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Choul Yong Park, Catherine M Marando, Jason A Liao, Jimmy K Lee, Jiwon Kwon, Roy S Chuck
Purpose: To investigate the architecture and distribution of collagen and elastin in human limbal conjunctiva, Tenon's capsule, and sclera. Methods: The limbal conjunctiva, Tenon's capsule, and sclera of human donor corneal buttons were imaged with an inverted two-photon excited fluorescence microscope. No fixation process was necessary. The laser (Ti:sapphire) was tuned at 850 nm for two-photon excitation. Backscatter signals of second harmonic generation (SHG) and autofluorescence (AF) were collected through a 425/30-nm and a 525/45-nm emission filter, respectively...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ju Hui Jeong, Yong Jin Oh, Yunmee Lho, Sun You Park, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Eunyoung Ha, Young Ho Seo
The molecular chaperone Hsp90 plays an important role in cancer cell survival and proliferation by regulating the maturation and stabilization of numerous oncogenic proteins. Due to its potential to simultaneously disable multiple signaling pathways, Hsp90 has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In this study, the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of Hsp90 inhibitors are described. Among the synthetic compounds, 6,7-dihydrothieno [3,2-c]pyridin-5(4H)-yl amide 19 exhibits a remarkable binding affinity to the N-terminus of Hsp90 in a fluorescence polarization (FP) binding assay (IC50 = 50...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Xingjuan Zhao, Xiaoli Yu, Yong-Ill Lee, Hong-Guo Liu
Composite thin films with well-defined and parallel nanowires were fabricated from the binary blends of a diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) and several homo-polystyrenes (h-PSs) at the air/liquid interface through a facile technique, which involves solution self-assembly, interface adsorption, and further self-organization processes. It was confirmed that the nanowires that appeared at the air/water interface came from the cylindrical micelles formed in solution. Interestingly, the diameters of the nanowires are uniform and can be tuned precisely from 45 to 247 nm by incorporating the h-PS molecules into the micellar core...
October 26, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Tejas A Shastry, Itamar Balla, Hadallia Bergeron, Samuel H Amsterdam, Tobin J Marks, Mark C Hersam
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have recently attracted attention due to their superlative optical and electronic properties. In particular, their extraordinary optical absorption and semiconducting bandgap have enabled demonstrations of photovoltaic response from heterostructures comprised of TMDCs and other organic or inorganic materials. However, these early studies were limited to devices at the micron-scale and/or failed to exploit the unique optical absorption properties of single-layer TMDCs...
October 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Vicente Rodríguez-González, Ruth B Domínguez-Espíndola, Sergio Casas-Flores, Olga A Patrón-Soberano, Roberto Camposeco Solis, Soo Wohn Lee
Antifungal silver nanocomposites inspired by titanate nanotubes (AgTNTs) were successfully evaluated for the effective inactivation of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis Cinerea within 20 minutes. One dimensional H2Ti3O7 nanotubes functionalized with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exhibit unique surface and antifungal properties for the photoinactivation of B. Cinerea. Nanostructured titanates were synthesized by the eco-friendly, practical, microwave-induced, hydrothermal method followed by a highly monodispersive AgNP UV-photodeposition...
October 26, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Anders Lundgren, Björn Agnarsson, Ronald Zirbs, Vladimir P Zhdanov, Erik Reimhult, Fredrik Höök
Emerging biomedical applications such as molecular imaging and drug delivery often require directed binding of nanoparticles to cell-membrane receptors. The specific apparent affinity of such ligand-functionalized particles is size-dependent, an observation so far solely attributed to multivalent receptor-ligand interaction. We question the universality of this explanation by demonstrating that the binding kinetics also depends on weak, attractive colloidal-type interaction between nanoparticles and a lipid membrane...
October 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Brandi L Baldock, James E Hutchison
DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles have been increasingly applied as sensitive and selective analytical probes and biosensors. The DNA ligands bound to a nanoparticle dictate its reactivity, making it essential to know the type and number of DNA strands bound to the nanoparticle surface. Existing methods used to determine the number of DNA strands per gold nanoparticle (AuNP) require that the sequences be fluorophore labeled, which may affect the DNA surface coverage and reactivity of the nanoparticle, and/or require specialized equipment and other fluorophore-containing reagents...
