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Mohsen Moazzami-Gudarzi, Pavel Adam, Alexander M Smith, Gregor Trefalt, István Szilágyi, Plinio Maroni, Michal Borkovec
Direct force measurements involving amidine latex (AL) and sulfate latex (SL) particles in aqueous solutions containing multivalent ferrocyanide anions are presented. These measurements feature three different pairs of particles, namely SL-SL, AL-SL, and AL-AL. The force profiles are quantitatively interpreted in terms of the theory by Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) that is combined with a short-ranged exponential attraction. In monovalent salt solutions, the AL particles are positively charged, while the SL particles are negatively charged...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jun Liu, Peng Liu, Jun Wang, Xiaodong Xu, Dongzhen Li, Jian Zhang, Xinming Nie
In this paper, we report the fabrication of high-quality 5 at. % Er3+ ions doped SrF₂ transparent ceramics, the potential candidate materials for a mid-infrared laser-gain medium by hot-pressing at 700 °C for 40 h using a chemically-derived powder. The phase structure, densification, and microstructure evolution of the Er:SrF₂ ceramics were systematically investigated. In addition, the grain growth kinetic mechanism of Er:SrF₂ was clarified. The results showed lattice diffusion to be the grain growth mechanism in the Er:SrF₂ transparent ceramic of which highest in-line transmittance reached 92% at 2000 nm, i...
March 22, 2018: Materials
Yi Jhen Wu, Yu Chiuan Wu, I-Fen Chen, Yi-Lung Wu, Chin Wen Chuang, Han Hsiang Huang, Shyh Ming Kuo
Astaxanthin (Asta), a xanthophyll carotenoid, has been reported to be a strong antioxidative agent and has anti-inflammatory, antitumor and free radical-scavenging activities. However, inadequate stability and water solubility results in its low bioavailability. This study incorporated Asta into hydrophilic hyaluronan nanoparticles (HAn) to produce Asta-HAn aggregates (AHAna) using an electrostatic field system and investigated the restorative effects of AHAna on retrorsine-CCl₄-induced liver fibrosis in rats in vivo...
March 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xinkuan Liu, Wenyi Shao, Mingyi Luo, Jiayin Bian, Deng-Guang Yu
Nanomaterials providing sustained release profiles are highly desired for efficacious drug delivery. Advanced nanotechnologies are useful tools for creating elaborate nanostructure-based nanomaterials to achieve the designed functional performances. In this research, a modified coaxial electrospinning was explored to fabricate a novel core-sheath nanostructure (nanofibers F2), in which a sheath drug-free gliadin layer was successfully coated on the core ketoprofen (KET)-gliadin nanocomposite. A monolithic nanocomposite (nanofibers F1) that was generated through traditional blending electrospinning of core fluid was utilized as a control...
March 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Grace Gomez Felix Gomez, Frank Lippert, Masatoshi Ando, Andrea Ferreira Zandona, George J Eckert, Richard L Gregory
BACKGROUND: This in vitro study determined the effectiveness of violet-blue light (405 nm) on inhibiting Streptococcus mutans -induced enamel demineralization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: S. mutans UA159 biofilm was grown on human enamel specimens for 13 h in 5% CO₂ at 37 °C with/without 1% sucrose. Wet biofilm was treated twice daily with violet-blue light for five minutes over five days. A six-hour reincubation was included daily between treatments excluding the final day...
March 21, 2018: Dent J (Basel)
Rosario Pignatello, Tiziana M G Pecora, Giuseppa G Cutuli, Alfio Catalfo, Guido De Guidi, Barbara Ruozi, Giovanni Tosi, Simona Cianciolo, Teresa Musumeci
Trans-resveratrol (RSV) was microencapsulated in Eudragit® RS100 and RL100 resin blends. Lyophilized microspheres were characterized in the solid state for their micromeritic properties and drug loading. FT-IR, PXRD and DSC analyses suggested that RSV formed an intimate microcrystalline dispersion within the polymer network, also confirmed by SEM analysis. This produced a reduced degradation of RSV after storage at 40°C, compared to the neat drug, and a protection of the drug from UV light-induced trans-cis isomerization (60% intact drug was found after 60 sec irradiation at 350 nm, compared to 37% for the pure drug)...
