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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666836/organization-of-sperm-dna-by-the-nuclear-matrix
#1
REVIEW
William Steven Ward
In early years, Dr. Donald S. Coffey fostered the development of a new model for the organization of DNA in the sperm nucleus that had many unexpected similarities to that of somatic cells. This was surprising because it was well known that mammalian sperm DNA is more compact than the DNA in mitotic chromosomes, and the fact that some of the major structural components of somatic cell DNA organization were retained in the sperm cell was not predicted. The highly compact sperm DNA is organized into loop domains that are attached at their bases to a proteinaceous nuclear matrix, at specific matrix attachment regions (MARs)...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662821/sperm-chromatin-and-dna-integrity-methyltransferase-mrna-levels-and-global-dna-methylation-in-oligoasthenoteratozoospermia
#2
Tahereh Rahiminia, Ehsan Farashahi Yazd, Farzaneh Fesahat, Mohammad Reza Moein, Ali Mohammad Mirjalili, Ali Reza Talebi
Objective: To investigate sperm chromatin/DNA integrity, global DNA methylation, and DNMT mRNA transcription in men with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) compared with normozoospermic men. Methods: Semen samples from 32 OAT patients who comprised the case group and 32 normozoospermic men who comprised the control group were isolated and purified using a standard gradient isolation procedure according to World Health Organization criteria. DNMT1 , DNMT3A , and DNMT3B transcripts were then compared between groups using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction...
March 2018: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661409/anticoagulant-and-side-effects-of-protamine-in-cardiac-surgery-a-narrative-review
#3
REVIEW
C Boer, M I Meesters, D Veerhoek, A B A Vonk
Neutralisation of systemic anticoagulation with heparin in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass requires protamine administration. If adequately dosed, protamine neutralises heparin and reduces the risk of postoperative bleeding. However, as its anticoagulant properties are particularly exerted in the absence of heparin, overdosing of protamine may contribute to bleeding and increased transfusion requirements. This narrative review describes the mechanisms underlying the anticoagulant properties and side-effects of protamine, and the impact of protamine dosing on the activated clotting time and point-of-care viscoelastic test results, and explains the distinct protamine dosing strategies in relation to haemostatic activation and postoperative bleeding...
May 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660628/transcriptional-abundance-of-type-1-endocannabinoid-receptor-cb1-and-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-faah-in-bull-spermatozoa-relationship-with-field-fertility
#4
Vimlesh Kumar, Arumugam Kumaresan, Pradeep Nag, Puneeth Kumar, Tirtha Kumar Datta, Rubina Kumari Baithalu, Tushar Kumar Mohanty
A highly sophisticated endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) has been shown to play a crucial role in controlling sperm functions and fertility in men. In the present study, we report the differences in the expression level of components of ECS [type-1 endocannabinoid receptor (CB1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)] in spermatozoa from bulls with different field fertility ratings. Cryopreserved spermatozoa from crossbred cattle bulls (n = 40) were utilized for the study. The bulls were classified into high-, medium- and low-fertile bulls based on field conception rates...
April 8, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657074/nucleotide-variability-of-protamine-genes-influencing-bull-sperm-motility-variables
#5
Yathish H M, Subodh Kumar, Rajni Chaudhary, Chinmoy Mishra, Sivakumar A, Amit Kumar, Anuj Chauhan, S K Ghosh, Abhijit Mitra
Protamines (PRMs), important proteins of chromatin condensation in spermiogenesis, are promising candidate genes to explore markers of sperm motility. The coding and in-silico predicted promoter regions of these genes were investigated in 102 crossbred and 32 purebred cattle. Also, mRNA quantification was done to explore its possibility as diagnostic tool of infertility. The PCR-SSCP analysis indicated there were two band patterns only in fragment I of the PRM1 and fragment II of the PRM2 gene. The sequence analysis revealed A152G and G179A transitions in the PRM1 gene...
