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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815897/multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-three-major-threats-to-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#1
REVIEW
Michael J Satlin, Thomas J Walsh
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are uniquely threatened by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria because these patients rely on immediate active antimicrobial therapy to combat bacterial infections. This review describes the epidemiology and treatment considerations for three challenging MDR bacterial pathogens in HSCT recipients: MDR Enterobacteriaceae, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)...
August 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814382/predictive-utility-of-swab-screening-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-in-selection-of-empiric-antibiotics-for-enterococcus-sterile-site-infections-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Ian Brasg, Marion Elligsen, Derek MacFadden, Nick Daneman
BACKGROUND: Swab screening for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is used to identify VRE carriers and thus prevent transmission of this organism. We tested whether screening results could have unintended benefits in predicting the vancomycin susceptibility of subsequent Enterococcus infections experienced by these patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients admitted to a large tertiary care hospital between 2010 and 2015 who underwent swab screening for VRE before experiencing an Enterococcus sterile-site infection...
August 15, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807390/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-st17-outbreak-in-a-neonatal-unit
#3
Luis López-Urrutia, Mónica de Frutos, Jesús Oteo, José María Eiros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798845/vancomycin-resistant-gene-identification-from-live-bacteria-on-an-integrated-microfluidic-system-by-using-low-temperature-lysis-and-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#4
Wen-Hsin Chang, Ju-Ching Yu, Sung-Yi Yang, Yi-Cheng Lin, Chih-Hung Wang, Huey-Ling You, Jiunn-Jong Wu, Mel S Lee, Gwo-Bin Lee
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is a kind of enterococci, which shows resistance toward antibiotics. It may last for a long period of time and meanwhile transmit the vancomycin-resistant gene (vanA) to other bacteria. In the United States alone, the resistant rate of Enterococcus to vancomycin increased from a mere 0.3% to a whopping 40% in the past two decades. Therefore, timely diagnosis and control of VRE is of great need so that clinicians can prevent patients from becoming infected. Nowadays, VRE is diagnosed by antibiotic susceptibility test or molecular diagnosis assays such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction...
March 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764160/revisiting-nitrofurantoin-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#5
Suneeta Meena, Sarita Mohapatra, Seema Sood, Benu Dhawan, Bimal Ku Das, Arti Kapil
INTRODUCTION: Enterococcal infection has emerged as a major therapeutic challenge. Emergence of High Level Aminoglycoside Resistance (HLAR) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) has further limited the drug therapy in enterococcal infections. However, nitrofuratoin being an old drug reported to have less resistance in comparison to the other classes of antimicrobial agents. AIM: To detect susceptibility of nitrofurantoin against VRE isolates from Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) of outdoor and indoor patient departments...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763660/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-with-vana-gene-in-treated-municipal-wastewater-and-their-association-with-human-hospital-strains
#6
Veronika Oravcova, Matus Mihalcin, Jana Zakova, Lucie Pospisilova, Martina Masarikova, Ivan Literak
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are pathogens of increasing medical importance. In Brno, Czech Republic, we collected 37 samples from the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), 21 surface swabs from hospital settings, and 59 fecal samples from hospitalized patients and staff. Moreover, we collected 284 gull cloacal swabs from the colony situated 35km downstream the WWTP. Samples were cultured selectively. Enterococci were identified using MALDI-TOF MS, phenotypically tested for susceptibility to antibiotics, and by PCR for occurrence of resistance and virulence genes...
July 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759747/clonal-dissemination-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-st412-in-a-brazilian-region
#7
Geraldo da Silva Alves, Monalessa Fábia Pereira, Lais de Lima Bride, Ana Paula Ferreira Nunes, Ricardo Pinto Schuenck
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has emerged as an important global nosocomial pathogen, and this trend is associated with the spread of high-risk clones. Here, we determined the genetic and phenotypic features of 93 VREfm isolates that were obtained from patients in 13 hospitals in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, during 2012-2013. All the isolates were vancomycin-resistant and harbored the vanA gene. Only 6 (6.5%) of the VREfm isolates showed the ability to form biofilm. The 93 isolates analyzed belong to a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis lineage and presented six subtypes...
