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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109014/urothelial-generation-and-regeneration-in-development-injury-and-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Caihong Wang, Whitney Trotter Ross, Indira U Mysorekar
Homeostatic maintenance and repair of the urothelium upon injury are required for a functional bladder in both healthy and disease conditions. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the urothelial regenerative response is key to designing strategies for tissue repair and ultimately treatments for urologic diseases including urinary tract infections, voiding dysfunction, painful bladder syndrome and bladder cancer. In this article, we review studies on urothelial ontogeny during development and regeneration following various injury modalities...
January 20, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107658/validation-of-a-personalized-curved-muscle-model-of-the-lumbar-spine-during-complex-dynamic-exertions
#2
Jaejin Hwang, Gregory G Knapik, Jonathan S Dufour, Thomas M Best, Safdar N Khan, Ehud Mendel, William S Marras
Previous curved muscle models have typically examined their robustness only under simple, single-plane static exertions. In addition, the empirical validation of curved muscle models through an entire lumbar spine has not been fully realized. The objective of this study was to empirically validate a personalized biologically-assisted curved muscle model during complex dynamic exertions. Twelve subjects performed a variety of complex lifting tasks as a function of load weight, load origin, and load height. Both a personalized curved muscle model as well as a straight-line muscle model were used to evaluate the model's fidelity and prediction of three-dimensional spine tissue loads under different lifting conditions...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106669/translational-studies-identify-long-term-impact-of-prior-neonatal-pain-experience
#3
Suellen M Walker
Pain sensitivity and risk of chronic pain can be influenced by past experience. Childhood stress/adversity has been associated with chronic pain, mood disorders, and altered disease vulnerability decades later. As the rate of preterm birth and survival at earlier gestational ages increases, and advances in peri-operative care and surgery allow more complex surgical interventions to be performed in neonates, evaluation of treatment 'success' must extend beyond acute morbidity and mortality to encompass effects on subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome, and also sensory, cognitive and behavioral responses to pain in later life...
January 12, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105664/visceral-and-somatic-pain-modalities-reveal-nav-1-7-independent-visceral-nociceptive-pathways
#4
James R F Hockley, Rafael González-Cano, Sheridan McMurray, Miguel A Tejada-Giraldez, Cian McGuire, Antonio Torres, Anna L Wilbrey, Vincent Cibert-Goton, Francisco R Nieto, Thomas Pitcher, Charles H Knowles, José Manuel Baeyens, John N Wood, Wendy J Winchester, David C Bulmer, Cruz Miguel Cendán, Gordon McMurray
Voltage-gated sodium channel NaV 1.7 is required for acute and inflammatory pain in mice and humans but its significance for visceral pain is unknown. Here we examine the role of NaV 1.7 in visceral pain processing and the development of referred hyperalgesia using a conditional nociceptor-specific NaV 1.7 knockout mouse (NaV 1.7(Nav1.8) ) and selective small-molecule NaV 1.7 antagonist PF-5198007. NaV 1.7(Nav1.8) mice showed normal nociceptive behaviours to intracolonic application of either capsaicin or mustard oil, stimuli known to evoke sustained nociceptor activity and sensitization following tissue damage, respectively...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104535/immune-mediated-processes-implicated-in-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#5
REVIEW
Justin G Lees, Preet G S Makker, Ryan S Tonkin, Munawwar Abdulla, Susanna B Park, David Goldstein, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and associated neuropathic pain are challenging complications of cancer treatment. Many of the major classes of chemotherapeutics can cause neurotoxicity and significantly modulate the immune system. There is ongoing investigation regarding whether reciprocal crosstalk between the nervous and immune systems occurs and, indeed, contributes to neuropathic pain during treatment with chemotherapeutics. An emerging concept is that neuroinflammation is one of the major mechanisms underlying CIPN...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103829/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-oral-vs-intravenous-hydration-on-subclinical-acute-kidney-injury-in-living-kidney-donors-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Shona Mackinnon, Emma Aitken, Ryan Ghita, Marc Clancy
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for established renal failure is living donor kidney transplantation. However this pathway exposes healthy individuals to significant reduction in nephron mass via major surgical procedure. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is now the most common method for live donor transplantation, reducing both donor post-operative pain and recovery time. However this procedure exposes kidneys to additional haemodynamic stresses. It has been suggested that donor hydration-particularly the use of preoperative intravenous fluids-may counteract these stresses, reducing subclinical acute kidney injury and ultimately improving long-term renal function...