April 10, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651936/a-step-by-step-protocol-for-mammalian-sperm-protamine-extraction-and-analysis
#6
Ada Soler-Ventura, Judit Castillo, Alberto de la Iglesia, Meritxell Jodar, Ferran Barrachina, Josep Lluis Ballesca, Rafael Oliva
Protamines are the most abundant sperm nuclear proteins and pack approximately the 92-98% of the mammalian sperm DNA. In mammals, two types of protamines have been described, the protamine 1 (P1) and the protamine 2 (P2) family, whose relative ratio has been related to the proper sperm chromatin maturity and the normality/abnormality of the male gamete. Specifically, the deregulation of the P1/P2 ratio has been correlated to DNA damage, alterations in seminal parameters, and low success rate of assisted reproduction techniques...
April 12, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617556/a-dual-targeting-delivery-system-for-effective-genome-editing-and-in-situ-detecting-related-protein-expression-in-edited-cells
#7
Bo-Ya Liu, Xiao-Yan He, Chang Xu, Lei Xu, Shu-Lun Ai, Si-Xue Cheng, Ren-Xi Zhuo
One of critical steps in genome editing by CRISPR-Cas9 is to deliver the CRISPR-Cas9 system into targeted cells. In this study, we developed a dual-targeting delivery system based on polymer/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles to realize highly efficient genome editing in targeted tumor cells as well as in situ detection on the related protein expression in edited cells. The CRISPR-Cas9 plasmid for CDK11 knockout was encapsulated in the core of the delivery system composed of protamine sulfate, calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate by co-precipitation, and functional derivatives of carboxymethyl chitosan (biotinylated carboxymethyl chitosan with biotin ligands and aptamer incorporated carboxymethyl chitosan with AS1411 ligands) were decorated on the nanovector surface by electrostatic interactions to form the dual-targeting delivery system...
April 4, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608469/protamine-induced-cardiotoxicity-is-prevented-by-anti-tnf-%C3%AE-antibodies-and-heparin-erratum
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603806/glucose-concentrations-after-insulin-induced-hypoglycemia-and-glycemic-variability-in-healthy-and-diabetic-cats
#9
Eric Zini, Elena Salesov, Perrine Dupont, Laura Moretto, Barbara Contiero, Thomas A Lutz, Claudia E Reusch
BACKGROUND: Little information is available about posthypoglycemic hyperglycemia (PHH) in diabetic cats, and a causal link between hypoglycemia and subsequent hyperglycemia is not clear. Fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations might only represent high glycemic variability. HYPOTHESIS: Insulin induces PHH in healthy cats, and PHH is associated with poorly regulated diabetes and increased glycemic variability in diabetic cats. ANIMALS: Six healthy cats, 133 diabetic cats...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582121/naked-eye-detection-of-infertility-based-on-sperm-protamine-induced-aggregation-of-heparin-gold-nanoparticles
#10
Raj Vidya, Alex Saji
The development of an easy to use, one-pot, environmentally friendly, non-invasive and label-free colorimetric probe for the determination of semen protamines, the biochemical marker of male fertility, using heparin gold nanoparticles (HAuNPs) is presented. The affinity of HAuNPs for protamines was due to the electrostatic interactions between polycationic protamine and polyanionic heparin. The binding of HAuNPs to protamine was characterized by variation in the plasmon absorption spectra followed by a visibly observable colour change of the solution from red to blue...