March 22, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Zahra Fakhroueian, Rouhollah Vahabpour, Mehdi Assmar, Alireza Massiha, Afshin Zahedi, Pegah Esmaeilzadeh, Fatemeh Katouzian, Sara Rezaei, Peyman Keyhanvar, Alireza Mozafari Dehshiri
Nanoformulations derived from fine porous ZnO quantum dot nanoparticles (QD NPs) can offer strong potential medical applications; especially in cancer therapy. ZnO QD NPs was synthesized by sol-gel hydrothermal process, fast cold quenching and further smart surface functionalization methods to obtain ultrasmall size (1-4 nm) NPs. ZnO nanopolymer, a wetting agent, PEG co-solvent and water/oil emulsion stabilizer were considered in our nanofluid formulation. The resulting nanofluid was characterized by SEM, FTIR, photoluminescence, band gap energy, zeta potential and UV-Vis spectroscopy...
March 22, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Wei Huang, Joyprokash Chakrabartty, Catalin Harnagea, Dawit Gedamu, Ibrahima Ka, Mohamed Chaker, Federico Rosei, Riad Nechache
Perovskite multiferroic oxides are promising materials for the realization of sensitive and switchable photodiodes, due to their favorable band gap (< 3.0 eV), high absorption coefficient and tunable internal ferroelectric polarization. A high speed switchable photodiode based on multiferroic Bi2FeCrO6 (BFCO)/SrRuO3 (SRO) layered heterojunction was fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The heterojunction photodiode exhibits a large ideality factor (n = ~5.0) and a response time as fast as 68 ms, thanks to the effective charge carrier transport and collection at the BFCO/SRO interface...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ming-Yen Lu, Shang-Chi Wu, Hsiang-Chen Wang, Ming-Pei Lu
As the feature sizes of devices decrease to the nanoscale, electron microscopy and lithography will become increasingly essential techniques for fabrication and inspection. In this study, we probed the memory effects of MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) subjected to electron beam (e-beam) irradiation; after fabricating the devices on 300 nm SiO2/Si substrates, we irradiated the MoS2 FETs with various doses of irradiation from a 30 kV e-beam. The threshold voltage shifted to the negative side and the mobility increased-a so-called memory effect-upon increasing the e-beam dose...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Claire M Ouimet, Mohamed Dawod, James Grinias, Victoria A Assimon, Jean Lodge, Anna K Mapp, Jason E Gestwicki, Robert T Kennedy
Tools for measuring affinities and stoichiometries of protein-protein complexes are valuable for elucidating the role of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in governing cell functions and screening for PPI modulators. Such measurements can be challenging because PPIs can span a wide range of affinities and include stoichiometries from dimers to high order oligomers. Also, most techniques require large amounts of protein which can hamper research for difficult to obtain proteins. Protein cross-linking capillary electrophoresis (PXCE) has the potential to directly measure PPIs and even resolve multiple PPIs while consuming attomole quantities...
March 22, 2018: Analyst
Jiayuan Zhao, Jordan Nelson, Oluwabunmi Dada, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Ilias G Kavouras, Philip Demokritou
Users of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are exposed to particles and other gaseous pollutants. However, major knowledge gaps on the physico-chemical properties of such exposures and contradictory data in published literature prohibit health risk assessment. Here, the effects of product brand, type, e-liquid flavoring additives, operational voltage, and user puffing patterns on emissions were systematically assessed using a recently developed, versatile, e-cig exposure generation platform and state-of-the-art analytical methods...
March 22, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Daniel Blasco, José M López-de-Luzuriaga, Miguel Monge, M Elena Olmos, David Pascual, María Rodríguez-Castillo
Two water-soluble [Au(9 N-adeninate)(PR3 )] complexes (PR3 = PMe3 (1); PTA (3)) were synthesized by the coordination of the respective cationic [Au(PR3 )]+ fragment to the9 N position of the adeninate anion. Both complexes crystallize as dimers by aurophilic contacts of 3.2081(6) Å in 1 and 3.0942(7) and 3.0969(7) Å in 3, but different packings are observed due to the crystallizing solvent choice and the nature of the ancillary phosphine ligand. At this regard, different supramolecular behavior is observed in water, ranges from the formation of ultrathin nanowires of 5...
