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Jaewon Shim, Youngseok Lee, Yong Taek Jeong, Yonjung Kim, Min Goo Lee, Craig Montell, Seok Jun Moon
The ability to detect toxic compounds in foods is essential for animal survival. However, the minimal subunit composition of gustatory receptors required for sensing aversive chemicals in Drosophila is unknown. Here we report that three gustatory receptors, GR8a, GR66a and GR98b function together in the detection of L-canavanine, a plant-derived insecticide. Ectopic co-expression of Gr8a and Gr98b in Gr66a-expressing, bitter-sensing gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) confers responsiveness to L-canavanine. Furthermore, misexpression of all three Grs enables salt- or sweet-sensing GRNs to respond to L-canavanine...
2015: Nature Communications
You Li, Li You, David Rabern Simmons, Craig C Bateman, Dylan P G Short, Matthew T Kasson, Robert J Rabaglia, Jiri Hulcr
Ambrosia symbiosis is an obligate, farming-like mutualism between wood-boring beetles and fungi. It evolved at least 11 times and includes many notorious invasive pests. All ambrosia beetles studied to date cultivate ascomycotan fungi: early colonizers of recently killed trees with poor wood digestion. Beetles in the widespread genus Ambrosiodmus, however, colonize decayed wood. We characterized the mycosymbionts of three Ambrosiodmus species using quantitative culturing, high-throughput metabarcoding, and histology...
2015: PloS One
Jeffrey Craig, Ayman Al Habeeb, Jerome A Leis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: American Journal of Medicine
Kimberly Lau, Hirotaka Tao, Haijiao Liu, Jun Wen, Kendra Sturgeon, Natalie Sorfazlian, Savo Lazic, Jeffrey T A Burrows, Michael D Wong, Danyi Li, Steven Deimling, Brian Ciruna, Ian Scott, Craig Simmons, R Mark Henkelman, Trevor Williams, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Yu Sun, Sevan Hopyan
The physical forces that drive morphogenesis are not well characterized in vivo, especially among vertebrates. In the early limb bud, dorsal and ventral ectoderm converge to form the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. By live imaging mouse embryos, we show that prospective AER progenitors intercalate at the dorsoventral boundary and that ectoderm remodels by concomitant cell division and neighbour exchange. Mesodermal expansion and ectodermal tension together generate a dorsoventrally biased stress pattern that orients ectodermal remodelling...
May 2015: Nature Cell Biology
Maria Engström, Thomas Karlsson, Anne-Marie Landtblom, A D Bud Craig
The ability to perform effortful tasks is a topic that has received considerable interest in the research of higher functions of the human brain. Neuroimaging studies show that the anterior insular and the anterior cingulate cortices are involved in a multitude of cognitive tasks that require mental effort. In this study, we investigated brain responses to effort using cognitive tasks with task-difficulty modulations and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that effortful performance involves modulation of activation in the anterior insular and the anterior cingulate cortices, and that the modulation correlates with individual performance levels...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Brittany M Bowman, Katrina A Sebolt, Benjamin A Hoff, Jennifer L Boes, Danette L Daniels, Kevin A Heist, Craig J Galbán, Rajiv M Patel, Jianke Zhang, David G Beer, Brian D Ross, Alnawaz Rehemtulla, Stefanie Galbán
Genomic amplification of the gene encoding and phosphorylation of the protein FADD (Fas-associated death domain) is associated with poor clinical outcome in lung cancer and in head and neck cancer. Activating mutations in the guanosine triphosphatase RAS promotes cell proliferation in various cancers. Increased abundance of phosphorylated FADD in patient-derived tumor samples predicts poor clinical outcome. Using immunohistochemistry analysis and in vivo imaging of conditional mouse models of KRAS(G12D)-driven lung cancer, we found that the deletion of the gene encoding FADD suppressed tumor growth, reduced the proliferative index of cells, and decreased the activation of downstream effectors of the RAS-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway that promote the cell cycle, including retinoblastoma (RB) and cyclin D1...