March 26, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578075/the-effects-of-maternal-diabetes-and-insulin-treatment-on-neurogenesis-in-the-developing-hippocampus-of-male-rats
#11
Akram Sadeghi, Ebrahim Esfandiary, Javad Hami, Hossein Khanahmad, Zahra Hejazi, Mohammad Mardani, Shahnaz Razavi
Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with an increasing risk of congenital malformations and central nervous system disorders (CNS) especially hippocampal neuronal circuitry disruption as a discreet region involved in neurogenesis phenomenon. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes and insulin treatment on the expression and distribution pattern of NeuN and DCX as two important markers of neurogenesis paradigm in developing rat hippocampus. All animals were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Control group, Diabetic (STZ-D), Diabetic treated with insulin (STZ-INS)...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577976/effects-of-iron-oxide-contrast-agent-in-combination-with-various-transfection-agents-during-mesenchymal-stem-cells-labelling-an-in-vitro-toxicological-evaluation
#12
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Subash Khushu, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
The use of iron oxide nanoparticles for different biomedical applications, hold immense promise to develop negative tissue contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Previously, we have optimized the labelling of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with iron oxide nanoparticles complexed to different transfection agents like poly-l-lysine (IO-PLL) and protamine sulfate (Fe-Pro) on the basis of relaxation behaviour and its biological expressions. However, there is a distinct need to investigate the biocompatibility and biosafety concerns coupled with its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity...
March 22, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572404/similar-biophysical-abnormalities-in-glomeruli-and-podocytes-from-two-distinct-models
#13
Addie E Embry, Zhenan Liu, Joel M Henderson, F Jefferson Byfield, Liping Liu, Joonho Yoon, Zhenzhen Wu, Katrina Cruz, Sara Moradi, C Barton Gillombardo, Rihanna Z Hussain, Richard Doelger, Olaf Stuve, Audrey N Chang, Paul A Janmey, Leslie A Bruggeman, R Tyler Miller
Background FSGS is a pattern of podocyte injury that leads to loss of glomerular function. Podocytes support other podocytes and glomerular capillary structure, oppose hemodynamic forces, form the slit diaphragm, and have mechanical properties that permit these functions. However, the biophysical characteristics of glomeruli and podocytes in disease remain unclear. Methods Using microindentation, atomic force microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR, and a three-dimensional collagen gel contraction assay, we studied the biophysical and structural properties of glomeruli and podocytes in chronic (Tg26 mice [HIV protein expression]) and acute (protamine administration [cytoskeletal rearrangement]) models of podocyte injury...
March 23, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567373/synthesis-of-novel-laccase-biotitania-biocatalysts-for-malachite-green-decolorization
#14
Xinying Zhang, Meiyin Wang, Linlin Lin, Gao Xiao, Zhenping Tang, Xuefeng Zhu
Biomimetic mineralization has emerged as a novel tool for generating excellent supports for enzyme stabilization. In this work, protamine was used to induce titanium (IV) bis(ammonium lactato) dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) into titania nanoparticles. This biomimetic titanification process was adopted for laccase immobilization. Laccase-biotitania biocatalyst was prepared and the effect of different parameters (buffer solution, titania precursor concentration, protamine concentration, and enzyme loading) on the encapsulation efficiency and recovery of laccase were evaluated...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565719/effect-of-insulin-analogs-on-frequency-of-non-severe-hypoglycemia-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-prone-to-severe-hypoglycemia-much-higher-rates-detected-by-continuous-glucose-monitoring-than-by-self-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-the-hypoana-trial
#15
Rikke Mette Agesen, Peter Lommer Kristensen, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Kirsten Nørgaard, Hans Perrild, Tonny Jensen, Hans-Henrik Parving, Birger Thorsteinsson, Lise Tarnow, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is an increasingly important endpoint in clinical diabetes trials. The assessment of hypoglycemia should therefore be as complete as possible. Blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) provides an improved opportunity to capture asymptomatic and nocturnal events. Here we report results from the HypoAna trial comparing all-analog-insulin therapy (aspart/detemir) with all-human-insulin therapy (neutral protamine Hagedorn/regular) on non-severe hypoglycemia (symptomatic and asymptomatic hypoglycemia) as assessed by blinded CGM and compared with data obtained by self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in patients with type 1 diabetes and recurrent severe hypoglycemia...
