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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728026/parallel-interdigitated-distributed-networks-within-the-individual-estimated-by-intrinsic-functional-connectivity
#1
Rodrigo M Braga, Randy L Buckner
Certain organizational features of brain networks present in the individual are lost when central tendencies are examined in the group. Here we investigated the detailed network organization of four individuals each scanned 24 times using MRI. We discovered that the distributed network known as the default network is comprised of two separate networks possessing adjacent regions in eight or more cortical zones. A distinction between the networks is that one is coupled to the hippocampal formation while the other is not...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727932/laboratory-studies-of-methane-and-its-relationship-to-prebiotic-chemistry
#2
Kensei Kobayashi, Wolf D Geppert, Nathalie Carrasco, Nils G Holm, Olivier Mousis, Maria Elisabetta Palumbo, J Hunter Waite, Naoki Watanabe, Lucy M Ziurys
To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role...
July 20, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727843/atomistic-modeling-of-alternating-access-of-a-mitochondrial-adp-atp-membrane-transporter-with-molecular-simulations
#3
Koichi Tamura, Shigehiko Hayashi
The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) is a membrane transporter that exchanges a cytosolic ADP for a matrix ATP. Atomic structures in an outward-facing (OF) form which binds an ADP from the intermembrane space have been solved by X-ray crystallography, and revealed their unique pseudo three-fold symmetry fold which is qualitatively different from pseudo two-fold symmetry of most transporters of which atomic structures have been solved. However, any atomic-level information on an inward-facing (IF) form, which binds an ATP from the matrix side and is fixed by binding of an inhibitor, bongkrekic acid (BA), is not available, and thus its alternating access mechanism for the transport process is unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727789/lumpgem-systematic-generation-of-subnetworks-and-elementally-balanced-lumped-reactions-for-the-biosynthesis-of-target-metabolites
#4
Meric Ataman, Vassily Hatzimanikatis
In the post-genomic era, Genome-scale metabolic networks (GEMs) have emerged as invaluable tools to understand metabolic capabilities of organisms. Different parts of these metabolic networks are defined as subsystems/pathways, which are sets of functional roles to implement a specific biological process or structural complex, such as glycolysis and TCA cycle. Subsystem/pathway definition is also employed to delineate the biosynthetic routes that produce biomass building blocks. In databases, such as MetaCyc and SEED, these representations are composed of linear routes from precursors to target biomass building blocks...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727765/defining-the-target-and-the-effect-of-imatinib-on-the-filarial-c-abl-homologue
#5
Elise M O'Connell, Olena Kamenyeva, Sara Lustigman, Aaron Bell, Thomas B Nutman
BACKGROUND: Previously we demonstrated the micro- and macrofilaricidal properties of imatinib in vitro. Here we use electron and multiphoton microscopy to define the target of imatinib in the adult and microfilarial stages of Brugia malayi, and assess the effects of pharmacologically relevant levels of imatinib on the adult parasites. METHODS: After fixation of adult B. malayi males and females, sections were stained with polyclonal rabbit anti-c-Abl antibody (or isotype control) and imaged with multiphoton fluorescent microscopy...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727678/progress-toward-measles-elimination-bangladesh-2000-2016
#6
Sudhir Khanal, Rajendra Bohara, Stephen Chacko, Mohammad Sharifuzzaman, Mohammad Shamsuzzaman, James L Goodson, Alya Dabbagh, Katrina Kretsinger, Deepak Dhongde, Jayantha Liyanage, Sunil Bahl, Arun Thapa
In 2013, at the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR), a regional goal was established to eliminate measles and control rubella and congenital rubella syndrome* by 2020 (1). WHO-recommended measles elimination strategies in SEAR countries include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in every district, delivered through the routine immunization program or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)(†); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely measles case-based surveillance system that meets targets for recommended performance indicators; and 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network (2)...
July 21, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727620/the-case-for-focusing-on-millennial-retention
#7
Jenna Koppel, Marisa Deline, Katherine Virkstis
A concern for nurse leaders is rapid turnover of engaged, early-tenure millennial nurses. In this 1st article in a 2-part series, the authors describe why leaders should supplement their organization's current investments in engagement with retention strategies targeted at millennial nurses.
