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Hui-Guang Xue, Ai-Hua Yang, Xue-Guo Sun, Yan-Yan Lu, Zi-Bin Tian
BACKGROUND This study investigated the molecular mechanism of the effect of CD44 on the recurrence of EGC after ESD, including the potential regulator and signaling pathways of CD44. MATERIAL AND METHODS We searched the miRNA online database ( with the "seed sequence" located within the 3'-UTR of the target gene, and performed luciferase assay to test the miRNA/mRNA relationship. We also determined the expression of CD44 in the EGC and control samples. In addition, statistical analysis was used to explore the role of miR-328 as a biomarker to predict the recurrence after ECD...
December 6, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Fumiya Watanabe, Zeid A Nima, Takumi Honda, Masatoshi Mitsuhara, Minoru Nishida, Alexandru S Biris
Multicomponent nano-agents were designed and built via a core-shell approach to enhance their surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. These nano-agents had 36 nm × 12 nm gold nanorod cores coated by 4 nm thick silver shell films and a subsequent thin bifunctional thiolated polyethylene glycol (HS-PEG-COOH) layer. Ambient time-lapsed SERS signal measurements of these functionalized nanorods taken over a two-week period indicated no signal degradation, suggesting that large portions of the silver shells remained in pure metallic form...
December 6, 2016: Nanotechnology
E A Bye, L A Harvey, A Gambhir, C Kataria, J V Glinsky, J L Bowden, N Malik, K E Tranter, C P Lam, J S White, E J Gollan, M Arora, S C Gandevia
STUDY DESIGN: Within-participant randomised controlled trial. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether strength training combined with usual care increases strength in partially paralysed muscles of people with recent spinal cord injury (SCI) more than usual care alone. SETTINGS: SCI units in Australia and India. METHODS: Thirty people with recent SCI undergoing inpatient rehabilitation participated in this 12-week trial. One of the following muscle groups was selected as the target muscle group for each participant: the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, knee flexors or knee extensors...
December 6, 2016: Spinal Cord
Jun Kang, Yeonwon Kim, Hye-Min Kim, Xiulan Hu, Nagahiro Saito, Jae-Hyuk Choi, Myeong-Hoon Lee
C-encapsulated highly pure Ni, Co, and Fe magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs/C) were synthesized by an innovative one-step in-situ plasma in liquid method (solution plasma processing, SPP) without any additional reductants, agents, or treatment. Successful encapsulation of MNPs was demonstrated by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The obtained X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy images corresponded to MNPs with average diameters of 5 nm and good crystalline structure...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yoshihiro Kubozono, Keita Hyodo, Shino Hamao, Yuma Shimo, Hiroki Mori, Yasushi Nishihara
A new phenacene-type molecule with five fused aromatic rings was synthesized: 2,7-didodecylphenanthro[2,1-b:7,8-b']dithiophene ((C12H25)2-i-PDT), with two terminal thiophene rings. Field-effect transistors (FETs) using thin films of this molecule were fabricated using various gate dielectrics, showing p-channel normally-off FET properties with field-effect mobilities (μ) greater than 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The highest μ value in the thin-film FETs fabricated in this study was 5.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), when a 150 nm-thick ZrO2 gate dielectric was used...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chunlei Sun, Yu Yu, Mengyuan Ye, Guanyu Chen, Xinliang Zhang
A novel adiabatic couplers (ACs) based broadband and fabrication-tolerant two-mode multiplexer (MUX) is designed using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. Being different from the previously reported ACs-based scheme, the converted and multiplexed signals are on conventional modes, rather than supermodes. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulations. Over a wavelength range of 75 nm measured, the crosstalk is lower than -20 dB, and the insertion loss is ~1 dB. The eye diagram and bit error rate measurements validate the good performance of the proposed mode MUX...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Huanhuan Zhang, Lin Xu, Yabo Xu, Gang Huang, Xueyu Zhao, Yuqing Lai, Tongfei Shi
