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Melania Abrahamian, Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Carol Davis, Kalina Andreeva, Howard S Judelson
To help learn how phytopathogens feed from their hosts, genes for nutrient transporters from the hemibiotrophic potato and tomato pest Phytophthora infestans were annotated. This identified 453 genes from 19 families. Comparisons with a necrotrophic oomycete, Pythium ultimum, and a hemibiotrophic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, revealed diversity in the size of some families although a similar fraction of genes encoded transporters. RNA-seq of infected potato tubers, tomato leaves, and several artificial media revealed that 56 and 207 transporters from P...
December 9, 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Joshua K Endow, Agostinho Gomes Rocha, Amy J Baldwin, Rebecca L Roston, Toshio Yamaguchi, Hironari Kamikubo, Kentaro Inoue
PolyGly is present in many proteins in various organisms. One example is found in a transmembrane β-barrel protein, translocon at the outer-envelope-membrane of chloroplasts 75 (Toc75). Toc75 requires its N-terminal extension (t75) for proper localization. t75 comprises signals for chloroplast import (n75) and envelope sorting (c75) in tandem. n75 and c75 are removed by stromal processing peptidase and plastidic type I signal peptidase 1, respectively. PolyGly is present within c75 and its deletion or substitution causes mistargeting of Toc75 to the stroma...
2016: PloS One
Xiaolun Huang, Jeanna L Knoble, Ming Zeng, Fernando N Aguila, Tara Patel, Lowell W Chambers, Honglin Hu, Hao Liu
BACKGROUND: To study the feasibility of down stage the borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) to resectable disease, we reported our institutional results using an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) dose escalation approach to improve R0 resectability. METHODS: We reviewed our past 7 years of experience of using neoadjuvant induction chemotherapy with Gemcitabine followed by concurrent chemoradiaiton for BRPC...
2016: PloS One
Stefan K Müller, Isabel Wilhelm, Thomas Schubert, Katharina Zittlau, Anne Imberty, Josef Madl, Thorsten Eierhoff, Roland Thuenauer, Winfried Römer
OBJECTIVES: Epithelial cell layers as well as endothelia forming the blood-brain barrier can drastically reduce the efficiency of drug targeting. Our goal was to investigate lectins recognizing the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) for their potential as carriers for transcytotic drug delivery. METHODS: We utilized an in vitro model based on Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with Gb3 synthase to characterize transcytosis of the Gb3-binding lectins LecA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the B-subunit of Shiga toxin (StxB)...
December 9, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Sijia Yi, Sean David Allen, Yu-Gang Liu, Brian Zhou Ouyang, Xiaomo Li, Punn Augsornworawat, Edward Benjamin Thorp, Evan Alexander Scott
Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of heart disease, results from chronic vascular inflammation that is driven by diverse immune cell populations. Nanomaterials may function as powerful platforms for diagnostic imaging and controlled delivery of therapeutics to inflammatory cells in atherosclerosis, but efficacy is limited by nonspecific uptake by cells of the mononuclear phagocytes system (MPS). MPS cells located in the liver, spleen, blood, lymph nodes, and kidney remove from circulation the vast majority of intravenously administered nanomaterials regardless of surface functionalization or conjugation of targeting ligands...
December 9, 2016: ACS Nano
Wei Li, Xue Qi, Chao-Yue Zhao, Xiu-Fang Xu, An-Na Tang, De-Ming Kong
Most of the reported metal organic frameworks (MOFs)-based DNA sensors were developed by utilizing the different adsorption capacities of MOFs to different structural DNAs (for example single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs) and double-stranded DNAs (dsDNAs)) or ssDNAs with different lengths. Herein, we introduced another strategy for the design of MOFs-based biosensing platforms. We found that specific small-sized amino acids (for example glycine and serine) could lead to the destruction of the MOFs formed by [Cu(mal)(bpy)]•2H2O] thus recovering the fluorescence of a fluorophore-labeled ssDNA that had been quenched by MOFs...