October 26, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Seul Ki Hong, Jae Hoon Bong, Byung Jin Cho, Wan Sik Hwang
A 100-nm wide, vertically formed graphene stripe (GS) is demonstrated for three-dimensional (3D) electronic applications. The GS forms along the sidewall of a thin nickel film. It is possible to further scale down the GS width by engineering the deposited thickness of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) Ni film. Unlike a conventional GS or graphene nanoribbon (GNR), the vertically formed GS is made without a graphene transfer and etching process. The process integration of the proposed GS FETs resembles that of currently commercialized vertical NAND flash memory with a design rule of less than 20 nm, implying practical usage of this formed GS for 3D advanced FET applications...
October 26, 2016: Small
Yue Yu, Changlei Wang, Corey R Grice, Niraj Shrestha, Jing Chen, Dewei Zhao, Weiqiang Liao, Alexander J Cimaroli, Paul J Roland, Randy J Ellingson, Yanfa Yan
Formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3 ) is considered as an alternative to methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3 ) because of its lower band gap and better thermal stability. However, owing to the large size of FA cations, it is difficult to synthesize high-quality FAPbI3 thin films without the formation of an undesirable yellow phase. Smaller sized cations, such as MA and Cs, have been successfully used to suppress the formation of the yellow phase. Whereas FA and MA lead triiodide perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) have achieved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) higher than 20 %, the PCEs of formamidinium and cesium lead triiodide (FA1-x Csx PbI3 ) PVSCs have been only approximately 16...
October 26, 2016: ChemSusChem
Binh Thanh Nguyen, Min Park, Jae-Chul Pyun, Young Sook Yoo, Min-Jung Kang
An assay for protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) activity based on the quantification of a synthetic substrate using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection was developed. The peptides labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate F-ERK (where ERK is extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and the phosphorylated form, P-F-ERK, were utilized for the method development and validation. The migration time of F-ERK and P-F-ERK were 6.3 ± 0.1 and 8.7 ± 0.2 min, respectively. LOD and LOQ values of F-ERK were 2 and 6 ng/mL and those of P-F-ERK were 4 and 12 ng/mL...
October 26, 2016: Electrophoresis
Soo Hyeon Lim, Eun-Young Ahn, Youmie Park
Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC-AuNPs) under different extract concentrations, and their catalytic activity was evaluated in a 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction in the presence of sodium borohydride. The AC-AuNPs showed violet or wine colors with characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 534~543 nm that were dependent on the extract concentration. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 16.88 ± 5.47~29.93 ± 9.80 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
M Hossein Khalilian, Saber Mirzaei, Avat Arman Taherpour
The electronic features of anti-tumor agent, temozolomide, and its degradation products (MTIC and metabolite AIC) have been traced by means of UV absorption spectroscopy in vacuo and aqueous media. For comparison, electronic spectra of related structures and drugs (e.g., dacarbazine) were also investigated. These investigations were carried out using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) method while the conductor like screening model (COSMO) were applied for the inclusion of solvent effects in electronic spectra...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Si Cheng, Jie Sun, Junxing Yang, Jianqiang Lv, Feng Wu, Yanxing Lin, Lishan Liao, Yiyou Ye, Chenfu Cao, Liurong Fang, Qunyi Hua
A fast and ultrasensitive test-strip system combining quantum dots (QDs) with a lateral-flow immunoassay strip (LFIAS) was established for detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) antibody. The highly luminescent water-soluble carboxyl-functionalized QDs were used as the signal output and were conjugated to streptococcal protein G (SPG), which was capable of binding to immunoglobulin G (IgG) from many species through an amide bond to capture the target PPRV IgGs. The PPRV N protein, which was immobilized on the detection zone of the test strip, was expressed by transfecting recombinant Bacmid-PPRV-N with Lipofect into Sf9 insect cells...
