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Misconceptions and facts

Thorsten Rudroff, John H Kindred, Nathaniel B Ketelhut
Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this "perspective article" we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Desmond Chavasse
In this article I examine the relevance of environmental control techniques in Malawi in the context of what we know about breeding, resting and feeding habits of the common Anopheles species. I hope that this article may help to put to rest some common misconceptions concerning Anopheles control as a malaria prevention strategy.
April 2002: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
Walid Ammar, Alissar Radi, Fadi El-Jardali
This letter intends to clarify information and misconceptions found in the article "Syrian refugees in Lebanon: the search for universal health coverage" which was published June 1st, 2016, and to challenge the core notion of fragmentation as presented by the authors. It also highlights the fact that the article does not recognize the severe shortage in refugees health financing and unmet promises by the international community, and calls for immediate action and far greater support from that community to address the needs of refugees in Lebanon...
2016: Conflict and Health
Ramona Ludolph, Ahmed Allam, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND: One of people's major motives for going online is the search for health-related information. Most consumers start their search with a general search engine but are unaware of the fact that its sorting and ranking criteria do not mirror information quality. This misconception can lead to distorted search outcomes, especially when the information processing is characterized by heuristic principles and resulting cognitive biases instead of a systematic elaboration. As vaccination opponents are vocal on the Web, the chance of encountering their non‒evidence-based views on immunization is high...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Anat R Tambur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Significant interest is now focused on deciphering human leukocyte antigen (HLA) epitopes and the utilization of this new knowledge to improve donor-recipient matching in transplantation. A recently introduced concept is the appearance of antibodies against what may be considered as self-epitopes, including the introduction of the 'nonself-self paradigm'. RECENT FINDINGS: Common practice in analyzing HLA-DQ antibodies have been to separate between antibodies against the α chain and antibodies against the β chain of the molecule...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
O I Opeodu, T J Ogunrinde
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that the possible modes of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are well established, there still abound many misconceptions, which contribute to the persistence of social stigmatization of those living with the virus. AIM: To assess the perception of some dental patients on the possible modes of transmission of HIV in order to identify areas of misconceptions. DESIGN OF THE STUDY: A prospective study...
January 2015: Journal of the West African College of Surgeons
Edgar Argulian, Jeffrey S Borer, Franz H Messerli
Mitral regurgitation is a common heart valve disease. It is defined to be primary when it results from the pathology of the mitral valve apparatus itself and secondary when it is caused by distortion of the architecture or function of the left ventricle. Although the diagnosis and management of mitral regurgitation rely heavily on echocardiography, one should bear in mind the caveats and shortcomings of such an approach. Clinical decision making commonly focuses on the indications for surgery, but it is complex and mandates precise assessment of the mitral pathology, symptom status of the patient, and ventricular performance (right and left) among other descriptors...
September 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Richard Menger, Austin Menger, Anil Nanda
OBJECTIVE Multiple studies have illustrated that rugby headgear offers no statistically significant protection against concussions. However, there remains concern that many players believe rugby headgear in fact does prevent concussions. Further investigation was undertaken to illustrate that misconceptions about concussion prevention and rugby headgear may lead to an increase in aggressive play. METHODS Data were constructed by Internet survey solicitation among United States collegiate rugby players across 19 teams...
April 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
N Deborah Friedman
Increasing antimicrobial resistance has necessitated an approach to guide the use of antibiotics. The necessity to guide antimicrobial use via stewardship has never been more urgent. The decline in anti-infective innovation and the failure of currently available antimicrobials to treat some serious infections forces clinicians to change those behaviors that drive antimicrobial resistance. The majority of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs function in acute-care hospitals, however, hospitals are only one setting where antibiotics are prescribed...
2013: Antibiotics
Belén Provenzano-Castro, Silvia Oizerovich, Babill Stray-Pedersen
OBJECTIVE: We assessed healthcare students' knowledge and opinions on Argentinian abortion law and identified differences between first- and final-year healthcare students. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, self-administered anonymous questionnaires were administered to 760 first- and 695 final-year students from different fields of study (medicine, midwifery, nursing, radiology, nutrition, speech therapy, and physiotherapy) of the School of Medicine at the University of Buenos Aires, in 2011-2013...
2016: International Journal of Medical Education
Linus Johnsson, Stefan Eriksson
Should people be involved as active participants in longitudinal medical research, as opposed to remaining passive providers of data and material? We argue in this article that misconceptions of 'autonomy' as a kind of feat rather than a right are to blame for much of the confusion surrounding the debate of dynamic versus broad consent. Keeping in mind two foundational facts of human life, freedom and dignity, we elaborate three moral principles - those of autonomy, integrity and authority - to better see what is at stake...