July 28, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754459/first-description-in-europe-of-emergence-of-enterococcus-faecium-st117-carrying-both-vana-vanb-genes-isolated-in-greece
#8
C C Papagiannitsis, E Malli, Z Florou, M Medvecky, S Sarrou, J Hrabak, E Petinaki
OBJECTIVES: An Enterococcus faecium, carrying both vanA/vanB genes was recovered from a patient with bacteraemia, treated in a Greek hospital. Since this is the first description in Europe of E. faecium, carrying both vanA/vanB genes, the isolate was further studied. METHODS: Susceptibility to several antibiotics was determined by automated system Vitek 2. The isolate was typed by MLST. To define the genetic units of the vanA and vanB genes, plasmid-content of strain was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of total DNA digested with S1 nuclease following by hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled vanA and vanB probes...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724453/decrease-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-colonization-after-extensive-renovation-of-a-unit-dedicated-to-the-treatment-of-hematologic-malignancies-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
Clyde D Ford, Michaela A Gazdik Stofer, Jana Coombs, Bert K Lopansri, Brandon J Webb, Gabriela Motyckova, Finn Bo Petersen
OBJECTIVE While a direct relation between hospital construction and concomitant infection rates has been clearly established, few data are available regarding the environmental decontamination effects of renovation in which surfaces are replaced and regarding subsequent infection incidence. DESIGN Retrospective clinical study with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) molecular strain typing and environmental cultures. SETTING A regional referral center for acute leukemia and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation...
July 20, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702465/a-dynamic-transmission-model-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-infection-control-strategies
#10
Karim Khader, Alun Thomas, W Charles Huskins, Molly Leecaster, Yue Zhang, Tom Greene, Andrew Redd, Matthew H Samore
BACKGROUND: The advancement of knowledge about control of antibiotic resistance depends on the rigorous evaluation of alternative intervention strategies. The STAR*ICU trial examined the effects of active surveillance and expanded barrier precautions on acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in intensive care units. We report a reanalyses of the STAR*ICU trial using a Bayesian transmission modeling framework. METHODS: The data included admission and discharge times and surveillance test times and results...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669681/factors-contributing-to-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-spp-horizontal-transmission-events-exploration-of-the-role-of-antibacterial-consumption
#11
Elise M Gilbert, Teresa R Zembower, Nathaniel J Rhodes, Chao Qi, Sandra Reiner, Michael Malczynski, Marc H Scheetz
BACKGROUND: The relationship between antibiotic consumption and resistance is relatively well defined at the population/ecologic level. Increases in antimicrobial consumption correlate with increased antibiotic resistance for clinical and surveillance isolates. However, the impact of antimicrobial consumption on nosocomial transmission of resistant bacteria is less well defined. This study explores the association between antimicrobial consumption, hand hygiene, and horizontal resistant organism transmission...
September 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669240/antibiotic-activity-of-emerimicin-iv-isolated-from-emericellopsis-minima-from-talcahuano-bay-chile
#12
Alejandro Inostroza, Liliana Lara, Cristian Paz, Andrés Perez, Felipe Galleguillos, Victor Hernandez, José Becerra, Gerardo González-Rocha, Mario Silva
Due to the increasing emergence of resistance of bacterial pathogens to current antibiotics, we have examined the marine fungi present in sea sediments obtained 200 m offshore to discover new antibacterial compounds active against multidrug-resistant bacteria. One strain, identified as Emericellopsis minima, was isolated from sediments of Talcahuano Bay (Chile). From the liquid culture of E. minima, we isolated Emerimicin IV, a unique fungal peptaibol that exhibited antibacterial activity. The structure of this compound was assigned by interpretation of (1)H NMR and HR-LCMS data...
