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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915096/universal-contact-precautions-do-not-change-the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-in-a-tertiary-burn-unit
#1
Adelyn L Ho, Reid Chambers, Claudia Malic, Anthony Papp
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms (ARO) in burn units is increasing worldwide and contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Study aims are to describe the burden of AROs in burn patients admitted to a tertiary burn unit, to evaluate the impact of contact precautions implemented after an outbreak of antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and to identify possible predictors of ARO acquisition. METHODS: Data of burn inpatients between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed...
November 30, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905623/-mortality-analysis-of-enterococcus-faecium-bloodstream-infection-in-central-taiwan
#2
Chen Chang-Hua, Lin Li-Chen, Chang Yu-Jun, Chang Chih-Yen
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium), particularly those due to vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), are still a therapeutic challenge. AIM: To evaluate mortality from BSI due to E. faecium and VRE in central Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed cases of significant E. faecium BSI in the Changhua Christian Hospital System between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. RESULTS: Of the 76 cases, 28 patients (36...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895354/nosocomial-infections-in-the-icu-pens-and-spectacles-as-fomites
#3
Haris Farooq Murad, Khowaja Mohammad Inam Pal
Nosocomial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Non-medical objects known as fomites may have a role in their genesis. We investigated the significance of writing pens and spectacles as fomites. The study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from July 2013 to September 2013. Cultures were taken from pens and/or spectacles of resident nurses, doctors and nursing assistants in intensive care unit (ICU). Organisms important in ICU nosocomial infections were targeted. Seven rounds of sampling over 3 weeks led to 55 pen and 5 spectacle samples...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890428/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-colonization-and-bacteremia-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-outcomes
#4
Clyde D Ford, Michaela A Gazdik, Bert K Lopansri, Brandon Webb, Birgitta Mitchell, Jana Coombs, Daanish Hoda, Finn Bo Petersen
The association between pre-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization, HSCT associated VRE bacteremia, and HSCT mortality is disputed. We studied 161 consecutive patients with acute leukemia who underwent HSCT at our hospital between 2006 and 2014, of whom 109 also received leukemia induction/consolidation on our unit. All inpatients had weekly VRE stool surveillance. Pre-HSCT colonization was not associated with increases in HSCT mortality but did identify a subgroup of HSCT recipients with a higher risk for VRE bacteremia and possibly bacteremia from other organisms...
November 23, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889877/maldi-tof-ms-meets-wgs-in-a-vre-outbreak-investigation
#5
S Schlebusch, G R Price, R L Gallagher, V Horton-Szar, L D H Elbourne, P Griffin, D J Venter, S O Jensen, S J Van Hal
The use of MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) and WGS (whole genome sequencing) has been described for identification and strain relatedness determination. We describe the complementary use of MALDI-TOF MS and WGS in a VRE (vancomycin-resistant enterococci) outbreak investigation, and discuss some of the challenges with defining strain similarity across these two platforms. Although both assays indicated multiple clusters involved in the outbreak of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from positive blood cultures of four haematology-oncology patients, the small cohort and discrepancies between findings indicate the limitations of MALDI-TOF MS and the cautious interpretation of MALDI-TOF MS dendrograms during outbreaks...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876075/chlorhexidine-bathing-and-health-care-associated-infections-among-adult-intensive-care-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Steven A Frost, Mari-Cris Alogso, Lauren Metcalfe, Joan M Lynch, Leanne Hunt, Ritesh Sanghavi, Evan Alexandrou, Kenneth M Hillman
BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections (HAI) have been shown to increase length of stay, the cost of care, and rates of hospital deaths (Kaye and Marchaim, J Am Geriatr Soc 62(2):306-11, 2014; Roberts and Scott, Med Care 48(11):1026-35, 2010; Warren and Quadir, Crit Care Med 34(8):2084-9, 2006; Zimlichman and Henderson, JAMA Intern Med 173(22):2039-46, 2013). Importantly, infections acquired during a hospital stay have been shown to be preventable (Loveday and Wilson, J Hosp Infect 86:S1-70, 2014)...