December 9, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Eiichi Araki, Masakazu Haneda, Masato Kasuga, Takeshi Nishikawa, Tatsuya Kondo, Kohjiro Ueki, Takashi Kadowaki
In the 'Evidence-based Practice Guideline for the Treatment for Diabetes in Japan 2013', a new concept of the glycemic control in patients with diabetes in Japan has been declared from the Japan Diabetes Society. The main objective value of HbA1c was set to <7% from the perspective of preventing microvascular complications. On the other hand, the objective in cases where objectives can be attained by appropriate dietary or exercise therapy, or during pharmacotherapy without the occurrence of side effects such as hypoglycemia was set to <6%, and the objective in cases where intensification of treatment was considered difficult due to side effects such as hypoglycemia or for other reasons was set to <8%...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Mauro Commisso, Andrea Anesi, Silvia Dal Santo, Flavia Guzzo
RATIONALE: Electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) are both used to generate ions for the analysis of metabolites by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We compared the performance of these methods for the analysis of Corvina grapevine berry methanolic extracts, which are complex mixtures of diverse metabolites. METHODS: Corvina berries representing three ripening stages (veraison, early-ripening and full-ripening) were collected during two growing seasons, powdered and extracted with methanol...
December 9, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Devin B Granger, Yaochuan Mei, Karl J Thorley, Sean R Parkin, Oana D Jurchescu, John E Anthony
A new class of nitrogen-containing arene organic semiconductors incorporating fused indolizine units is described. This system, though having a zigzag shape, mimics the electronic properties of its linear analogue pentacene as a result of nitrogen lone pair incorporation into the π-electron system. Solubilizing trialkylsilylethynyl groups were employed to target crystal packing motifs appropriate for field-effect transistor devices. The triethylsilylethynyl derivative yielded hole mobilities of 0.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and on/off current ratios of 10(5)...
December 2, 2016: Organic Letters
Ritin Sharma, Inna Fedorenko, Paige T Spence, Vernon K Sondak, Keiran S M Smalley, John M Koomen
Patients with BRAF V600E mutant melanoma are typically treated with targeted BRAF kinase inhibitors, such as vemurafenib and dabrafenib. Although these drugs are initially effective, they are not curative. Most of the focus to date has been upon genetic mechanisms of acquired resistance; therefore, we must better understand the global signaling adaptations that mediate escape from BRAF inhibition. In the current study, we have used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) with ATP-analogue probes to enrich kinases and other enzyme classes that contribute to BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) resistance in four paired isogenic BRAFi-naïve/resistant cell line models...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Jia Du, Andria Fortney, Katherine E Washington, Chandima Bulumulla, Peishen Huang, Dushanthi Dissanayake, Michael C Biewer, Tomasz Kowalewski, Mihaela C Stefan
Two new donor-acceptor small molecules based on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BT) were designed and synthesized. Small molecules 4,4'-[(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(2,2'-bithiophene)-5,5'-diyl]bis(benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (BDT-TT-BT) and 4,4'-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis[7-(2,2'-bithiophene-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole] (BDT-BT-TT) are structural isomers with the 2,2-bithiophene unit placed either between the BDT and BT units or at the end of the BT units...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Huajie Chen, Zhaoxia Liu, Zhiyuan Zhao, Liping Zheng, Songting Tan, Zhihong Yin, Chunguang Zhu, Yunqi Liu
Five-membered 1,3,4-oxadiazole (OZ) and 1,3,4-thiadiazole (TZ) heterocycle-based copolymers as active layer have long been ignored in solution-processable n-channel polymer field-effect transistors (PFETs) despite the long history of using OZ or TZ derivatives as the electron-injecting materials in organic light-emitting devices and their favorable electron affinities. Herein, we first report the synthesis and PFETs performance of two n-channel conjugated polymers bearing OZ- or TZ-based acceptor moieties, i...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christina F Calver, Kirk S Schanze, Gonzalo Cosa
Here we report a biomimetic light-harvesting antenna based on negatively charged poly(phenylene ethynylene) conjugated polyelectrolytes assembled within a positively charged lipid membrane scaffold constructed by the lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP). Light harvested by the polymers was transferred via through-space mechanisms to a lipophilic energy acceptor (the cyanine dye DiI) whose effective molar absorption was enhanced by up to 18-fold due to the antenna effect. Absorption amplification of DiI was found to be due primarily to direct energy transfer from polymers...
