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Misconceptions and facts

Michelle M Leger, Laura Eme, Courtney W Stairs, Andrew J Roger
In a recent BioEssays paper [W. F. Martin, BioEssays 2017, 39, 1700115], William Martin sharply criticizes evolutionary interpretations that involve lateral gene transfer (LGT) into eukaryotic genomes. Most published examples of LGTs in eukaryotes, he suggests, are in fact contaminants, ancestral genes that have been lost from other extant lineages, or the result of artefactual phylogenetic inferences. Martin argues that, except for transfers that occurred from endosymbiotic organelles, eukaryote LGT is insignificant...
March 15, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Judit Alonso, Roberto Di Paolo, Giovanni Ponti, Marcello Sartarelli
We study how the ratio between the length of the second and fourth digit (2D:4D) correlates with choices in social and risk preferences elicitation tasks by building a large dataset from five experimental projects with more than 800 subjects. Our results confirm the recent literature that downplays the link between 2D:4D and many domains of economic interest, such as social and risk preferences. As for the former, we find that social preferences are significantly lower when 2D:4D is above the median value only for subjects with low cognitive ability...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Gastón Ares, Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, Leticia Vidal, Leandro Machín, Ximena Moratorio, Elisa Bandeira, María Rosa Curutchet, Isabel Bove, Ana Giménez
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to assess Uruguayan consumers' accounts of their own need to change their dietary patterns, their intended changes and the barriers related to doing so, and to compare the intentions and barriers with the recommendations of the national dietary guidelines. DESIGN: An online survey with 2381 Uruguayan employed adults, aged between 18 and 65 years, 65 % females, was conducted. Participants had to answer two open-ended questions related to changes they could make in the foods they eat and/or the way in which they eat to improve the quality of their diet and the reasons why they had not implemented those changes yet...
February 20, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Michael P Ryan, Paula L Costa, Aubrey B Cruz
Nonprescription drug labels are relatively ineffective in refuting drug misconceptions. We sought to improve the effectiveness of an aspirin label as a refutation text by manipulating selective attention and label-processing strategy. After reading a facsimile label, those of 196 undergraduates who attempted to explain why shaded drug facts are "easily confused" recalled more refuting drug facts than participants who attempted to explain why those facts are "easily ignored." However, "easily confused" processing did not change truth ratings of misconceptions associated with those drug facts...
July 2017: Health Psychology Open
Michael P Ryan, Reagan N Costello-White
We demonstrate an expanded procedure for assessing drug-label comprehension. Innovations include a pretest of drug preconceptions, verbal ability and label attentiveness measures, a label-scanning task, a free-recall test, category-clustering measures, and preconception-change scores. In total, 55 female and 39 male undergraduates read a facsimile Drug Facts Label for aspirin, a Cohesive-Prose Label, or a Scrambled-Prose Label. The Drug Facts Label outperformed the Scrambled-Prose Label, but not the Cohesive-Prose Label, in scanning effectiveness...
July 2017: Health Psychology Open
Fengling Lu, Lujie Liu, Yaolin Huang, Xuehong Zhang, Zhilong Wang
It is generally accepted that Monascus pigments are predominantly cell-bound, including both intracellular and surface-bound pigments. This long-term misconception was corrected in the present work. Production of extracellular crystal pigments by submerged culture of Monascus sp. was confirmed by microscopic observation and collection of Monascus pigments from extracellular broth by direct membrane filtration. Following up the new fact, the bioactivity of mycelia as whole-cell biocatalyst for biosynthesis and biodegradation of Monascus pigments had been detailedly examined in both an aqueous solution and a nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution...
January 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kevin P Hill, Matthew D Palastro
Recently, many countries have enacted new cannabis policies, including decriminalization of cannabis possession as well as legalization of medical and recreational cannabis. In this context, patients and their physicians have had an increasing number of conversations about the risks and benefits of cannabis. While cannabis and cannabinoids continue to be evaluated as pharmacotherapy for medical conditions, the best evidence currently exists for the following medical conditions: chronic pain, neuropathic pain, and spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis...
November 30, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
Jeffrey A Freiberg
The presence of pus is one of the most easily recognizable signs of an infection. However, for several centuries suppuration, known as 'laudable pus,' was believed to be a sign of a healthy, healing wound. This historical misconception can be explained by the difference in the presentation of a necrotizing soft tissue infection versus other more common skin and soft tissue infections. Chronic wound infections, due to pyogenic bacteria, typically produce large amounts of thick, whitish-yellow pus. On the other hand, necrotizing soft tissue infections, despite their severe mortality and morbidity, are devoid of pus in the traditional sense...
July 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
C Reimann, P Filzmoser, K Hron, P Kynčlová, R G Garrett
Most data in environmental sciences and geochemistry are compositional. Already the unit used to report the data (e.g., μg/l, mg/kg, wt%) implies that the analytical results for each element are not free to vary independently of the other measured variables. This is often neglected in statistical analysis, where a simple log-transformation of the single variables is insufficient to put the data into an acceptable geometry. This is also important for bivariate data analysis and for correlation analysis, for which the data need to be appropriately log-ratio transformed...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Deepali Jain, Subha Ghosh, Lucileia Teixeira, Sanjay Mukhopadhyay
Most pathologists are familiar with the microscopic features of tuberculosis and the need to examine special stains for acid-fast bacteria (AFB) in cases of granulomatous lung disease. However, misconceptions do exist, including the concept that finding AFB in "caseating granulomas" confirms the diagnosis of tuberculosis. This dogma is attributable to the high prevalence of tuberculosis in many countries, as well as unfamiliarity with the microscopic spectrum of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease...