November 23, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869427/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-bacteremia-in-a-child-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-successful-treatment-with-daptomycin
#7
Ayşe Büyükcam, Eda Karadağ Öncel, Yasemin Özsürekçi, Ali B Cengiz, Barış Kuşkonmaz, Banu Sancak
Multiple-drug-resistant enterococcal infections canbe a serious problem in pediatric patients particularly concomitance with severe underlying diseases and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. The treatment options in children are limited compared with adults. We report a 3-year old-boy with acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-M7 and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus bacteremia successfully treated with daptomycin. Daptomycin may be an alternative therapy for VRE infections in children; more studies are needed for extended usage...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861350/chlorhexidine-bathing-for-the-prevention-of-colonization-and-infection-with-multidrug-resistant-microorganisms-in-a-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-unit-over-a-9-year-period-impact-on-chlorhexidine-susceptibility
#8
Elisa Teixeira Mendes, Otavio T Ranzani, Ana Paula Marchi, Mariama Tomaz da Silva, José Ulysses Amigo Filho, Tânia Alves, Thais Guimarães, Anna S Levin, Silvia Figueiredo Costa
Health care associated infections (HAIs) are currently among the major challenges to the care of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of 2% chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing on the incidence of colonization and infection with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens, and to evaluate their CHG minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) after the intervention.A quasi-experimental study with duration of 9 years was conducted...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852447/a-polyclonal-outbreak-of-bloodstream-infections-by-enterococcus-faecium-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#9
Pamela Alatorre-Fernández, Claudia Mayoral-Terán, Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Cecilia Franco-Rodríguez, Karen Flores-Moreno, Miguel Ángel Cevallos, Yolanda López-Vidal, Patricia Volkow-Fernández
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecium causes bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs). We studied the clinical features and outcomes of patients with HM with vancomycin-sensitive E faecium (VSE) and vancomycin-resistant E faecium (VRE) BSI and determined the genetic relatedness of isolates and circumstances associated with the upsurge of E faecium BSI. METHODS: Case-control study of patients with HM and E faecium-positive blood culture from January 2008-December 2012; cases were patients with VRE and controls were VSE isolates...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843959/antimicrobial-resistance-pattern-of-gram-positive-bacteria-during-three-consecutive-years-at-the-nephrology-ward-of-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-in-shiraz-southwest-iran
#10
Iman Karimzadeh, Mona Mirzaee, Niloofar Sadeghimanesh, Mohammad Mahdi Sagheb
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Gram-positive bacteria during three consecutive years at the nephrology ward of Namazi Hospital in Shiraz, Southwest of Iran. METHODS: During a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015, data of all biological samples of hospitalized patients at the adult nephrology ward of Namazi Hospital were sent to the central laboratory for identification of Gram-positive microorganisms and subsequently, their antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method were analyzed in a retrospective manner...
October 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836794/the-risk-factors-costs-and-survival-analysis-of-invasive-vre-infections-at-a-medical-center-in-eastern-taiwan
#11
Hui-Li Jiang, Zi Zhou, Lih-Shinn Wang, Ya Fang, Yi-Hwei Li, Cheng-I Chu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze 48 cases the risk factors of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections, the antibiotic costs after infection, and the survival conditions. DESIGN: 1:3 matched case-control study a medical center in the eastern Taiwan area. The case group, patients with VRE bacterial strains detected at the sterile sites, and the control group were randomly selected from invasive vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus (VSE) infected patients at the nearest time point by taking the occurrence time of each VRE infection case as the reference time...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822366/global-variances-in-infection-control-practices-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-results-of-an-electronic-survey
#12
H Isenman, J Michaels, D Fisher
An electronic survey was disseminated amongst infection control practitioners to investigate the variation in practices toward vancomycin resistant enterococci. There were 235 analysable responses, mostly from doctors, in 48 countries. The survey considered active surveillance, in-hospital precautions and tagging and untagging processes. There was a great variation in responses between and within countries highlighting a gap in guidance for practitioners on which to base institutional policy.
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801383/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-high-resolution-typing-by-core-genome-multilocus-sequence-typing
#13
Antonella Santona, Elisa Taviani, Massimo Deligios, Ahmed A Al-Qahtani, Mohammed N Al-Ahdal, Salvatore Rubino, Bianca Paglietti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795399/antibody-based-therapy-for-enterococcal-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections
#14
Ana L Flores-Mireles, Jennifer N Walker, Aaron Potretzke, Henry L Schreiber, Jerome S Pinkner, Tyler M Bauman, Alyssa M Park, Alana Desai, Scott J Hultgren, Michael G Caparon
: Gram-positive bacteria in the genus Enterococcus are a frequent cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), a disease whose treatment is increasingly challenged by multiantibiotic-resistant strains. We have recently shown that E. faecalis uses the Ebp pilus, a heteropolymeric surface fiber, to bind the host protein fibrinogen as a critical step in CAUTI pathogenesis. Fibrinogen is deposited on catheters due to catheter-induced inflammation and is recognized by the N-terminal domain of EbpA (EbpA(NTD)), the Ebp pilus's adhesin...