We study the enhanced dewetting of ultrathin Polystyrene (PS)/Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend films in a mixed solution, and reveal the dewetting can act as a simple and effective method to fabricate large-area surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. A bilayer structure consisting of under PMMA layer and upper PS layer forms due to vertical phase separation of immiscible PS/PMMA during the spin-coating process. The thicker layer of the bilayer structure dominates the dewetting structures of PS/PMMA blend films...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Paul C Spruijtenburg, Sergey V Amitonov, Filipp Mueller, Wilfred G van der Wiel, Floris A Zwanenburg
In this Report we show the role of charge defects in the context of the formation of electrostatically defined quantum dots. We introduce a barrier array structure to probe defects at multiple locations in a single device. We measure samples both before and after an annealing process which uses an Al2O3 overlayer, grown by atomic layer deposition. After passivation of the majority of charge defects with annealing we can electrostatically define hole quantum dots up to 180 nm in length. Our ambipolar structures reveal amphoteric charge defects that remain after annealing with charging energies of 10 meV in both the positive and negative charge state...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Martin Ledinský, Bertrand Paviet-Salomon, Aliaksei Vetushka, Jonas Geissbühler, Andrea Tomasi, Matthieu Despeisse, Stefaan De Wolf, Christophe Ballif, Antonín Fejfar
Thin, light-absorbing films attenuate the Raman signal of underlying substrates. In this article, we exploit this phenomenon to develop a contactless thickness profiling method for thin films deposited on rough substrates. We demonstrate this technique by probing profiles of thin amorphous silicon stripes deposited on rough crystalline silicon surfaces, which is a structure exploited in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. Our spatially-resolved Raman measurements enable the thickness mapping of amorphous silicon over the whole active area of test solar cells with very high precision; the thickness detection limit is well below 1 nm and the spatial resolution is down to 500 nm, limited only by the optical resolution...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Brian J Roxworthy, Vladimir A Aksyuk
Plasmonic structures couple oscillating electromagnetic fields to conduction electrons in noble metals and thereby can confine optical-frequency excitations at nanometre scales. This confinement both facilitates miniaturization of nanophotonic devices and makes their response highly sensitive to mechanical motion. Mechanically coupled plasmonic devices thus hold great promise as building blocks for next-generation reconfigurable optics and metasurfaces. However, a flexible approach for accurately batch-fabricating high-performance plasmomechanical devices is currently lacking...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
Nicole Poweleit, Peng Ge, Hong H Nguyen, Rachel R Ogorzalek Loo, Robert P Gunsalus, Z Hong Zhou
Archaea use flagella known as archaella-distinct both in protein composition and structure from bacterial flagella-to drive cell motility, but the structural basis of this function is unknown. Here, we report an atomic model of the archaella, based on the cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) structure of the Methanospirillum hungatei archaellum at 3.4 Å resolution. Each archaellum contains ∼61,500 archaellin subunits organized into a curved helix with a diameter of 10 nm and average length of 10,000 nm...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard, Atefeh Rostami, Seyed Amir Aledavood, Maryam Moghadam Matin, Ameneh Sazgarnia
PURPOSE: Gold nanoparticles modified by thio-glucose have been believed to increase the toxicity of radiotherapy in human malignant cells. We report the effect of thio-glucose-bound gold nanoparticles (Glu-G nanoparticles), 16 nm in size, on two human lung (QU-DB) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines combined with kilo and megavoltage X-rays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The shape and surface characteristics, the size distribution and light absorption spectrum of the prepared nanoparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometry, respectively...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Giorgia Zampardi, Christopher Batchelor-McAuley, Enno Kätelhön, Richard G Compton
A stochastic investigation of lithium deinsertion from individual 200-nm-sized particles of LiMn2 O4 reveals the rate-determining step at high overpotentials to be the transfer of the cation across the particle-electrolyte interface. Measurement of the (electro)chemical behavior of the spinel is undertaken without forming a conductive composite electrode. The kinetics of the interfacial ion transfer defines a theoretical upper limit for the discharge rates of batteries using LiMn2 O4 in an aqueous environment...
