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Misconceptions and facts

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909382/myths-facts-and-controversies-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-anaphylaxis
#1
REVIEW
Katherine Anagnostou, Paul J Turner
Anaphylaxis is a serious systemic allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. Despite numerous national and international guidelines and consensus statements, common misconceptions still persist in terms of diagnosis and appropriate management, both among healthcare professionals and patient/carers. We address some of these misconceptions and highlight the optimal approach for patients who experience potentially life-threatening allergic reactions.
June 16, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908672/changing-the-neurology-policy-landscape-in-the-united-states-misconceptions-and-facts-about-epilepsy
#2
David C Grabowski, Jesse Fishman, Imane Wild, Bruce Lavin
Epilepsy has a relatively high prevalence, and diagnosis and treatment are often challenging. Seizure freedom without significant side effects is the ultimate goal for both physicians and patients, but not always achievable. In those cases, the treatment goals of patients and providers may differ. In the United States, many clinicians continue to prescribe older AEDs, even though newer AEDs have a more desirable safety and tolerability profile, fewer drug-drug interactions, and are associated with lower epilepsy-related hospital visits...
May 26, 2018: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742283/vaccination-practices-in-dialysis-patients-a-narrative-review
#3
REVIEW
Georges Kosmadakis, Julie Albaret, Enrique Da Costa Correia, Frederic Somda, Didier Aguilera
In a period of turmoil concerning vaccination practices, there is a serious conflict between scientifically reasonable, evidence-based guidelines and the far-fetched rumors or misconceptions concerning the vaccination practices in the general population. When a significant portion of the medical and paramedical personnel may be deliberately unvaccinated against common biological agents, achieving effective vaccination rates in the dialysis population may be complicated. Vaccination rates are unacceptably low in dialysis patients and seroconversion rates are even lower; further, serological follow-up is generally poor...
May 9, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719972/juggling-two-balls-smoking-re-normalization-and-harm-reduction-e-cigarettes-facts-and-misconceptions-in-taiwan
#4
Wayne Gao, Mattia Sanna, Li-Ling Huang, Ya-Wen Chiu, Yi-Hua Chen, Hung-Yi Chiou
The increasing popularity of e-cigarettes, especially among adolescents, has alarmed health advocates and government officials, dominating the tobacco control narrative in the past few years. According to the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, the percentage of Taiwanese teenagers reporting use of e-cigarettes in the past 30 days rose from 2.01% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.82% to 2.23%) in 2014 to 3.54% (95% CI = 3.30% to 3.80%) in 2017. However, during the same period, prevalence of cigarettes declined from 11...
May 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704685/is-it-research-or-is-it-clinical-revisiting-an-old-frontier-through-the-lens-of-next-generation-sequencing-technologies
#5
Gabrielle Bertier, Anne Cambon-Thomsen, Yann Joly
As next-generation sequencing technologies (NGS) are increasingly used in the clinic, one issue often pointed out in the literature is the fact that their implementation "blurs the line" between research and healthcare. Indeed, NGS data obtained through research study may have clinical significance, and patients may consent that their data is shared in international databases used in research. This blurred line may increase the risk of therapeutic misconception, or that of over-reporting incidental findings...
April 25, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692303/bunyavirus-taxonomy-limitations-and-misconceptions-associated-with-the-current-ictv-criteria-used-for-species-demarcation
#6
Bradley J Blitvich, Barry J Beaty, Carol D Blair, Aaron C Brault, Gerhard Dobler, Michael A Drebot, Andrew D Haddow, Laura D Kramer, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Thomas P Monath, Eric C Mossel, Kenneth Plante, Ann M Powers, Robert B Tesh, Michael J Turell, Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) has implemented numerous changes to the taxonomic classification of bunyaviruses over the years. Whereas most changes have been justified and necessary because of the need to accommodate newly discovered and unclassified viruses, other changes are a cause of concern, especially the decision to demote scores of formerly recognized species to essentially strains of newly designated species. This practice was first described in the seventh taxonomy report of the ICTV and has continued in all subsequent reports...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543982/demystifying-eukaryote-lateral-gene-transfer-response-to-martin-2017-doi-10-1002-bies-201700115
#7
REVIEW
Michelle M Leger, Laura Eme, Courtney W Stairs, Andrew J Roger
In a recent BioEssays paper [W. F. Martin, BioEssays 2017, 39, 1700115], William Martin sharply criticizes evolutionary interpretations that involve lateral gene transfer (LGT) into eukaryotic genomes. Most published examples of LGTs in eukaryotes, he suggests, are in fact contaminants, ancestral genes that have been lost from other extant lineages, or the result of artefactual phylogenetic inferences. Martin argues that, except for transfers that occurred from endosymbiotic organelles, eukaryote LGT is insignificant...
