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Misconceptions and facts

Alexandra C Hatchell, Forough Farrokhyar, Matthew Choi
BACKGROUND: Case-control study designs are commonly used. However, many published case-control studies are not true case-controls and are in fact mislabeled. The purpose of this study was to identify all case-control studies published in the top three plastic surgery journals over the past 10 years, assess which were truly case-control studies, clarify the actual design of the articles, and address common misconceptions. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for case-control studies in the three highest-impact factor plastic surgery journals (2005 to 2015)...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Briony Swire, Ullrich K H Ecker, Stephan Lewandowsky
People frequently continue to use inaccurate information in their reasoning even after a credible retraction has been presented. This phenomenon is often referred to as the continued influence effect of misinformation. The repetition of the original misconception within a retraction could contribute to this phenomenon, as it could inadvertently make the "myth" more familiar-and familiar information is more likely to be accepted as true. From a dual-process perspective, familiarity-based acceptance of myths is most likely to occur in the absence of strategic memory processes...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Thomas J Wilson, Eric Franz, Carolyn F Vollmer, Kate W-C Chang, Cheerag Upadhyaya, Paul Park, Lynda J-S Yang
OBJECTIVE: Patients frequently have misconceptions regarding diagnosis, surgical indication, and expected outcome following spinal surgery for degenerative spinal disease. In this study, we sought to understand the relationship between patient-perceived surgical indications and patient expectations. We hypothesized that patients reporting appendicular symptoms as a primary surgical indication would report a higher rate of having expectations met by surgery compared to those patients reporting axial symptoms as a primary indication...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Rose Cairns, Jared A Brown, Naren Gunja, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND: The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) poses novel challenges for drug regulation and public health. Misconceptions of safety and legality, coupled with the fact that NPS are undetectable on routine drugs screens contributes to their popularity. Concerns over the unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential of NPS has led to a variety of legislative responses worldwide. We wish to describe Australian trends in SCRA use, examining the effects of legislative changes on calls to Australia's largest poisons centre...
May 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Sahar H Al-Natour
INTRODUCTION: Although acne vulgaris is common in adolescents, information on their understanding of acne is minimal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the perceptions and beliefs of Saudi youth on acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred twenty-nine male students (aged 13-22 years) from 6 secondary schools in the Eastern Saudi Arabia completed a self-reported questionnaire on knowledge, causation, exacerbating and relieving factors of acne. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15...
January 2017: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
Edgar Argulian, Stephan Windecker, Franz H Messerli
Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease leading to intervention, and it is typically a disease of the elderly. Recent clinical advances have expanded the role of transcatheter aortic valve intervention in patients with severe aortic stenosis, making aortic valve intervention feasible and effective even in patients at intermediate, high, and prohibitive surgical risk. With the rapid advances in treatment, proper diagnosis becomes crucial for a wide range of patients with aortic stenosis: from "concordant" high-gradient aortic stenosis to "discordant" low-gradient aortic stenosis...
April 2017: American Journal of Medicine
Kara Weisman, Ellen M Markman
Cogent explanations are an indispensable means of providing new information and an essential component of effective education. Beyond this, we argue that there is tremendous untapped potential in using explanations to motivate behavior change. In this article we focus on health interventions. We review four case studies that used carefully tailored explanations to address gaps and misconceptions in people's intuitive theories, providing participants with a conceptual framework for understanding how and why some recommended behavior is an effective way of achieving a health goal...
January 17, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Maarten P Jansen, Jan-Kees Helderman, Bert Boer, Rob Baltussen
Embedding health technology assessment (HTA) in a fair process has great potential to capture societal values relevant to public reimbursement decisions on health technologies. However, the development of such processes for priority setting has largely been theoretical. In this paper, we provide further practical lead ways on how these processes can be implemented. We first present the misconception about the relation between facts and values that is since long misleading the conduct of HTA and underlies the current assessment-appraisal split...
July 3, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Rhodri J King, Ramzi A Ajjan
Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems worldwide due to the association with numerous complications, arguably the most important of which are the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Both are thought to develop from similar origins and occur at variable rates in obese individuals, including those with similar body mass indices. This phenomenon is likely a result of an increased susceptibility for the storage of excess fat in the wrong place, namely, ectopic fat surrounding the liver, pancreas and muscles...