July 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727410/exosomes-mediate-epithelium-mesenchyme-crosstalk-in-organ-development
#8
Nan Jiang, Lusai Xiang, Ling He, Guodong Yang, Jinxuan Zheng, Chenglin Wang, Yimei Zhang, Sainan Wang, Yue Zhou, Tzong-Jen Sheu, Jiaqian Wu, Kenian Chen, Paulo G Coelho, Nicky M Tovar, Shin Hye Kim, Mo Chen, Yan-Heng Zhou, Jeremy J Mao
Organ development requires complex signaling by cells in different tissues. Epithelium and mesenchyme interactions are crucial for the development of the skin, hair follicles, kidney, lungs, prostate, major glands and the teeth. Despite myriad literature on cell-cell interactions and ligand-receptor binding, the roles extracellular vesicles in epithelium-mesenchyme interactions during organogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we discovered that ~100 nm exosomes were secreted by the epithelium and mesenchyme of a developing tooth organ, and diffused through the basement membrane...
July 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727229/volatile-organic-compound-detection-as-a-potential-means-of-diagnosing-cutaneous-wound-infections
#9
Mohammed Ashrafi, Matt Bates, Mohamed Baguneid, Teresa Alonso-Rasgado, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Ardeshir Bayat
Chronic cutaneous wound infections and surgical site infections (SSIs) present a huge burden on the healthcare system and can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Current diagnostic methods of identifying and confirming infection involve culture-based and molecular methods. Both techniques are time consuming and delays commonly lead to un-targeted empirical treatment. An ideal diagnostic method would be non-invasive and highly sensitive and detect pathogenic organisms with a high degree of accuracy in order to allow targeted treatment...
July 20, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726736/protozoadb-2-0-a-trypanosoma-brucei-case-study
#10
Rodrigo Jardim, Diogo Tschoeke, Alberto M R Da Vila
Over the last decade new species of Protozoa have been sequenced and deposited in GenBank. Analyzing large amounts of genomic data, especially using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), is not a trivial task, considering that researchers used to deal or focus their studies on few genes or gene families or even small genomes. To facilitate the information extraction process from genomic data, we developed a database system called ProtozoaDB that included five genomes of Protozoa in its first version. In the present study, we present a new version of ProtozoaDB called ProtozoaDB 2...
July 20, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726589/proteomic-study-of-sumoylation-during-solanum-tuberosum-phytophthora-infestans-in-compatible-interactions
#11
Bertrand Colignon, Marc Dieu, Catherine Demazy, Edouard Delaive, Yordan Muhovski, Martine Raes, Sergio Mauro
Invasive plant pathogens have developed the ability to modify the metabolism of their host, promoting metabolic processes which facilitate the growth of the pathogen; at the general expense of the host. The particular enzymatic process SUMOylation which performs post-translational modification of target proteins, leading to changes in many aspects of protein activity and hence metabolism has been demonstrated to be active in many eukaryotic organisms, both animals and plants. Here we provide experimental evidence which indicates that in leaves of Solanum tuberosum which have been infected by Phytophthora infestans, the SUMO pathway enzymes of the host are partially under transcriptional control exerted by the oomycete...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726545/the-t-6-a-modification-acts-as-a-positive-determinant-for-the-anticodon-nuclease-prrc-and-is-distinctively-nonessential-in-streptococcus-mutans
#12
Jo Marie Bacusmo, Silvia S Orsini, Jennifer Hu, Michael DeMott, Patrick C Thiaville, Ameer Elfarash, Mellie June Paulines, Diego Rojas-Benítez, Birthe Meineke, Chris Deutsch, Dirk Iwata-Reuyl, Patrick A Limbach, Peter C Dedon, Kelly C Rice, Stewart Shuman, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard
Endoribonuclease toxins (ribotoxins) are produced by bacteria and fungi to respond to stress, eliminate non-self competitor species, or interdict virus infection. PrrC is a bacterial ribotoxin that targets and cleaves tRNA(Lys)UUU in the anticodon loop. In vitro studies suggested that the post-transcriptional modification threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t(6)A) is required for PrrC activity but this prediction had never been validated in vivo. Here, by using t(6)A-deficient yeast derivatives, it is shown that t(6)A is a positive determinant for PrrC proteins from various bacterial species...