March 22, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Zhilan Ye, Tao Zhang, Wenshan He, Honglin Jin, Cuiwei Liu, Zhe Yang, Jinghua Ren
Despite promising in-vitro evidence for effective glioblastoma treatment, most drugs are hindered from entering the central nervous system due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, successful modification of drug delivery and novel therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome this obstacle. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), cell-derived membrane-encapsulated structures with diameters ranging from 50-1000 nm, have been explored as drug delivery system to deliver their cargo to the brain tissue...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Huixin Chen, Siying Xiang, Ling Huang, Jiajia Lin, Shengquan Hu, Shing-Hung Mak, Chuang Wang, Qinwen Wang, Wei Cui, Yifan Han
Tacrine(10)-hupyridone (A10E) was designed as a dual-binding acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor from the modification of tacrine and a fragment of huperzine A. We have found that A10E effectively inhibited AChE in a mixed competitive manner, with an IC50 of 26.4 nM, which is more potent than those of tacrine and huperzine A. Most importantly, we have shown, for the first time that A10E attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments without affecting motor function in mice. A10E effectively attenuated impairments of learning and memory to a similar extent as donepezil, an inhibitor of AChE used for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
March 21, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Adnane Aouidate, Adib Ghaleb, Mounir Ghamali, Samir Chtita, Abdellah Ousaa, M'barek Choukrad, Abdelouahid Sbai, Mohammed Bouachrine, Tahar Lakhlifi
BACKGROUND: Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was carried out to study a series of aminooxadiazoles as PIM1 inhibitors having pki ranging from 5.59 to 9.62 (ki in nM). The present study was performed using Genetic Algorithm method of variable selection (GFA), multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) and non-linear multiple regression analysis (MNLR) to build unambiguous QSAR models of 34 substituted aminooxadiazoles toward PIM1 inhibitory activity based on topological descriptors...
March 22, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Alena Rajnochová Svobodová, Eva Gabrielová, Loizos Michaelides, Pavel Kosina, Alena Ryšavá, Jitka Ulrichová, Bohumil Zálešák, Jitka Vostálová
Exposure to solar radiation is a major cause of environmental human skin damage. The main constituent of solar UV light is UVA radiation (320-400 nm); however, the need for protection against UVA has been marginalized for a long time. As a result, there is still a lack of useful agents for UVA protection. In this study, the effect of silymarin (SM) and its main constituent silybin (SB) pre-treatment on UVA-stimulated damage to primary human dermal fibroblasts were carried out. The cells were pre-treated for 1 h with SB or SM and then were exposed to UVA light, using a solar simulator...
March 21, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Sijo Francis, Ebey P Koshy, Beena Mathew
Plant-extract mediated nanoparticles synthesis is a viable alternative to chemical reduction techniques. Here, we report the microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by the phytoreducer Stereospermum suaveolens for the first time. The formation of the nascent silver and gold nanoparticles is confirmed by their intense surface plasmon resonance peaks at 431 and 585 nm in UV-visible spectroscopy. The poly phenolic and alcoholic functional groups present in the aqueous root bark extract that performed the bioreduction processes have been detected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
March 21, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
M Fratzl, S Delshadi, T Devillers, F Bruckert, O Cugat, N M Dempsey, G Blaire
Micro-magnets producing magnetic field gradients as high as 106 T m-1 have been used to efficiently trap nanoparticles with a magnetic core of just 12 nm in diameter. Particle capture efficiency increases with increasing particle concentration. Comparison of measured capture kinetics with numerical modelling reveals that a threshold concentration exists below which capture is diffusion-driven and above which it is convectively-driven. This comparison also shows that two-way fluid-particle coupling is responsible for the formation of convective cells, the size of which is governed by the height of the droplet...
March 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Tanveer A Wani, Ahmed H Bakheit, M A Abounassif, Seema Zargar
Binding of therapeutic agents to plasma proteins, particularly to serum albumin, provides valuable information in the drug development. This study was designed to evaluate the binding interaction of neratinib with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Neratinib blocks HER2 signaling and is effective in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer treatment. Spectrofluorometric, UV spectrophotometric, and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and molecular docking experiments were performed to study this interaction. The fluorescence of BSA is attributed to the presence of tryptophan (Trp) residues...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Henok D Belayneh, Randy L Wehling, Yue Zhang, Ozan N Ciftci
Camelina sativa seed is an underutilized oil source rich in omega-3 fatty acids; however, camelina oil is not fully explored for food applications. Its high omega-3 content makes it susceptible to oxidation, which may limit food applications. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of camelina seed oil to form physically and oxidatively stable emulsions as a potential delivery system for omega-3 fatty acids. Effects of homogenization conditions, namely, pressure (15 MPa-30 MPa), number of passes (1,3,5, and 7), and type of homogenizers (high pressure and high shear) on the structural properties and stability of camelina seed oil emulsions stabilized with whey protein isolate were studied...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
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