January 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Georg Heinze, Daniela Dunkler
Multivariable regression models are often used in transplantation research to identify or to confirm baseline variables which have an independent association, causally or only evidenced by statistical correlation, with transplantation outcome. Although sound theory is lacking, variable selection is a popular statistical method which seemingly reduces the complexity of such models. However, in fact, variable selection often complicates analysis as it invalidates common tools of statistical inference such as P-values and confidence intervals...
January 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Rosa K Hand, Deric Kenne, Taylor M Wolfram, Jenica K Abram, Michael Fleming
BACKGROUND: Given the high penetration of social media use, social media has been proposed as a method for the dissemination of information to health professionals and patients. This study explored the potential for social media dissemination of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline (EBNPG) for Heart Failure (HF). OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to (1) describe the existing social media content on HF, including message content, source, and target audience, and (2) describe the attitude of physicians and registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) who care for outpatient HF patients toward the use of social media as a method to obtain information for themselves and to share this information with patients...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Jeffrey R Harring, Shelley A Blozis
Nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) models are used when analyzing continuous repeated measures data taken on each of a number of individuals where the focus is on characteristics of complex, nonlinear individual change. Challenges with fitting NLME models and interpreting analytic results have been well documented in the statistical literature. However, parameter estimates as well as fitted functions from NLME analyses in recent articles have been misinterpreted, suggesting the need for clarification of these issues before these misconceptions become fact...
November 2016: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Thorsten Rudroff, John H Kindred, Nathaniel B Ketelhut
Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this "perspective article" we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Desmond Chavasse
In this article I examine the relevance of environmental control techniques in Malawi in the context of what we know about breeding, resting and feeding habits of the common Anopheles species. I hope that this article may help to put to rest some common misconceptions concerning Anopheles control as a malaria prevention strategy.
April 2002: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
Walid Ammar, Alissar Radi, Fadi El-Jardali
This letter intends to clarify information and misconceptions found in the article "Syrian refugees in Lebanon: the search for universal health coverage" which was published June 1st, 2016, and to challenge the core notion of fragmentation as presented by the authors. It also highlights the fact that the article does not recognize the severe shortage in refugees health financing and unmet promises by the international community, and calls for immediate action and far greater support from that community to address the needs of refugees in Lebanon...
2016: Conflict and Health
Ramona Ludolph, Ahmed Allam, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND: One of people's major motives for going online is the search for health-related information. Most consumers start their search with a general search engine but are unaware of the fact that its sorting and ranking criteria do not mirror information quality. This misconception can lead to distorted search outcomes, especially when the information processing is characterized by heuristic principles and resulting cognitive biases instead of a systematic elaboration. As vaccination opponents are vocal on the Web, the chance of encountering their non‒evidence-based views on immunization is high...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Anat R Tambur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Significant interest is now focused on deciphering human leukocyte antigen (HLA) epitopes and the utilization of this new knowledge to improve donor-recipient matching in transplantation. A recently introduced concept is the appearance of antibodies against what may be considered as self-epitopes, including the introduction of the 'nonself-self paradigm'. RECENT FINDINGS: Common practice in analyzing HLA-DQ antibodies have been to separate between antibodies against the α chain and antibodies against the β chain of the molecule...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
O I Opeodu, T J Ogunrinde
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that the possible modes of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are well established, there still abound many misconceptions, which contribute to the persistence of social stigmatization of those living with the virus. AIM: To assess the perception of some dental patients on the possible modes of transmission of HIV in order to identify areas of misconceptions. DESIGN OF THE STUDY: A prospective study...
January 2015: Journal of the West African College of Surgeons
Edgar Argulian, Jeffrey S Borer, Franz H Messerli
Mitral regurgitation is a common heart valve disease. It is defined to be primary when it results from the pathology of the mitral valve apparatus itself and secondary when it is caused by distortion of the architecture or function of the left ventricle. Although the diagnosis and management of mitral regurgitation rely heavily on echocardiography, one should bear in mind the caveats and shortcomings of such an approach. Clinical decision making commonly focuses on the indications for surgery, but it is complex and mandates precise assessment of the mitral pathology, symptom status of the patient, and ventricular performance (right and left) among other descriptors...
September 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Richard Menger, Austin Menger, Anil Nanda
OBJECTIVE Multiple studies have illustrated that rugby headgear offers no statistically significant protection against concussions. However, there remains concern that many players believe rugby headgear in fact does prevent concussions. Further investigation was undertaken to illustrate that misconceptions about concussion prevention and rugby headgear may lead to an increase in aggressive play. METHODS Data were constructed by Internet survey solicitation among United States collegiate rugby players across 19 teams...
April 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
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