January 27, 2015: Science Signaling
Benjamin J Manning, Craig L Peterson
Heterochromatin is a specialized chromatin structure that is central to eukaryotic transcriptional regulation and genome stability. Despite its globally repressive role, heterochromatin must also be dynamic, allowing for its repair and replication. In budding yeast, heterochromatin formation requires silent information regulators (Sirs) Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p, and these Sir proteins create specialized chromatin structures at telomeres and silent mating-type loci. Previously, we found that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme can catalyze the ATP-dependent eviction of Sir3p from recombinant nucleosomal arrays, and this activity enhances early steps of recombinational repair in vitro...
December 16, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Darin T Okuda, Kara Melmed, Takashi Matsuwaki, Anders Blomqvist, Arthur D Bud Craig
OBJECTIVE: To determine a neuro-anatomic cause for central neuropathic pain (CNP) observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Parallel clinical and neuro-anatomical studies were performed. A clinical investigation of consecutively acquired MS patients with and without CNP (i.e. cold allodynia or deep hyperesthesia) within a single MS center was pursued. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between an upper central thoracic spinal cord focus to central pain complaints...
August 2014: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Kara E Powder, Hélène Cousin, Gretchen P McLinden, R Craig Albertson
Since the time of Darwin, biologists have sought to understand the origins and maintenance of life's diversity of form. However, the nature of the exact DNA mutations and molecular mechanisms that result in morphological differences between species remains unclear. Here, we characterize a nonsynonymous mutation in a transcriptional coactivator, limb bud and heart homolog (lbh), which is associated with adaptive variation in the lower jaw of cichlid fishes. Using both zebrafish and Xenopus, we demonstrate that lbh mediates migration of cranial neural crest cells, the cellular source of the craniofacial skeleton...
December 2014: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Sarah G Swygert, Benjamin J Manning, Subhadip Senapati, Parminder Kaur, Stuart Lindsay, Borries Demeler, Craig L Peterson
Heterochromatin is a repressive chromatin compartment essential for maintaining genomic integrity. A hallmark of heterochromatin is the presence of specialized nonhistone proteins that alter chromatin structure to inhibit transcription and recombination. It is generally assumed that heterochromatin is highly condensed. However, surprisingly little is known about the structure of heterochromatin or its dynamics in solution. In budding yeast, formation of heterochromatin at telomeres and the homothallic silent mating type loci require the Sir3 protein...
2014: Nature Communications
Andrew M Glazer, Phillip A Cleves, Priscilla A Erickson, Angela Y Lam, Craig T Miller
BACKGROUND: Convergent evolution, the repeated evolution of similar phenotypes in independent lineages, provides natural replicates to study mechanisms of evolution. Cases of convergent evolution might have the same underlying developmental and genetic bases, implying that some evolutionary trajectories might be predictable. In a classic example of convergent evolution, most freshwater populations of threespine stickleback fish have independently evolved a reduction of gill raker number to adapt to novel diets...
2014: EvoDevo
Mitzi J Palazzolo, Craig B Fowler, Kelly R Magliocca, Douglas R Gnepp
Numerous embryologic epithelial remnants are described in the oral region, when intimately associated with peripheral nerves, may pose a diagnostic pitfall for pathologists. The literature contains cases in which the juxtaoral organ of Chievitz (JOC) was identified in specimens removed because of a malignancy and the correct recognition of this structure potentially avoids unnecessary treatment. To our knowledge, this is the description of neuroepithelial structures similar to the JOC were found in the posterior tongue in close association with the subepithelial nerve plexus of taste buds...
April 2014: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Emily R Liman, Yali V Zhang, Craig Montell
Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty, and sour (acid), are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near-universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates...