May 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487510/facts-and-misconceptions-about-2d-4d-social-and-risk-preferences
#8
Judit Alonso, Roberto Di Paolo, Giovanni Ponti, Marcello Sartarelli
We study how the ratio between the length of the second and fourth digit (2D:4D) correlates with choices in social and risk preferences elicitation tasks by building a large dataset from five experimental projects with more than 800 subjects. Our results confirm the recent literature that downplays the link between 2D:4D and many domains of economic interest, such as social and risk preferences. As for the former, we find that social preferences are significantly lower when 2D:4D is above the median value only for subjects with low cognitive ability...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458453/consumer-accounts-of-favourable-dietary-behaviour-change-and-comparison-with-official-dietary-guidelines
#9
Gastón Ares, Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, Leticia Vidal, Leandro Machín, Ximena Moratorio, Elisa Bandeira, María Rosa Curutchet, Isabel Bove, Ana Giménez
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to assess Uruguayan consumers' accounts of their own need to change their dietary patterns, their intended changes and the barriers related to doing so, and to compare the intentions and barriers with the recommendations of the national dietary guidelines. DESIGN: An online survey with 2381 Uruguayan employed adults, aged between 18 and 65 years, 65 % females, was conducted. Participants had to answer two open-ended questions related to changes they could make in the foods they eat and/or the way in which they eat to improve the quality of their diet and the reasons why they had not implemented those changes yet...
February 20, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379622/under-what-conditions-can-a-nonprescription-drug-label-serve-as-refutation-text-the-role-of-directed-attention-and-processing-strategy
#10
Michael P Ryan, Paula L Costa, Aubrey B Cruz
Nonprescription drug labels are relatively ineffective in refuting drug misconceptions. We sought to improve the effectiveness of an aspirin label as a refutation text by manipulating selective attention and label-processing strategy. After reading a facsimile label, those of 196 undergraduates who attempted to explain why shaded drug facts are "easily confused" recalled more refuting drug facts than participants who attempted to explain why those facts are "easily ignored." However, "easily confused" processing did not change truth ratings of misconceptions associated with those drug facts...
July 2017: Health Psychology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379613/does-the-drug-facts-label-for-nonprescription-drugs-meet-its-design-objectives-a-new-procedure-for-assessing-label-effectiveness
#11
Michael P Ryan, Reagan N Costello-White
We demonstrate an expanded procedure for assessing drug-label comprehension. Innovations include a pretest of drug preconceptions, verbal ability and label attentiveness measures, a label-scanning task, a free-recall test, category-clustering measures, and preconception-change scores. In total, 55 female and 39 male undergraduates read a facsimile Drug Facts Label for aspirin, a Cohesive-Prose Label, or a Scrambled-Prose Label. The Drug Facts Label outperformed the Scrambled-Prose Label, but not the Cohesive-Prose Label, in scanning effectiveness...
July 2017: Health Psychology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177624/production-of-monascus-pigments-as-extracellular-crystals-by-cell-suspension-culture
#12
Fengling Lu, Lujie Liu, Yaolin Huang, Xuehong Zhang, Zhilong Wang
It is generally accepted that Monascus pigments are predominantly cell-bound, including both intracellular and surface-bound pigments. This long-term misconception was corrected in the present work. Production of extracellular crystal pigments by submerged culture of Monascus sp. was confirmed by microscopic observation and collection of Monascus pigments from extracellular broth by direct membrane filtration. Following up the new fact, the bioactivity of mycelia as whole-cell biocatalyst for biosynthesis and biodegradation of Monascus pigments had been detailedly examined in both an aqueous solution and a nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution...
January 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067992/medical-cannabis-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain-and-other-disorders-misconceptions-and-facts
#13
Kevin P Hill, Matthew D Palastro
Recently, many countries have enacted new cannabis policies, including decriminalization of cannabis possession as well as legalization of medical and recreational cannabis. In this context, patients and their physicians have had an increasing number of conversations about the risks and benefits of cannabis. While cannabis and cannabinoids continue to be evaluated as pharmacotherapy for medical conditions, the best evidence currently exists for the following medical conditions: chronic pain, neuropathic pain, and spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis...