December 6, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Regina Maura de Miranda, Fabio Lopes, Nilton Évora do Rosário, Marcia Akemi Yamasoe, Eduardo Landulfo, Maria de Fatima Andrade
The air quality in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is primarily determined by the local pollution source contribution, mainly the vehicular fleet, but there is a concern about the role of remote sources to the fine mode particles (PM2.5) concentration and composition. One of the most important remote sources of atmospheric aerosol is the biomass burning emissions from São Paulo state's inland and from the central and north portions of Brazil. This study presents a synergy of different measurements of atmospheric aerosol chemistry and optical properties in the MASP in order to show how they can be used as a tool to identify particles from local and remote sources...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yunqi Li, Haibo Tan, Rahul R Salunkhe, Jing Tang, Lok Kumar Shrestha, Bishnu Prasad Bastakoti, Hongpan Rong, Toshiaki Takei, Joel Henzie, Yusuke Yamauchi, Katsuhiko Ariga
We introduce a simple method to prepare hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNs) by using triblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) micelles as a new class of soft-templates. Simply by changing the solvent we can prepare ultra-small sized micelles of the triblock copolymer PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO soft template to obtain HCNs with ultra-small diameters (43 nm) and hollow cores (19 nm). Furthermore, we use these HCNs to make electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) that exhibit superior performance...
December 6, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jian-Cheng Jin, Xiao-Juan Wu, Juan Xu, Bei-Bei Wang, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yi Liu
Silver materials have been widely used as antimicrobial agents. Notably, silver nanoparticles have emerged as a new generation of nanoproducts for biomedical and environmental applications in recent years. However, ultrasmall silver nanoclusters (NCs) (∼2 nm) have rarely been used to kill bacteria and their antibacterial mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Herein, we studied the antibacterial activities of bifunctional fluorescent DHLA-AgNCs against three types of bacteria. The results showed that DHLA-AgNCs exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against Gram-negative E...
December 6, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Mahsa Nazar, Ali Reza Talebi, Mohammad Hosseini Sharifabad, Abolghasem Abbasi, Arezoo Khoradmehr, Amir Hossein Danafar
BACKGROUND: The particles in the range of 1-100 nm are called nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticle is one of the most important metal nanoparticles with wide usage. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of gold nanoparticles on sperm parameters and chromatin structure in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 72 male bulb-c mice were divided into 9 groups including: 4 Sham groups (Sc 1-4), 4 experimental groups (Au 1-4), and 1 control group (C)...
October 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Katarzyna M Psonka-Antonczyk, Per Hammarström, Leif B G Johansson, Mikael Lindgren, Bjørn T Stokke, K Peter R Nilsson, Sofie Nyström
Amyloid plaques composed of fibrillar Amyloid-β (Aβ) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. However, Aβ fibrils are morphologically heterogeneous. Conformation sensitive luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) are versatile tools for monitoring such fibril polymorphism in vivo and in vitro. Biophysical methods applied on in vitro generated Aβ fibrils, stained with LCOs with different binding and fluorescence properties, can be used to characterize the Aβ fibrillation in depth, far beyond that possible for in vivo generated amyloid plaques...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
Gabriele Barrera, Loredana Serpe, Federica Celegato, Marco Coїsson, Katia Martina, Roberto Canaparo, Paola Tiberto
A nanofabrication technique based on self-assembling of polystyrene nanospheres is used to obtain magnetic Ni80Fe20 nanoparticles with a disc shape. The free-standing nanodiscs (NDs) have diameter and thickness of about 630 nm and 30 nm, respectively. The versatility of fabrication technique allows one to cover the ND surface with a protective gold layer with a thickness of about 5 nm. Magnetization reversal has been studied by room-temperature hysteresis loop measurements in water-dispersed free-standing NDs...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
Yue Yuan, Jian Wen, Jie Tang, Qiming Kan, Rose Ackermann, Karl Olsen, Anna Schwendeman
The purpose of this study was to develop a novel synthetic high-density lipoprotein (sHDL) nanoparticle delivery system for 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) for treatment of colon carcinoma. HDL is recognized by scavenger receptor B-I (SR-BI) over-expressed in colon carcinomas 5- to 35-fold relative to the human fibroblasts. The sHDL nanoparticles were composed of apolipoprotein A-I mimic peptide (5A) and contained 0.5%-1.5% (w/w) of HCPT. An optimized HCPT-sHDL formulation exhibited 0.7% HCPT loading with 70% efficiency with an average size of 10-12 nm...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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