March 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545958/acquired-coagulopathy-and-hemorrhage-secondary-to-subcutaneous-heparin-prophylaxis
#16
Maria Sunseri, Tania Ahuja, Tanya Wilcox, David Green
Unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins are commonly used as thromboprophylaxis for hospitalized patients. Though generally considered safe at prophylactic doses, cases of catastrophic hemorrhage have been reported. The proposed mechanism involves bioaccumulation of heparin through saturation of the rapid-elimination pathway in its metabolism. We present an unusual case of an average-weight man with metastatic melanoma who suffered hemorrhage with syncope and end-organ damage while on prophylactic three times daily unfractionated heparin...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545038/preclinical-animal-studies-of-intravesical-recombinant-human-proteoglycan-4-rhprg4-as-a-novel-potential-therapy-for-diseases-resulting-from-increased-bladder-permeability
#17
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Ehsan Mohammadi, Rocco Latorre, Edward R Truitt, Gregory D Jay, Benjamin D Sullivan, Tannin A Schmidt, Nataliya Smith, Debra Saunders, Jadith Ziegler, Megan Lerner, Robert Hurst, Rheal A Towner
OBJECTIVE: To test in an animal model the hypothesis that rhPRG4 (lubricin), a highly O-glycosylated mucin-like glycoprotein, may be a novel surface-active therapeutic for treating bladder permeability with co-morbid bowel permeability. Previously we showed that inducing bladder permeability in rats with dilute protamine sulfate (PS) produced colonic permeability and visceral hypersensitivity, suggesting increased bladder permeability could represent an etiologic factor in both Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)...
March 12, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544571/comparison-between-intravenous-boluses-versus-infusion-of-tranexamic-acid-txa-to-reduce-bleeding-in-paediatric-cyanotic-congenital-heart-disease-chd-surgeries
#18
Faisal Junejo, Mohammad Irfan Akhtar, Mohammad Hamid, Syed Shabbir Ahmed, Fauzia Minai, Muneer Amanullah
OBJECTIVE: To compare the intravenous boluses and intravenous continuous infusion of tranexamic acid (TXA) to reduce postoperative bleeding in cyanotic congenital heart disease surgeries. STUDY DESIGN: Single-blinded randomised clinical trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Anaesthesia Department, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from July 2016 to April 2017. METHODOLOGY: Sixty patients of cyanotic congenital heart disease, undergoing either palliative or corrective surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), were recruited...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544405/the-effect-of-protamine-dosing-variation-on-bleeding-and-transfusion-after-heparinisation-for-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#19
Stephen A Kunz, Lachlan F Miles, Damian J Ianno, Kelly L Mirowska-Allen, George Matalanis, Rinaldo Bellomo, Siven Seevanayagam
INTRODUCTION: Accurate dosing of protamine reversal following on-pump cardiac surgical procedures is challenging, with both excessive and inadequate administration recognised to increase bleeding risk. We aimed to examine the relationship between three ratios for heparin reversal and markers of haemostasis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database was undertaken at a single tertiary cardiac unit, reviewing all cases of on-pump coronary artery bypass grafts and single valve replacements from 01/01/2011 to 31/12/2015...
March 1, 2018: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543876/nuclear-quiescence-and-histone-hyper-acetylation-jointly-improve-protamine-mediated-nuclear-remodeling-in-sheep-fibroblasts
#20
Luca Palazzese, Marta Czernik, Domenico Iuso, Paola Toschi, Pasqualino Loi
Recently we have demonstrated the possibility to replace histones with protamine, through the heterologous expression of human protamine 1 (hPrm1) gene in sheep fibroblasts. Here we have optimized protaminization of somatic nucleus by adjusting the best concentration and exposure time to trichostatin A (TSA) in serum-starved fibroblasts (nuclear quiescence), before expressing Prm1 gene. To stop cell proliferation, we starved cells in 0.5% FBS in MEM ("starved"-ST group), whereas in the Control group (CTR) the cells were cultured in 10% FBS in MEM...
2018: PloS One
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