October 25, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790430/screening-for-intestinal-colonization-with-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-and-associated-risk-factors-among-patients-admitted-to-an-adult-intensive-care-unit-of-a-large-teaching-hospital
#15
Rajesh Amberpet, Sujatha Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Molly Mary Thabah
INTRODUCTION: Gut colonization with Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) increases the risk of acquiring infection during hospital stay. Patients admitted in the ICU's are the major reservoirs for VRE colonization due to higher antibiotic pressure. AIM: To determine the rate of VRE colonization among patients admitted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) and to assess the various risk factors which are associated with VRE colonization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out over a period of 18 months from September 2013 to February 2015 in the Jawaharlal Institute of Post graduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, South India...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771176/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcal-bloodstream-infections-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-and-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-impact-of-daptomycin-mics-of-3-to-4-mg-l
#16
Pearlie P Chong, David van Duin, Ananta Bangdiwala, Anastasia Ivanova, William C Miller, David J Weber, Peter H Gilligan, Thomas C Shea
PURPOSE: Case reports of treatment failure with standard-dose daptomycin (6 mg/kg) have recently surfaced in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bloodstream infection (BSI) episodes with daptomycin MICs of 3 to 4 mg/L. The clinical implications of daptomycin MICs of 3 to 4 mg/L in VRE BSIs have not been elucidated. METHODS: We performed a single institutional retrospective analysis of adult stem cell transplant recipients and patients with hematologic malignancies diagnosed with VRE BSI from 2006 to 2014 and compared outcomes between those with daptomycin MICs of 3 to 4 mg/L those with 2 mg/L, as determined by Etest...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752789/diversity-of-plasmids-and-tn1546-type-transposons-among-vana-enterococcus-faecium-in-poland
#17
E Wardal, A Kuch, I Gawryszewska, D Żabicka, W Hryniewicz, E Sadowy
The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, Tn1546 transposon variability and plasmid diversity among Polish vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates of VanA phenotype in the context of their clonal structure. Two hundred sixteen clinical VREfm isolates collected between 1997 and 2010 were studied by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, MLST, MLVA and detection of IS16, esp Efm, pilA, intA and plasmid-specific genes by PCR. Tn1546 structure was revealed by overlapping PCR and sequencing...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726900/first-nosocomial-outbreak-of-vana-type-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-raffinosus-in-france
#18
S Jolivet, M Fines-Guyon, B Nebbad, J C Merle, D Le Pluart, C Brun-Buisson, J-W Decousser, V Cattoir
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus raffinosus has rarely been associated with nosocomial infection and outbreaks. AIM: To report the successful control of a nosocomial outbreak of vanA-type vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus in a surgical intensive care unit. METHODS: The investigation of the outbreak is reported with control measures taken. Molecular typing of vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus isolates was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721296/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-neonatal-stool-as-a-cause-of-septicemia-challenges-for-infection-control-practices
#19
Satyendra Kaushal, Tuhina Banerjee, Shampa Anupurba, Ashok Kumar
The increasing reports of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) as a cause of neonatal septicemia are of recent interest. However, in majority of the cases, the source of VRE could not be located. As a consequence, the real importance of VRE and its control measures is undermined. Herein, we report a case of neonatal septicemia due to VRE (Enterococcus faecalis) of vanA genotype with VRE carriage in stool of the neonates as a possible source of sepsis. The report put forwards some lacunae in the infection control practices that are presently followed in the country...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709890/a-biodegradable-polycationic-paint-that-kills-bacteria-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Jiaul Hoque, Padma Akkapeddi, Chandradhish Ghosh, Divakara S S M Uppu, Jayanta Haldar
Bacterial colonization and subsequent formation of biofilms onto surfaces of medical devices and implants is a major source of nosocomial infections. Most antibacterial coatings to combat infections are either metal-based or nondegradable-polymer-based and hence limited by their nondegradability and unpredictable toxicity. Moreover, to combat infections effectively, the coatings are required to display simultaneous antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. Herein we report biocompatible and biodegradable coatings based on organo-soluble quaternary chitin polymers which were immobilized noncovalently onto surfaces as bactericidal paint...
November 2, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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