November 30, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808517/the-mythos-of-laudable-pus-along-with-an-explanation-for-its-origin
#14
Jeffrey A Freiberg
The presence of pus is one of the most easily recognizable signs of an infection. However, for several centuries suppuration, known as 'laudable pus,' was believed to be a sign of a healthy, healing wound. This historical misconception can be explained by the difference in the presentation of a necrotizing soft tissue infection versus other more common skin and soft tissue infections. Chronic wound infections, due to pyogenic bacteria, typically produce large amounts of thick, whitish-yellow pus. On the other hand, necrotizing soft tissue infections, despite their severe mortality and morbidity, are devoid of pus in the traditional sense...
July 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724228/a-new-method-for-correlation-analysis-of-compositional-environmental-data-a-worked-example
#15
C Reimann, P Filzmoser, K Hron, P Kynčlová, R G Garrett
Most data in environmental sciences and geochemistry are compositional. Already the unit used to report the data (e.g., μg/l, mg/kg, wt%) implies that the analytical results for each element are not free to vary independently of the other measured variables. This is often neglected in statistical analysis, where a simple log-transformation of the single variables is insufficient to put the data into an acceptable geometry. This is also important for bivariate data analysis and for correlation analysis, for which the data need to be appropriately log-ratio transformed...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693908/pathology-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease-facts-misconceptions-and-practical-tips-for-pathologists
#16
REVIEW
Deepali Jain, Subha Ghosh, Lucileia Teixeira, Sanjay Mukhopadhyay
Most pathologists are familiar with the microscopic features of tuberculosis and the need to examine special stains for acid-fast bacteria (AFB) in cases of granulomatous lung disease. However, misconceptions do exist, including the concept that finding AFB in "caseating granulomas" confirms the diagnosis of tuberculosis. This dogma is attributable to the high prevalence of tuberculosis in many countries, as well as unfamiliarity with the microscopic spectrum of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease...
November 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685432/tumor-oxygenation-status-facts-and-fallacies
#17
REVIEW
Peter Vaupel, Arnulf Mayer
In this chapter we allude to a series of facts and fallacies often encountered in the description of tumor hypoxia, a relevant trait of the tumor microenvironment and a paramount driver of tumor aggressiveness and treatment resistance. The critical role of diffusion distances, terminological inconsistencies considering O2 partial pressures vs. O2 concentrations and with it the use of inept units, the impact of O2 depletion on proliferation and cell viability, the switch in the Warburg dogma , the distribution of hypoxic subvolumes within a tumor, the involvement of O2 diffusion shunts in the development of chronic hypoxia, and the role of endogenous biomarkers as surrogates for the assessment of hypoxia are discussed in more detail...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659080/-happy-patients-are-as-important-as-happy-staff
#18
Layla Haidrani
What is your job? I am a pre-assessment lead nurse at Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. There is a misconception that I'm an 'ob and swab nurse' but in fact the role involves balancing patient assessment for elective surgery, service development and pathway expertise for a diverse patient group with the management of various grades of staff, including nurse practitioners, operating department practitioners, assistant practitioners, healthcare assistants and administration team.
June 29, 2017: Nursing Management (Harrow)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538581/the-misconception-of-case-control-studies-in-the-plastic-surgery-literature-a-literature-audit
#19
REVIEW
Alexandra C Hatchell, Forough Farrokhyar, Matthew Choi
BACKGROUND: Case-control study designs are commonly used. However, many published case-control studies are not true case-controls and are in fact mislabeled. The purpose of this study was to identify all case-control studies published in the top three plastic surgery journals over the past 10 years, assess which were truly case-control studies, clarify the actual design of the articles, and address common misconceptions. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for case-control studies in the three highest-impact factor plastic surgery journals (2005 to 2015)...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504531/the-role-of-familiarity-in-correcting-inaccurate-information
#20
Briony Swire, Ullrich K H Ecker, Stephan Lewandowsky
People frequently continue to use inaccurate information in their reasoning even after a credible retraction has been presented. This phenomenon is often referred to as the continued influence effect of misinformation. The repetition of the original misconception within a retraction could contribute to this phenomenon, as it could inadvertently make the "myth" more familiar-and familiar information is more likely to be accepted as true. From a dual-process perspective, familiarity-based acceptance of myths is most likely to occur in the absence of strategic memory processes...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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