November 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Peter Vaupel, Arnulf Mayer
In this chapter we allude to a series of facts and fallacies often encountered in the description of tumor hypoxia, a relevant trait of the tumor microenvironment and a paramount driver of tumor aggressiveness and treatment resistance. The critical role of diffusion distances, terminological inconsistencies considering O2 partial pressures vs. O2 concentrations and with it the use of inept units, the impact of O2 depletion on proliferation and cell viability, the switch in the Warburg dogma , the distribution of hypoxic subvolumes within a tumor, the involvement of O2 diffusion shunts in the development of chronic hypoxia, and the role of endogenous biomarkers as surrogates for the assessment of hypoxia are discussed in more detail...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Layla Haidrani
What is your job? I am a pre-assessment lead nurse at Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. There is a misconception that I'm an 'ob and swab nurse' but in fact the role involves balancing patient assessment for elective surgery, service development and pathway expertise for a diverse patient group with the management of various grades of staff, including nurse practitioners, operating department practitioners, assistant practitioners, healthcare assistants and administration team.
June 29, 2017: Nursing Management (Harrow)
Alexandra C Hatchell, Forough Farrokhyar, Matthew Choi
BACKGROUND: Case-control study designs are commonly used. However, many published case-control studies are not true case-controls and are in fact mislabeled. The purpose of this study was to identify all case-control studies published in the top three plastic surgery journals over the past 10 years, assess which were truly case-control studies, clarify the actual design of the articles, and address common misconceptions. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for case-control studies in the three highest-impact factor plastic surgery journals (2005 to 2015)...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Briony Swire, Ullrich K H Ecker, Stephan Lewandowsky
People frequently continue to use inaccurate information in their reasoning even after a credible retraction has been presented. This phenomenon is often referred to as the continued influence effect of misinformation. The repetition of the original misconception within a retraction could contribute to this phenomenon, as it could inadvertently make the "myth" more familiar-and familiar information is more likely to be accepted as true. From a dual-process perspective, familiarity-based acceptance of myths is most likely to occur in the absence of strategic memory processes...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Thomas J Wilson, Eric Franz, Carolyn F Vollmer, Kate W-C Chang, Cheerag Upadhyaya, Paul Park, Lynda J-S Yang
OBJECTIVE: Patients frequently have misconceptions regarding diagnosis, surgical indication, and expected outcome following spinal surgery for degenerative spinal disease. In this study, we sought to understand the relationship between patient-perceived surgical indications and patient expectations. We hypothesized that patients reporting appendicular symptoms as a primary surgical indication would report a higher rate of having expectations met by surgery compared to those patients reporting axial symptoms as a primary indication...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Rose Cairns, Jared A Brown, Naren Gunja, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND: The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) poses novel challenges for drug regulation and public health. Misconceptions of safety and legality, coupled with the fact that NPS are undetectable on routine drugs screens contributes to their popularity. Concerns over the unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential of NPS has led to a variety of legislative responses worldwide. We wish to describe Australian trends in SCRA use, examining the effects of legislative changes on calls to Australia's largest poisons centre...
May 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Sahar H Al-Natour
INTRODUCTION: Although acne vulgaris is common in adolescents, information on their understanding of acne is minimal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the perceptions and beliefs of Saudi youth on acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred twenty-nine male students (aged 13-22 years) from 6 secondary schools in the Eastern Saudi Arabia completed a self-reported questionnaire on knowledge, causation, exacerbating and relieving factors of acne. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15...
January 2017: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
Edgar Argulian, Stephan Windecker, Franz H Messerli
Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease leading to intervention, and it is typically a disease of the elderly. Recent clinical advances have expanded the role of transcatheter aortic valve intervention in patients with severe aortic stenosis, making aortic valve intervention feasible and effective even in patients at intermediate, high, and prohibitive surgical risk. With the rapid advances in treatment, proper diagnosis becomes crucial for a wide range of patients with aortic stenosis: from "concordant" high-gradient aortic stenosis to "discordant" low-gradient aortic stenosis...
April 2017: American Journal of Medicine
Kara Weisman, Ellen M Markman
Cogent explanations are an indispensable means of providing new information and an essential component of effective education. Beyond this, we argue that there is tremendous untapped potential in using explanations to motivate behavior change. In this article we focus on health interventions. We review four case studies that used carefully tailored explanations to address gaps and misconceptions in people's intuitive theories, providing participants with a conceptual framework for understanding how and why some recommended behavior is an effective way of achieving a health goal...
October 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Maarten P Jansen, Jan-Kees Helderman, Bert Boer, Rob Baltussen
Embedding health technology assessment (HTA) in a fair process has great potential to capture societal values relevant to public reimbursement decisions on health technologies. However, the development of such processes for priority setting has largely been theoretical. In this paper, we provide further practical lead ways on how these processes can be implemented. We first present the misconception about the relation between facts and values that is since long misleading the conduct of HTA and underlies the current assessment-appraisal split...
July 3, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
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