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enterococcus vre

E Wardal, A Kuch, I Gawryszewska, D Żabicka, W Hryniewicz, E Sadowy
The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, Tn1546 transposon variability and plasmid diversity among Polish vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates of VanA phenotype in the context of their clonal structure. Two hundred sixteen clinical VREfm isolates collected between 1997 and 2010 were studied by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, MLST, MLVA and detection of IS16, esp Efm, pilA, intA and plasmid-specific genes by PCR. Tn1546 structure was revealed by overlapping PCR and sequencing...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
S Jolivet, M Fines-Guyon, B Nebbad, J C Merle, D Le Pluart, C Brun-Buisson, J-W Decousser, V Cattoir
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus raffinosus has rarely been associated with nosocomial infection and outbreaks. AIM: To report the successful control of a nosocomial outbreak of vanA-type vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus in a surgical intensive care unit. METHODS: The investigation of the outbreak is reported with control measures taken. Molecular typing of vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus isolates was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Satyendra Kaushal, Tuhina Banerjee, Shampa Anupurba, Ashok Kumar
The increasing reports of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) as a cause of neonatal septicemia are of recent interest. However, in majority of the cases, the source of VRE could not be located. As a consequence, the real importance of VRE and its control measures is undermined. Herein, we report a case of neonatal septicemia due to VRE (Enterococcus faecalis) of vanA genotype with VRE carriage in stool of the neonates as a possible source of sepsis. The report put forwards some lacunae in the infection control practices that are presently followed in the country...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Jiaul Hoque, Padma Akkapeddi, Chandardhish Ghosh, Divakara S S M Uppu, Jayanta Haldar
Bacterial colonization and subsequent formation of biofilms onto surfaces of medical devices and implants is a major source of nosocomial infections. Most antibacterial coatings to combat infections are either metal-based or non-degradable polymer-based and hence limited by their non-degradability and unpredictable toxicity. Moreover, to combat infections effectively, the coatings are required to display simultaneous antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. Herein we report biocompatible and biodegradable coatings based on organo-soluble quaternary chitin polymers which were immobilized non-covalently onto surfaces as bactericidal paint...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Erik R Dubberke, Kathleen M Mullane, Dale N Gerding, Christine H Lee, Thomas J Louie, Harriet Guthertz, Courtney Jones
Background.  Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is a major healthcare-associated pathogen and a well known complication among transplant and immunocompromised patients. We report on stool VRE clearance in a post hoc analysis of the Phase 2 PUNCH CD study assessing a microbiota-based drug for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Methods.  A total of 34 patients enrolled in the PUNCH CD study received 1 or 2 doses of RBX2660 (microbiota suspension). Patients were requested to voluntarily submit stool samples at baseline and at 7, 30, and 60 days and 6 months after the last administration of RBX2660...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Elizaveta M Igumnova, Ekaterina Mishchenko, Tor Haug, Hans-Matti Blencke, Johanna U Ericson Sollid, Elizabeth G Aarag Fredheim, Silje Lauksund, Klara Stensvåg, Morten B Strøm
A library of small aminobenzamide derivatives was synthesised to explore a cationic amphipathic motif found in marine natural antimicrobials. The most potent compound E23 displayed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.5-2μg/ml against several Gram-positive bacterial strains, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE).E23 was also potent against 275 clinical isolates including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as methicillin-resistant S...
September 20, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Khandakar Hussain, Saad Ullah, Hassan Tahir, Waseem Zaid Alkilani, Muhammad Naeem, Nagadarshini Ramagiri Vinod, Samuel Massoud
Multidrug-resistant enterococcal nosocomial invasive infections are a rising concern faced by the medical community. Not many options are available to treat these highly virulent organisms. Risk factors for developing these highly resistant organisms include prolonged hospital stay, previous antibiotic use, and immunosuppression. In this article, we report a case of daptomycin-resistant enterococcal native infective endocarditis treated with off-label use of quinupristin-dalfopristin.
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
M Krull, I Klare, B Ross, R Trenschel, D W Beelen, D Todt, E Steinmann, J Buer, P-M Rath, J Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci has increased in Germany. Here, we report the cluster of linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LVRE) in a German department for hematologic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: In this retrospective analysis we included all patients with LVRE in a university-based department for HSCT in 2014 and 2015. Patients chart reviews were used to investigate the epidemiology and clinical outcome...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
James A McKinnell, Loren G Miller, Raveena Singh, Ken Kleinman, Ellena M Peterson, Kaye D Evans, Tabitha D Dutciuc, Lauren Heim, Adrijana Gombosev, Marlene Estevez, Bryn Launer, Tom Tjoa, Steven Tam, Michael A Bolaris, Susan S Huang
Nursing home residents are at risk for acquiring and transmitting MDROs. A serial point-prevalence study of 605 residents in 3 facilities using random sampling found MDRO colonization in 45% of residents: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, 26%); extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL, 17%); vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE, 16%); carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE, 1%). MDRO colonization was associated with history of MDRO, care needs, incontinence, and catheters...