January 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103470/gender-differences-in-asymmetrical-limb-support-patterns-between-subjects-with-and-without-recurrent-low-back-pain
#7
Paul S Sung, J Tim Zipple, Pamela Danial
New insight regarding limb-dominance effects on temporal-spatial gait parameters is needed to further investigate subjects with recurrent low back pain (LBP). Although an asymmetrical gait pattern was found to reflect natural functional differences, there is a lack of information regarding gender differences on dominant limb support patterns in subjects with LBP. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal-spatial gait parameters based on limb dominance and gender between subjects with and without LBP...
January 16, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101155/the-5-ht2a-receptor-potassium-chloride-cotransporter-2-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-incision-pain-model
#8
Rong Dong, Buwei Yu, Lijiao Chen, Weifeng Yu
Postoperative pain is a critical problem in clinical pain administration. Due to the unclear formation mechanism of postoperative pain, the treatment of postoperative pain is still in the symptomatic treatment stage and lacking satisfactory analgesic effect. Postoperative pain can be simulated by using a rat incision pain model. We observed changes in pain-related behavior of rats affected by the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonist, TCB-2, and antagonist, ketanserin, through intrathecal delivery...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100479/evidence-of-central-sensitisation-in-those-with-dry-eye-symptoms-and-neuropathic-like-ocular-pain-complaints-incomplete-response-to-topical-anaesthesia-and-generalised-heightened-sensitivity-to-evoked-pain
#9
Ashley M Crane, William Feuer, Elizabeth R Felix, Roy C Levitt, Allison L McClellan, Konstantinos D Sarantopoulos, Anat Galor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how closely neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP) symptoms align with a metric of central sensitisation (ie, the presence of persistent ocular pain after topical anaesthetic placement) in individuals with dry eye (DE) symptoms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 224 individuals with DE symptoms seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic. An evaluation was performed consisting of questionnaires regarding DE symptoms, NOP descriptors and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing...
January 18, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100420/osteoarthritis-year-in-review-2016-mechanics
#10
REVIEW
D J Saxby, D G Lloyd
Inappropriate biomechanics, namely wear-and-tear, has been long believed to be a main cause of osteoarthritis (OA). However, this view is now being re-evaluated, especially when examined alongside mechanobiology and new biomechanical studies. These are multiscale experimental and computational studies focussing on cell- and tissue-level mechanobiology through to organ- and whole-body-level biomechanics, which focuses on the biomechanical and biochemical environment of the joint tissues. This review examined papers from April 2015 to April 2016, with a focus on multiscale experimental and computational biomechanical studies of OA...
December 16, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098766/single-electrode-deep-brain-stimulation-with-dual-targeting-at-dual-frequency-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Milo Hollingworth, Hugh P Sims-Williams, Anthony E Pickering, Neil Barua, Nikunj K Patel
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been used to target many deep brain structures for the treatment of chronic pain. The periaqueductal grey and periventricular grey (PAG/PVG) is an effective target but results are variable, sometimes short-lived or subject to tolerance. The centromedian intra-laminar parafascicular complex (CMPf) modulates medial pain pathways and CMPf DBS may address the affective aspects of pain perception. Stimulation of multiple deep brain targets may offer a strategy to optimize management of patients with complex pain symptomatology...
January 13, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097532/medication-overuse-in-chronic-pain
#12
REVIEW
Eric S Hsu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic pain is usually managed by various pharmacotherapies after exhausting the conservative modalities such as over-the-counter choices. The goal of this review is to investigate current state of opioids and non-opioid medication overuse that includes NSAIDs, skeletal muscle relaxants, antidepressants, membrane stabilization agents, and benzodiazepine. How to minimize medication overuse and achieve better outcome in chronic pain management? RECENT FINDINGS: Although antidepressants and membrane stabilization agents contribute to the crucial components for neuromodulation, opioids were frequently designated as a rescue remedy in chronic pain since adjunct analgesics usually do not provide instantaneous relief...