November 22, 2016: ACS Nano
Stefan A P Lenz, Johnathan D Kohout, Stacey D Wetmore
Despite the inherent stability of glycosidic linkages in nucleic acids that connect the nucleobases to sugar-phosphate backbones, cleavage of these bonds is often essential for organism survival. The current study uses DFT (B3LYP) to provide a fundamental understanding of the hydrolytic deglycosylation of the natural RNA nucleosides (A, C, G, and U), offers a comparison to DNA hydrolysis, and examines the effects of acid, base, or simultaneous acid-base catalysis on RNA deglycosylation. By initially examining HCOO(-)···H2O mediated deglycosylation, the barriers for RNA hydrolysis were determined to be 30-38 kJ mol(-1) higher than the corresponding DNA barriers, indicating that the 2'-OH group stabilizes the glycosidic bond...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
María Medrano, Miguel Ángel Fuertes, Alejandro Valbuena, Pablo J P Carrillo, Alicia Rodríguez-Huete, Mauricio G Mateu
Understanding the fundamental principles underlying supramolecular self-assembly may facilitate many developments, from novel antivirals to self-organized nanodevices. Icosahedral virus particles constitute paradigms to study self-assembly using a combination of theory and experiment. Unfortunately, assembly pathways of the structurally simplest virus capsids, those more accessible to detailed theoretical studies, have been difficult to study experimentally. We have enabled the in vitro self-assembly under close to physiological conditions of one of the simplest virus particles known, the minute virus of mice (MVM) capsid, and experimentally analyzed its pathways of assembly and disassembly...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Holly Freedman, Michael R Logan, John Lok Man Law, Michael Houghton
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are critical in viral attachment and cell fusion, and studies of these proteins may provide valuable insights into their potential uses in vaccines and antiviral strategies. Progress has included elucidating the crystal structures of portions of their ectodomains, as well as many other studies of hypervariable regions, stem regions, glycosylation sites, and the participation of E1/E2 in viral fusion with the endosomal membrane. The available structural data have shed light on the binding sites of cross-neutralizing antibodies...
November 11, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Jefferson Honorio Franco, Alejandra Ben Aissa, Guilherme Garcia Bessegato, Laura Martinez Fajardo, Maria Valnice Boldrin Zanoni, María Isabel Pividori, Maria Del Pilar Taboada Sotomayor
Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have become a research hotspot due to their two important characteristics: target recognition and magnetic separation. This paper presents the preparation, characterization, and optimization of an MMIP for the preconcentration of disperse red 73 dye (DR73) and its subsequent efficient degradation by photoelectrocatalytic treatment. The MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed homogeneous distribution of the particles. Excellent encapsulation of magnetite was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
December 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jesse C Traller, Shawn J Cokus, David A Lopez, Olga Gaidarenko, Sarah R Smith, John P McCrow, Sean D Gallaher, Sheila Podell, Michael Thompson, Orna Cook, Marco Morselli, Artur Jaroszewicz, Eric E Allen, Andrew E Allen, Sabeeha S Merchant, Matteo Pellegrini, Mark Hildebrand
BACKGROUND: Improvement in the performance of eukaryotic microalgae for biofuel and bioproduct production is largely dependent on characterization of metabolic mechanisms within the cell. The marine diatom Cyclotella cryptica, which was originally identified in the Aquatic Species Program, is a promising strain of microalgae for large-scale production of biofuel and bioproducts, such as omega-3 fatty acids. RESULTS: We sequenced the nuclear genome and methylome of this oleaginous diatom to identify the genetic traits that enable substantial accumulation of triacylglycerol...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Joana Figueiredo, Gonçalo J Costa, Marisa Maia, Octávio S Paulo, Rui Malhó, Marta Sousa Silva, Andreia Figueiredo
Subtilisin-like proteases, also known as subtilases, are a very diverse family of serine peptidases present in many organisms. In grapevine, there are hints of the involvement of subtilases in defense mechanisms, but their role is not yet understood. The first characterization of the subtilase gene family was performed in 2014. However, simultaneously, the grapevine genome was re-annotated and several sequences were re-annotated or retrieved. We have performed a re-characterization of this family in grapevine and identified 82 genes coding for 97 putative proteins, as result of alternative splicing...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Leo A Kucek, Jiajie Xu, Mytien Nguyen, Largus T Angenent
To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs) (e.g., acetate [C2] and n-butyrate [C4]) into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs) (e.g., n-caprylate [C8] and n-caproate [C6]) with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate) is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed), and specificities (product vs...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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