September 27, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
M Hefazi, M Damlaj, H Alkhateeb, D K Partain, R Patel, R R Razonable, D A Gastineau, A Al-Kali, S Hashmi, W J Hogan, M R Litzow, M M Patnaik
BACKGROUND: Screening for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is performed at many transplant centers, but data on the impact of VRE colonization and bloodstream infection (BSI) on hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes remain conflicting. METHODS: Consecutive adults with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent allogeneic HCT between 2004 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were screened by polymerase reaction of perirectal swabs targeting vanA and vanB twice weekly while inpatient...
September 19, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Leron Khalifa, Mor Shlezinger, Shaul Beyth, Yael Houri-Haddad, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Nurit Beyth, Ronen Hazan
Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Mohini M Konai, Jayanta Haldar
The emergence of bacterial resistance is a major threat to global health. Alongside this issue, formation of bacterial biofilms is another cause of concern because most antibiotics are ineffective against these recalcitrant microbial communities. Ideal future antibacterial therapeutics should possess both antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. In this study we engineered lysine-based small molecules, which showed not only commendable broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but also potent biofilm-disrupting properties...
October 9, 2015: ACS Infectious Diseases
Kamelia M Osman, Mohamed N Ali, Ismail Radwan, Fatma ElHofy, Ahmed H Abed, Ahmed Orabi, Nehal M Fawzy
Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The acquisition of vancomycin resistance by enterococci (VRE) has seriously affected the treatment and infection control of these organisms. VRE are frequently resistant to all antibiotics that are effective treatment for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, which leaves clinicians treating VRE infections with limited therapeutic options...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rodrigo E Mendes, Mariana Castanheira, David J Farrell, Robert K Flamm, Helio S Sader, Ronald N Jones
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and in vitro susceptibility of enterococci and VRE among bloodstream infections in European and US hospitals over time. METHODS: Isolates recovered from the blood of infected patients in Europe (72 996) and the USA (67 725) between 2001 and 2014 were included in the prevalence analysis. A subset (2349) collected during 2011-13 was used for the in vitro activity analysis. RESULTS: Enterococcus faecium rates increased in Europe (from 1...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
V Pintado
The lack of new antibiotics for multidrug-resistant bacteria is a matter of concern in microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcous aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. This situation has conditioned the reuse of "old" antibiotics (colistin, fosfomycin), the use of more recent antibiotics with new indications or dosage regimens (tigecycline, meropenem) and the introduction of "new" antibiotics (β-lactams, lipoglycopeptides, oxazolidinones) that are the subject of this review...
September 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Mette Pinholt, Heidi Gumpert, Sion Bayliss, Jesper B Nielsen, Veronika Vorobieva, Michael Pedersen, Edward Feil, Peder Worning, Henrik Westh
OBJECTIVES: From 2012 to 2014, there has been a huge increase in vancomycin-resistant (vanA) Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) in Copenhagen, Denmark, with 602 patients infected or colonized with VREfm in 2014 compared with just 22 in 2012. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic epidemiology of VREfm to assess the contribution of clonal spread and horizontal transfer of the vanA transposon (Tn1546) and plasmid in the dissemination of VREfm in hospitals. METHODS: VREfm from Copenhagen, Denmark (2012-14) were whole-genome sequenced...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Nils-Olaf Huebner, Kathleen Dittmann, Vivien Henck, Christian Wegner, Axel Kramer
BACKGROUND: One important aspect in combatting resistance to antibiotics is to increase the awareness and knowledge by epidemiological studies. We therefore conducted a German-wide point-prevalence survey for multidrug resistant bacterial organisms (MDROs) and Clostridium difficile (CD) to assess the epidemiology and structure quality of infection control in German hospitals. METHOD: 1550 hospitals were asked to participate and to report surveillance data on the prevalence of Methicillin-resistant and Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, VRSA/GRSA), Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis/faecium (VRE), multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli (EC), Klebsiella spp...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Heather Isenman, Dale Fisher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews data, particularly from the last 2 years, addressing the prevention and treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We focus on infection control, particularly active screening, use of contact precautions as well as pharmacologic options for therapy. This is timely given the evolving priorities in efforts towards the prevention and treatment of multidrug-resistant organisms globally. RECENT FINDINGS: Key findings include new data regarding the impact of contact precautions on the incidence of VRE colonization and bloodstream infection, new laboratory screening methods, and novel decolonization strategies and treatments...
August 31, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Kathy E Raven, Sandra Reuter, Theodore Gouliouris, Rosy Reynolds, Julie E Russell, Nicholas M Brown, M Estée Török, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREfs) is an important nosocomial pathogen(1,2). We undertook whole genome sequencing of E. faecalis associated with bloodstream infection in the UK and Ireland over more than a decade to determine the population structure and genetic associations with hospital adaptation. Three lineages predominated in the population, two of which (L1 and L2) were nationally distributed, and one (L3) geographically restricted. Genome comparison with a global collection identified that L1 and L3 were also present in the USA, but were genetically distinct...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Alexander Mellmann, Stefan Bletz, Thomas Böking, Frank Kipp, Karsten Becker, Anja Schultes, Karola Prior, Dag Harmsen
The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a serious global challenge. Here, we studied prospectively whether bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) for real-time MDR surveillance is technical feasible, returns actionable results, and is cost-beneficial. WGS was applied to all MDR isolates of four species (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA], vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, MDR Escherichia coli, and MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at the University Hospital Muenster, Germany, a tertiary care hospital with 1,450 beds, during two six-month intervals...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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