September 2016: Bioethics
Scott Yh Kim, Renee Wilson, Raymond De Vries, Kerry A Ryan, Robert G Holloway, Karl Kieburtz
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are at risk of a therapeutic misconception (TM) in which they misconceive research as treatment or overestimate the likelihood of its benefit. METHODS: 72 patients with ALS recruited via academic and patient organisations were surveyed using a hypothetical first-in-human intervention study scenario. We elicited their understanding of the purpose of the study ('purpose-of-research question') and then asked how they interpreted the question...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Briana Pobiner
Questions about our origin as a species are universal and compelling. Evolution-and in particular human evolution-is a subject that generates intense interest across the world, evidenced by the fact that fossil and DNA discoveries grace the covers of major science journals and magazines as well as other popular print and online media. However, virtually all national polls indicate that the majority of Americans strongly reject biological evolution as a fact-based, well-tested, and robust understanding of the history of life...
January 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Kenny Kuchta, Mathias Schmidt, Adolf Nahrstedt
Kava, the rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, are one of the most important social pillars of Melanesian societies. They have been used for more than 1000 years in social gatherings for the preparation of beverages with relaxing effects. During the colonial period, extract preparations found their way into Western medicinal systems, with experience especially concerning the treatment of situational anxiety dating back more than 100 years. It therefore came as a surprise when the safety of kava was suddenly questioned based on the observation of a series of case reports of liver toxicity in 1999 and 2000...
December 2015: Planta Medica
Olive Mbah, Jean G Ford, Miaozhen Qiu, Jennifer Wenzel, Lee Bone, Janice Bowie, Ahmed Elmi, Jimmie L Slade, Michele Towson, Adrian S Dobs
BACKGROUND: Disadvantaged populations face many barriers to cancer care, including limited support in navigating through the complexities of the healthcare system. Family members play an integral role in caring for patients and provide valuable care coordination; however, the effect of family navigators on adherence to cancer screening has not previously been evaluated. Training and evaluating trusted family members and other support persons may improve cancer outcomes for vulnerable patients...
November 16, 2015: BMC Cancer
Muhammad Bilal, Abdul Haseeb, Ibrahim Zahid, Sehan Siraj Lashkerwala, Fawad Saeeduddin, Muhammad Saad, Mohammad Hussham Arshad, Manpreet Moorpani, Midhat Zafar Khan, Ahsan Tariq, Haya Habib, Tehrema Islam, Rohan Advani
INTRODUCTION: Blood donation is necessary in order to maintain an adequate supply of blood to patients who are suffering from any kind of disease or trauma, which requires them to have blood transfusion. Female non-blood donors are generally low in number. Therefore, this research was carried out to assess the main reasons behind the lack of blood donations made by females, and their knowledge, attitude and perceptions towards voluntary blood donation. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 664 female health professionals, who were selected by non-probability convenience sampling from two tertiary care hospitals...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Shahla Wunderlich, Kelsey A Gatto
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources...
November 2015: Advances in Nutrition
Y Tony Yang, Brian Chen
Controversy surrounds the production and consumption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Proponents argue that GMO food sources represent the only viable solution to food shortages in an ever-growing global population. Science reports no harm from GMO use and consumption so far. Opponents fear the potentially negative impact that GMO development and use could have on the environment and consumers, and are concerned about the lack of data on the long-term effects of GMO use. We discuss the development of GMO food sources, the history of legislation and policy for the labeling requirements of GMO food products, and the health, environmental, and legal rationale for and against GMO food labeling...
April 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Massimo Bellini, Dario Gambaccini, Paolo Usai-Satta, Nicola De Bortoli, Lorenzo Bertani, Santino Marchi, Cristina Stasi
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC) are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders. According to the Rome III Criteria these two disorders should be theoretically separated mainly by the presence of abdominal pain or discomfort relieved by defecation (typical of IBS) and they should be mutually exclusive. However, many gastroenterologists have serious doubts as regards a clear separation. Both IBS-C and FC, often associated with many other functional digestive and non digestive disorders, are responsible for a low quality of life...
October 28, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Lesley Baillie, Susan Beecraft, Sandie Woods
All health and social care students must learn about dementia in the curriculum. This article explains how Dementia Friends sessions, which aim to raise awareness about dementia, were delivered in the students' induction at one university. The objective was for all new students to understand some important facts about dementia, thus addressing any misconceptions at an early stage and establishing a foundation for further learning. The sessions were evaluated through an analysis of written comments, which indicated that nursing students enjoyed the sessions and had learnt the five facts about dementia...
November 2015: Nursing Older People
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