July 20, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726378/ptnps-as-scaffolds-to-regulate-interenzyme-distance-for-construction-of-efficient-enzyme-cascade-amplification-for-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-detection-of-mmp-2
#13
Beibei Kou, Yaqin Chai, Yali Yuan, Ruo Yuan
The high catalytic efficiency of enzyme cascade reaction mainly depends on optimal interenzyme distance regulated by the special scaffolds. In this work, the rigid PtNPs with different sizes were employed as scaffolds to regulate interenzyme distance for efficient enzyme cascade amplification to construct electrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), which overcame the drawbacks of instable construction and sophisticated preparation induced by conventional scaffolds such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), DNA nanostructures...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725969/mastocytosis-from-a-molecular-point-of-view
#14
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Todd Rambasek, Stefan Wöhrl
Mast cells (MCs) are physiologically activated by binding of stem cell factor (SCF) to the extracellular domains of the Kit receptor. This binding increases the proliferation and prolongs the survival of normal mature MCs, as well as intensifies the release of mediators. In mastocytosis, somatic mutations of the coding Kit gene cause autocrine dysregulation and lead to constitutive KIT activation even in the absence of its ligand SCF. Clinical symptoms are caused by MC-mediator release and/or infiltration of MCs into tissues...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725426/colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-csf1r-inhibitors-in-cancer-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Michael A Cannarile, Martin Weisser, Wolfgang Jacob, Anna-Maria Jegg, Carola H Ries, Dominik Rüttinger
The tumor-permissive and immunosuppressive characteristics of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) have fueled interest in therapeutically targeting these cells. In this context, the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1)/colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) axis has gained the most attention, and various approaches targeting either the ligands or the receptor are currently in clinical development. Emerging data on the tolerability of CSF1/CSF1R-targeting agents suggest a favorable safety profile, making them attractive combination partners for both standard treatment modalities and immunotherapeutic agents...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725390/grazed-wet-meadows-are-sink-habitats-for-the-southern-dunlin-calidris-alpina-schinzii-due-to-nest-trampling-by-cattle
#16
Veli-Matti Pakanen, Sami Aikio, Aappo Luukkonen, Kari Koivula
The effect of habitat management is commonly evaluated by measuring population growth, which does not distinguish changes in reproductive success from changes in survival or the effects of immigration or emigration. Management has rarely been evaluated considering complete life cycle of the target organisms, including also possible negative impacts from management. We evaluated the effectiveness of cattle grazing in the restoration of coastal meadows as a breeding habitat for small and medium-sized ground-nesting birds by examining the size and demography of a southern dunlin (Calidris alpina schinzii) breeding population...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725238/a-non-targeted-metabolomics-approach-unravels-the-vocs-associated-with-the-tomato-immune-response-against-pseudomonas-syringae
#17
María Pilar López-Gresa, Purificación Lisón, Laura Campos, Ismael Rodrigo, José Luis Rambla, Antonio Granell, Vicente Conejero, José María Bellés
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants are secondary metabolites that mediate the plant interaction with pathogens and herbivores. These compounds may perform direct defensive functions, i.e., acting as antioxidant, antibacterial, or antifungal agents, or indirectly by signaling the activation of the plant's defensive responses. Using a non-targeted GC-MS metabolomics approach, we identified the profile of the VOCs associated with the differential immune response of the Rio Grande tomato leaves infected with either virulent or avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 pv...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725075/eosinophilic-esophagitis-leaky-gullet-or-leaky-gut
#18
David A Katzka
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food allergen disorder driven by antigen recognition in the gastrointestinal tract. The study by Warners et al., strongly supports the esophageal epithelium as the area of disturbed permeability and primary target for initiation of the TH2-induced allergic pathway. In contrast, small bowel assessment reveals a lack of clear change in aspects of permeability compared to controls. It is not clear, however, if the available testing used for this purpose accurately assesses the mechanisms by which antigen recognition may occur in this organ...
July 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725050/carrier-mediated-and-energy-dependent-uptake-and-efflux-of-deoxynivalenol-in-mammalian-cells
#19
Xiaoming Li, Peiqiang Mu, Jikai Wen, Yiqun Deng
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant mycotoxins and exerts many adverse effects on humans and animals. To date, the transporting mechanism of DON in mammalian cells remains unclear. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA), Transwell models and metabolic inhibitors were used to determine the possible transporting mechanisms of DON in Caco-2, MDCK and HepG2 cells. PAMPA and Transwell models showed reduced passive transport and increased intestinal absorption, indicating a carrier-mediated transporting mechanism...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724796/host-interleukin-6-production-regulates-inflammation-but-not-tryptophan-metabolism-in-the-brain-during-murine-gvhd
#20
Ludovic Belle, Vivian Zhou, Kara L Stuhr, Margaret Beatka, Emily M Siebers, Jennifer M Knight, Michael W Lawlor, Casey Weaver, Misato Hashizume, Cecilia J Hillard, William R Drobyski
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) induces pathological damage in peripheral target organs leading to well-characterized, organ-specific clinical manifestations. Patients with GVHD, however, can also have behavioral alterations that affect overall cognitive function, but the extent to which GVHD alters inflammatory and biochemical pathways in the brain remain poorly understood. In the current study, we employed complementary murine GVHD models to demonstrate that alloreactive donor T cells accumulate in the brain and affect a proinflammatory cytokine milieu that is associated with specific behavioral abnormalities...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
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