October 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Hanns Moshammer, Stana Simic, Daniela Haluza
Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation covers the spectrum of wavelengths from 100 to 400 nm. The potency and biological activity for a variety of endpoints differ by wavelength. For monitoring and communication purposes, different UV action spectra have been developed. These spectra use different weighting functions. The action spectrum for erythemal dose is the most widely used one. This erythemal dose per time or dose-rate has been further simplified into a "UV index". Following this example, in our review we use the term "index" or (plural) "indices" in a more general description for all simplified single-value measures for any biologically effective UV dose, e...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Li-Yang Shao, Xinpu Zhang, Haijun He, Zhiyong Zhang, Xihua Zou, Bin Luo, Wei Pan, Lianshan Yan
An optical fiber temperature and torsion sensor has been proposed by employing the Lyot-Sagnac interferometer, which was composed by inserting two sections of high-birefringence (HiBi) fiber into the Sagnac loop. The two inserted sections of HiBi fiber have different functions; while one section acts as the temperature sensitive region, the other can be used as reference fiber. The temperature and twist sensor based on the proposed interferometer structure have been experimentally demonstrated. The experimental results show that the envelope of the output spectrum will shift with the temperature evolution...
October 24, 2016: Sensors
Guowu Chen, Aijie Xin, Yulin Liu, Changgen Shi, Junling Chen, Xiaofeng Tang, Ying Chen, Min Yu, Xiandong Peng, Lu Li, Xiaoxi Sun
BACKGROUND: Clinical ovulation induction induces blood estrogen (E2) in excess of physiological levels, which can hinder uterine receptivity. In contrast, progesterone produces the opposite clinical effect, suggesting that it might be capable of recovering the lost receptivity resulting from exposure to high estrogen levels. Integrins are the most widely used biological markers for monitoring uterine conditions. We studied progesterone-induced changes in integrin β expression patterns as biomarkers for changes in uterine receptivity in response to increased estrogen levels...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Weisi Li, Barry Belmont, Joan M Greve, Adam B Manders, Brian C Downey, Xi Zhang, Zhen Xu, Dongming Guo, Albert Shih
PURPOSE: The mechanical and imaging properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) can be adjusted to meet the needs of researchers as a tissue-mimicking material. For instance, the hardness can be adjusted by changing the ratio of softener to PVC polymer, mineral oil can be added for lubrication in needle insertion, and glass beads can be added to scatter acoustic energy similar to biological tissue. Through this research, the authors sought to develop a regression model to design formulations of PVC with targeted mechanical and multimodal medical imaging properties...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Naomi Nitschke, Kalina Atkovska, Jochen S Hub
Molecular dynamics simulations are capable of predicting the permeability of lipid membranes for drug-like solutes, but the calculations have remained prohibitively expensive for high-throughput studies. Here, we analyze simple measures for accelerating potential of mean force (PMF) calculations of membrane permeation, namely, (i) using smaller simulation systems, (ii) simulating multiple solutes per system, and (iii) using shorter cutoffs for the Lennard-Jones interactions. We find that PMFs for membrane permeation are remarkably robust against alterations of such parameters, suggesting that accurate PMF calculations are possible at strongly reduced computational cost...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mohammad M Rafiee Fanood, Maurice H M Janssen, Ivan Powis
Enantiomers of the monoterpene limonene have been investigated by (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization and photoelectron circular dichroism employing tuneable, circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses. Electron imaging detection provides 3D momentum measurement while electron-ion coincidence detection can be used to mass-tag individual electrons. Additional filtering, by accepting only parent ion tagged electrons, can be then used to provide discrimination against higher energy dissociative ionization mechanisms where more than three photons are absorbed to better delineate the two photon resonant, one photon ionization pathway...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
R Šmíd, A Hänsel, L Pravdová, J Sobota, O Číp, N Bhattacharya
In this work we present a design of an external optical cavity based on Fabry-Perot etalons applied to a 100 MHz Er-doped fiber optical frequency comb working at 1560 nm to increase its repetition frequency. A Fabry-Perot cavity is constructed based on a transportable cage system with two silver mirrors in plano-concave geometry including the mode-matching lenses, fiber coupled collimation package and detection unit. The system enables full 3D angle mirror tilting and x-y off axis movement as well as distance between the mirrors...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
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