January 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097492/activation-of-trpm2-and-trpv1-channels-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-by-nadph-oxidase-and-protein-kinase-c-molecular-pathways-a-patch-clamp-study
#13
Mustafa Nazıroğlu
Despite considerable research, the mechanisms of neuropathic pain induced by excessive oxidative stress production and overload calcium ion (Ca(2+)) entry in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) remain substantially unidentified. The transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are activated with different stimuli including oxidative stress. TRPM2 and TRPV1 have been shown to be involved in induction of neuropathic pain. However, the activation mechanisms of TRPM2 and TRPV1 via NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways are poorly understood...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095953/reported-back-pain-in-army-aircrew-in-relation-to-airframe-gender-age-and-experience
#14
Amanda M Kelley, Jason MacDonnell, Deahndra Grigley, John Campbell, Steven J Gaydos
INTRODUCTION: Back pain has remained an issue of significance among aircraft crewmembers for decades, occurring in the majority of military helicopter pilots with potential deleterious effects on performance, safety, and operational readiness. This exploratory, correlational survey study was designed to evaluate the presence of patterns and relationships that may require further examination to understand causal factors. METHODS: The study population consisted of U...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095559/comparative-results-in-treatment-of-keloids-with-intralesional-5-fu-kenalog-5-fu-verapamil-enalapril-alone-verapamil-alone-and-laser-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Doru Alexandrescu, Sabrina Fabi, Lindsey C Yeh, Richard E Fitzpatrick, Mitchel P Goldman
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of keloids involves a hyperproliferative state due to molecular abnormalities, cellular driving pathways, such as TGF, VEGF, and the inactivation of proapoptotic genes. We reviewed the literature and compared various treatment combina- tions in the treatment of keloids in a one patient observation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Treatment modalities consisted of: intralesional 5- uorouracil (5-FU)/triamcinolone (TMC), 5-FU/verapamil, enal- april alone, verapamil alone, and fractional carbon dioxide laser...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092808/antinociceptive-effect-of-co-administered-nmda-and-histamine-h4-receptor-antagonists-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-pain
#16
Renata Wolińska, Anna Leśniak, Małgorzata Żochowska, Mariusz Sacharczuk, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
BACKGROUND: The histamine H4 receptor (H4R) has attracted a lot of attention in terms of its role in antinociception. The N-Methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor is a well-characterized participant in pain pathways. However, it's influence on H4R signaling is poorly understood. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effect of a selective H4R antagonist JNJ7777120 (25mg/kg) and a NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1-10μg) on nociceptive thresholds in a rat acute pain model. METHODS: The influence of intrathecally (it), intracerebroventricularly (icv) and intraplantarly (ipl) administered MK-801 co-injected with JNJ7777120 administered intraperitoneally (ip) was determined in the modified Randall-Selitto paw pressure, the tail flick and plantar tests...
October 29, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092445/mir-29b-promotes-skin-wound-healing-and-reduces-excessive-scar-formation-by-inhibition-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-ctgf-signaling-pathway
#17
Jingdong Guo, Quan Lin, Ying Shao, Li Rong, Duo Zhang
The hypertrophic scar is a medical difficulty of humans, which has caused great pain to patients. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of miR-29b on scar formation. The scalded model was established in mice and miR-29b mimics or a negative control was subcutaneously injected into the injury skin. Then various molecular biological experiments were performed to assess the effect of miR-29b on scar formation. According to our present study, first, the results demonstrated that miR-29b was down-regulated in thermal injury tissue and miR-29b treatment could promote wound healing, inhibit scar formation, and alleviate histopathological morphologic alteration in scald tissues...
November 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092334/is-enhanced-recovery-the-new-standard-of-care-in-microsurgical-breast-reconstruction
#18
Anoushka Afonso, Sabine Oskar, Kay See Tan, Joseph J Disa, Babak J Mehrara, Jihan Ceyhan, Joseph H Dayan
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) have been shown to aid in patient recovery and improve outcomes in many surgical settings. At present, there is limited data available regarding the use and feasibility of ERPs for patients undergoing microsurgical breast reconstruction. We sought to assess patient outcomes before and after the introduction of an ERP that was adopted by multiple surgeons at a single cancer center. METHODS: A multidisciplinary ERP was developed for patients undergoing deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) or muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction...
January 12, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092323/brain-substrates-of-reward-processing-and-the-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-a-pathway-into-pain
#19
Frauke Nees, Susanne Becker, Sabina Millenet, Tobias Banaschewski, Luise Poustka, Arun Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Rob Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Herta Flor
The processing of reward and reinforcement learning seems to be important determinants of pain chronicity. However, reward processing is already altered early in life and if this is related to the development of pain symptoms later on is not known. The aim of this study was first to examine whether behavioural and brain-related indicators of reward processing at the age of 14 to 15 years are significant predictors of pain complaints 2 years later, at 16 to 17 years. Second, we investigated the contribution of genetic variations in the opioidergic system, which is linked to the processing of both, reward and pain, to this prediction...
February 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092065/impact-of-celecoxib-on-inflammation-during-cancer-surgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Jonathan G Hiller, Shienny Sampurno, Rosemary Millen, Niketh Kuruvilla, Kwok M Ho, Rob Ramsay, Bernhard Riedel
PURPOSE: During cancer surgery, prostaglandin-mediated inflammation may promote and activate micrometastatic disease with a consequent increase in long-term cancer recurrence. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, known to have anti-proliferative properties, may offset such perioperative perturbation. We investigated the effectiveness of these agents to minimize inflammatory changes during cancer surgery. METHODS: Following ethics approval, 32 patients who were to undergo major intracavity cancer surgery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, clinical trial...
January 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
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