the treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar kyphotic spine deformity. The purposes of this study were to evaluate compensatory mechanism of the spine after corrective surgery without lumbar-sacral fixation and to evaluate the parameters affecting the achievement of good GSB post-operatively. METHODS: Twenty (20) subjects requiring corrective surgery (distal end of fixation was L3) were included in this study...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315428/cervical-radiculopathy-effectiveness-of-adding-traction-to-physical-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#13
Paolo Pillastrini, Antonio Romeo, Carla Vanti, Valerio Boldrini, Martina Ruggeri, Andrew Guccione, Lucia Bertozzi
Background: Cervical radiculopathy (CR) is a common cervical spine disorder. Cervical traction (CT) is a frequently recommended treatment for patients with CR. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of CT combined with other physical therapy procedures versus physical therapy procedures alone on pain and disability. Data Sources: Data were obtained from COCHRANE Controlled Trials Register, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and PEDro, from their inception to July 2016...
January 5, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315127/tidemark-avulsions-are-a-predominant-form-of-endplate-irregularity
#14
Britta Berg-Johansen, Deeptee Jain, Ellen C Liebenberg, Aaron J Fields, Thomas M Link, Conor W O'Neill, Jeffrey C Lotz
STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive histologic and MRI study of human cadaveric spines. OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize common endplate pathologies to form a histologic foundation for an etiology-based classification system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Irregularities at the spinal disc-vertebra interface are associated with back pain and intervertebral disc herniation injuries. However, there is currently a lack of consensus regarding terminology for classification...
January 8, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312473/central-nervous-system-gadolinium-accumulation-in-patients-undergoing-periodical-contrast-mri-screening-for-hereditary-tumor-syndromes
#15
Evelynn Vergauwen, Anne-Marie Vanbinst, Carola Brussaard, Peter Janssens, Dieter De Clerck, Michel Van Lint, Anne C Houtman, Olaf Michel, Kathelijn Keymolen, Bieke Lefevere, Susanne Bohler, Dirk Michielsen, Anna C Jansen, Vera Van Velthoven, Sven Gläsker
Background: Patients with hereditary tumor syndromes undergo periodical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening with Gadolinium contrast. Gadolinium accumulation has recently been described in the central nervous system after repeated administrations. The prevalence and rate of accumulation in different subgroups of patients are unknown. Neither are the mechanism nor clinical impact. This may cause uncertainty about the screening. To explore the prevalence and rate of Gadolinium accumulation in different subgroups, we retrospectively analyzed MRIs of patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)...
2018: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311652/adult-generated-neurons-born-during-chronic-social-stress-are-uniquely-adapted-to-respond-to-subsequent-chronic-social-stress
#16
Zurine De Miguel, Ursula Haditsch, Theo D Palmer, Arantza Azpiroz, Robert M Sapolsky
Chronic stress is a recognized risk factor for psychiatric and psychological disorders and a potent modulator of adult neurogenesis. Numerous studies have shown that during stress, neurogenesis decreases; however, during the recovery from the stress, neurogenesis increases. Despite the increased number of neurons born after stress, it is unknown if the function and morphology of those neurons are altered. Here we asked whether neurons in adult mice, born during the final 5 days of chronic social stress and matured during recovery from chronic social stress, are similar to neurons born with no stress conditions from a quantitative, functional and morphological perspective, and whether those neurons are uniquely adapted to respond to a subsequent stressful challenge...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311593/neogenin-a-regulator-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-prevents-depressive-like-behavior
#17
Dong Sun, Xiang-Dong Sun, Lu Zhao, Dae-Hoon Lee, Jin-Xia Hu, Fu-Lei Tang, Jin-Xiu Pan, Lin Mei, Xiao-Juan Zhu, Wen-Cheng Xiong
Adult neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a complex, but precisely controlled process. Dysregulation of this event contributes to multiple neurological disorders, including major depression. Thus, it is of considerable interest to investigate how adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated. Here, we present evidence for neogenin, a multifunctional transmembrane receptor, to regulate adult mouse hippocampal neurogenesis. Loss of neogenin in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) impaired NSCs/NPCs proliferation and neurogenesis, whereas increased their astrocytic differentiation...
January 8, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310946/validation-of-lumbar-spine-loading-from-a-musculoskeletal-model-including-the-lower-limbs-and-lumbar-spine
#18
Jason A Actis, Jasmin D Honegger, Deanna H Gates, Anthony J Petrella, Luis A Nolasco, Anne K Silverman
Low back mechanics are important to quantify to study injury, pain and disability. As in vivo forces are difficult to measure directly, modeling approaches are commonly used to estimate these forces. Validation of model estimates is critical to gain confidence in modeling results across populations of interest, such as people with lower-limb amputation. Motion capture, ground reaction force and electromyographic data were collected from ten participants without an amputation (five male/five female) and five participants with a unilateral transtibial amputation (four male/one female) during trunk-pelvis range of motion trials in flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302779/glia-to-neuron-transfer-of-mirnas-via-extracellular-vesicles-a-new-mechanism-underlying-inflammation-induced-synaptic-alterations
#19
Ilaria Prada, Martina Gabrielli, Elena Turola, Alessia Iorio, Giulia D'Arrigo, Roberta Parolisi, Mariacristina De Luca, Marco Pacifici, Mattia Bastoni, Marta Lombardi, Giuseppe Legname, Dan Cojoc, Annalisa Buffo, Roberto Furlan, Francesca Peruzzi, Claudia Verderio
Recent evidence indicates synaptic dysfunction as an early mechanism affected in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, which are characterized by chronic microglia activation. However, the mode(s) of action of reactive microglia in causing synaptic defects are not fully understood. In this study, we show that inflammatory microglia produce extracellular vesicles (EVs) which are enriched in a set of miRNAs that regulate the expression of key synaptic proteins. Among them, miR-146a-5p, a microglia-specific miRNA not present in hippocampal neurons, controls the expression of presynaptic synaptotagmin1 (Syt1) and postsynaptic neuroligin1 (Nlg1), an adhesion protein which play a crucial role in dendritic spine formation and synaptic stability...
January 4, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296931/bone-disease-in-monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance-results-from-a-screened-population-based-study
#20
Sigrun Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun H Lund, Ebba K Lindqvist, Marianna Thordardottir, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Rene Costello, Debra Burton, Hlif Steingrimsdottir, Vilmundur Gudnason, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Kristin Siggeirsdottir, Tamara B Harris, Ola Landgren, Sigurdur Y Kristinsson
Previous studies have shown that individuals with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) have an increased risk of fractures, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Our aim was to analyze bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume, and risk of fractures among individuals with MGUS. We performed a screening using the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study cohort, consisting of 5764 elderly individuals, identifying 300 individuals with MGUS, and 275 with light-chain MGUS...
December 26, 2017: Blood Advances
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