July 3, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666756/ampicillin-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections-caused-by-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-spp-vre-a-single-center-university-hospital-experience
#13
Kairav J Shah, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Joseph Shultz, Samuel Borgert, Reuben Ramphal, Kenneth P Klinker
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are a common cause of urinary tract infections and are typically multi-drug resistant, including ampicillin. This retrospective study evaluated outcomes of 84 adult patients hospitalized between January 2007 and December 2015 with ampicillin and vancomycin resistant-enterococcus isolates causing UTI and treated with ampicillin. Treatment response was classified as clinical cure and microbiological eradication. Clinical cure was achieved in 88.1% (74/84) of patients. In patients with follow up cultures, microbiologic eradication was achieved in 86% (50/58) of patients...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666751/recently-approved-antibacterials-for-mrsa-and-other-gram-positive-pathogens-the-shock-of-the-new
#14
REVIEW
Michael Z David, Matthew Dryden, Thomas Gottlieb, Pierre Tattevin, Ian M Gould
A number of novel antimicrobial drugs with activity against Gram positive bacterial pathogens have been licensed in the past four years. These drugs have the potential to enrich the group of intravenous drugs already available that are in common use against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistant Enterococcus, and other antibiotic resistant Gram positive pathogens. The advantages and disadvantages of these drugs are not yet fully realized. Here we review the five most promising newly approved compounds: ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, oritavancin, dalbavancin and tedizolid...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662601/a-discrete-event-simulation-model-of-patient-flow-in-a-general-hospital-incorporating-infection-control-policy-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-vre
#15
Erica S Shenoy, Hang Lee, Erin E Ryan, Taige Hou, Rochelle P Walensky, Winston Ware, David C Hooper
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients are assigned to available staffed beds based on patient acuity and services required. In hospitals with double-occupancy rooms, patients must be additionally matched by gender. Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) must be bedded in single-occupancy rooms or cohorted with other patients with similar MRSA/VRE flags. METHODS: We developed a discrete event simulation (DES) model of patient flow through an acute care hospital...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645649/evaluation-of-a-selective-chromogenic-medium-for-detecting-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#16
Renata Oliveira Soares, Adriana Medianeira Rossato, Gustavo Enck Sambrano, Neidimar Cezar Corrêa Tolfo, Juliana Caierão, Thiago Galvão da Silva Paim, Pedro Alves d'Azevedo
Rapid identification of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) can assist in choosing the appropriate treatment and preventing VRE spread. The performance of chromID™ VRE agar was evaluated using 184 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. and reference strains. The test had a sensitivity of 95.52% but a low specificity of 30%.
June 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641915/the-antimicrobial-spectrum-of-xeroform-%C3%A2
#17
David J Barillo, Anthony R Barillo, Sarah Korn, Kan Lam, Paul S Attar
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Xeroform(®) is a petrolatum-based fine mesh gauze containing 3% bismuth tribromophenate. Bismuth, similar to other metals, has antimicrobial properties. Xeroform(®) has been used for decades in burn and plastic surgery as a donor site dressing and as a covering for wounds or partial thickness burns. Despite this, the antimicrobial spectrum of Xeroform(®) remains largely unknown. We examined the in-vitro efficacy of Xeroform(®) against common burn pathogens using zone-of-inhibition methodology in a commercial research facility...
June 19, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627467/time-to-review-the-gold-standard-for-genotyping-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-epidemiology-comparing-whole-genome-sequencing-with-pfge-and-mlst-in-three-suspected-outbreaks-in-sweden-during-2013-2015
#18
Birgitta Lytsy, Lars Engstrand, Åke Gustafsson, Rene Kaden
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a challenge to the health-care system regarding transmission rate and treatment of infections. VRE outbreaks have to be controlled from the first cases which means that appropriate and sensitive genotyping methods are needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of whole genome sequencing based analysis compared to Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) in epidemiological investigations as well as the development of a user friendly method for daily laboratory use...
June 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622949/changed-epidemiology-during-intra-and-interhospital-spread-of-high-risk-clones-of-vana-containing-enterococcus-in-brazilian-hospitals
#19
Andrey G Sacramento, Rosemeire C Zanella, Fernanda Esposito, Emanuela A S Costa, Lara M de Almeida, Carlos Pires, Artemir C de Brito, Elsa M Mamizuka, Louise T Cerdeira, Nilton Lincopan
We report changes in the molecular epidemiology of vanA-containing Enterococcus during the intra and interhospital spread of high-risk clones, in Southeastern Brazil. While VRE faecalis predominated during 1998 to 2006, a reversal has been observed in the last years, where VRE faecium belonging to ST114, ST203, ST412, ST478 and ST858 have become endemic.
May 18, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617344/synthesis-and-biological-activity-evaluation-of-novel-heterocyclic-pleuromutilin-derivatives
#20
Yunpeng Yi, Yunxing Fu, Pengcheng Dong, Wenwen Qin, Yu Liu, Jiangping Liang, Ruofeng Shang
A series of pleuromutilin derivatives were synthesized by two synthetic procedures under mild reaction conditions and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), and High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (HRMS). Most of the derivatives with heterocyclic groups at the C-14 side of pleuromutilin exhibited excellent in vitro antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in vitro antibacterial activity...
June 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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