March 5, 2014: Neuron
Craig M Dana, Alexandra Dotson-Fagerstrom, Christine M Roche, Sarala M Kal, Harshal A Chokhawala, Harvey W Blanch, Douglas S Clark
The commercialization of lignocellulosic biofuels relies in part on the ability to engineer cellulase enzymes to have properties compatible with practical processing conditions. The cellulase Cel7A has been a common engineering target because it is present in very high concentrations in commercial cellulase cocktails. Significant effort has thus been focused on its recombinant expression. In particular, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has often been used both in the engineering and basic study of Cel7A. However, the expression titer and extent of glycosylation of Cel7A expressed in S...
April 2014: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
D Hesk, R Craig, R O Mumma
The garden geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum) has been shown to secrete anacardic acids in the form of a viscous sticky exudate from tall glandular trichomes, and this exudate provides a sticky trap defense against small pest species. The anacardic acids from genetically related pest-resistant and -susceptible plants have been characterized, and resistance has been shown to depend upon the presence ofω5 unsaturated anacardic acids. In this study, the biosynthesis of these anacardic acids was comparatively investigated by incubating [(14)C]methyl palmìtate, margarate, stearate, oleate and linoleate on floral buds of resistant and susceptible plants...
August 1992: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Craig I Peter, Steven D Johnson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Floral diversification driven by shifts between pollinators has been one of the key explanations for the radiation of angiosperms. According to the Grant-Stebbins model of pollinator-driven speciation, these shifts result in morphologically distinct 'ecotypes' which may eventually become recognizable as species. The current circumscription of the food-deceptive southern African orchid Eulophia parviflora encompasses a highly variable monophyletic species complex. In this study, two forms were identified within this complex that differ in distribution, floral morphology, scent chemistry and phenology, and a test was made of whether these differences represent adaptations for different pollinators...
January 2014: Annals of Botany
Farshad Tamari, Craig S Hinkley, Naderia Ramprashad
Extraction of DNA from plant tissue is often problematic, as many plants contain high levels of secondary metabolites that can interfere with downstream applications, such as the PCR. Removal of these secondary metabolites usually requires further purification of the DNA using organic solvents or other toxic substances. In this study, we have compared two methods of DNA purification: the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method that uses the ionic detergent hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and chloroform-isoamyl alcohol and the Edwards method that uses the anionic detergent SDS and isopropyl alcohol...
September 2013: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
Henry C Evrard, Nikos K Logothetis, A D Bud Craig
In order to provide a framework for ongoing analyses of the neuronal connections of the insular cortex of the macaque monkey using modern high-resolution methods, we examined its anatomical organization in serial coronal sections stained alternately with Nissl and Gallyas (myelin) techniques. We observed the same 15 distinct architectonic areas in 10 brains. Within the granular, dysgranular, and agranular regions described in prior studies, we identified 4, 4, and 7 distinct areas, respectively. Across brains, these areas have consistent architectonic characteristics, and in flat map reconstructions they display a consistent topological or neighborhood arrangement, despite variations in the size of individual areas between cases...
January 1, 2014: Journal of Comparative Neurology
A D Bud Craig
Prior anterograde tracing work identified somatotopically organized lamina I trigemino- and spinothalamic terminations in a cytoarchitectonically distinct portion of posterolateral thalamus of the macaque monkey, named the posterior part of the ventral medial nucleus (VMpo; Craig [2004] J. Comp. Neurol. 477:119-148). Microelectrode recordings from clusters of selectively thermoreceptive or nociceptive neurons were used to guide precise microinjections of various tracers in VMpo. A prior report (Craig and Zhang [2006] J...
January 1, 2014: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Craig R Roubos, Oscar E Liburd
Blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson), is a key pest of blueberries in Florida. As a larva, this insect feeds in developing flower and leaf buds. Management of D. oxycoccana relies principally on chemical insecticides; however, efficacy is limited because D. oxycoccana is sheltered within the plant during most of its life cycle. Natural enemies, particularly parasitoids, may play an important role in regulating D. oxycoccana populations. To determine the seasonal dynamics and parasitism rates of eulophid and platygastrid wasps parasitizing D...
June 2013: Environmental Entomology
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