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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#1
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223533/atomic-structure-and-enzymatic-insights-into-the-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-v583-alkylhydroperoxide-reductase-subunit-c
#2
Ankita Pan, Asha Manikkoth Balakrishna, Wilson Nartey, Andreas Kohlmeier, Phat Vinh Dip, Shashi Bhushan, Gerhard Grüber
The Enterococcus faecalis alkyl hydroperoxide reductase complex (AhpR) with its subunits AhpC (EfAhpC) and AhpF (EfAhpF) are of paramount importance to restore redox homeostasis. Recently, the novel phenomenon of swapping of the catalytic domains of EfAhpF was uncovered. Here, we visualized its counterpart EfAhpC (187 residues) from the vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis (V583) bacterium by electron microscopy and demonstrate, that in contrast to other bacterial AhpCs, EfAhpC forms a stable decamer-ring irrespective of the redox state...
December 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#3
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217187/epidemiologic-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-a-teaching-hospital-a-3-year-experience
#4
Mirian Nicéa Zarpellon, Giselle Fukita Viana, Cecília Saori Mitsugui, Bruno Buranello Costa, Nathalie Kira Tamura, Elisabeth Eyko Aoki, Cesar Helbel, Sheila Alexandra Belini Nishiyama, Silvia Maria Dos Santos Saalfeld, Maria Cristina Bronharo Tognim
BACKGROUND: The objective of this prospective study was to verify the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary surveillance program that was implemented in a teaching hospital in southern Brazil, to prevent and control the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms. METHODS: The program implemented involved establishment of prevention guidelines, hand-hygiene promotion, isolation of patients colonized or infected by such organisms, enforced contact precautions, and terminal cleaning and disinfection of isolation rooms...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216824/use-of-a-mixed-culture-strategy-to-isolate-halophilic-bacteria-with-antibacterial-and-cytotoxic-activity-from-the-manaure-solar-saltern-in-colombia
#5
Natalia Conde-Martínez, Alejandro Acosta-González, Luis E Díaz, Edisson Tello
BACKGROUND: Water evaporation in solar salterns creates salinity gradients that promote the adaptation of microbial species to different salinities. This competitive habitat challenges the metabolic capabilities of microorganisms and promotes alterations in their production of secondary metabolites. Thus, solar salterns are a potentially important source of new natural products. In Colombia, the most important and representative solar saltern is located in Manaure (La Guajira) in the north of Colombia...
December 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210765/environmental-infection-prevention-priorities-of-patient-safety-collaboration
#6
Patti G Grota, Patti S Grant
Although progress has been made in decreasing health care-associated infections (HAI) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, there has been an increase in HAI caused by drug-resistant pathogens, particularly those that contaminate the environment such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Pseudomonas spp, Acinetobacter spp, and Clostridium difficile. The ICU environment including sinks and medical equipment has been identified as being at risk for contamination and associated with cross-transmission of pathogens between the health care provider, the environment, and the patient...
January 2018: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203445/rapid-monitoring-of-local-epidemiology-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-on-a-department-level-by-reppcr
#7
Frank Froeschen, Mike Gajdiss, Julia Uebele, Alina Meilaender, Achim Hoerauf, Martin Exner, Ernst Molitor, Gabriele Bierbaum, Steffen Engelhart, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
BACKGROUND: The current increase in nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) warrants improvement of detection methods and hygiene measures. Knowledge of the local epidemiology is important for monitoring compliance of medical personnel with hygiene measures. AIM: We evaluated semi-automated repPCR for rapid molecular typing of VRE. METHODS: Primary VRE isolates were collected over an observation period of one year and retrospectively typed by repPCR...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195766/dalbavancin-is-active-in-vitro-against-biofilms-formed-by-dalbavancin-susceptible-enterococci
#8
Katharina Neudorfer, Suzannah M Schmidt-Malan, Robin Patel
We tested the in vitro activity of dalbavancin, vancomycin and daptomycin against 83 enterococcal isolates in planktonic and biofilm states. The MIC90 for vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis was 0.125 and 4μg/mL for dalbavancin and daptomycin, respectively. For vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, the MIC90 was >16 and 2μg/mL for dalbavancin and daptomycin, respectively. Dalbavancin minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) for vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant isolates were ≤0...
September 27, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186590/frequency-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-cultured-from-urine-of-children-undergoing-clean-intermittent-catheterization
#9
Catherine S Forster, Joshua Courter, Elizabeth C Jackson, Joel E Mortensen, David B Haslam
Background: Children undergoing CIC frequently have positive urine culture results and receive many antimicrobial agents. Subsequently, this population is at high risk for infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Resistant pathogens, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and organisms that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), which are third-generation cephalosporin resistant (3GCR), are of particular concern...
November 24, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184121/isolation-and-structure-elucidation-of-lipopeptide-antibiotic-taromycin-b-from-the-activated-taromycin-biosynthetic-gene-cluster
#10
Kirk A Reynolds, Hanna Luhavaya, Jie Li, Samira Dahesh, Victor Nizet, Kazuya Yamanaka, Bradley S Moore
In the ongoing effort to unlock the chemical potential of marine bacteria, genetic engineering of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) is increasingly used to awake or improve expression of biosynthetic genes that may lead to discovery of novel bioactive natural products. Previously, we reported the successful capture, engineering and heterologous expression of an orphan BGC from the marine actinomycete Saccharomonospora sp. CNQ-490, which resulted in the isolation of the novel lipopeptide antibiotic taromycin A...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174784/colonization-with-multiresistant-bacteria-impact-on-ventricular-assist-device-patients
#11
Maria Papathanasiou, Julia Pohl, Alexander Rolf Jánosi, Nikolaus Pizanis, Markus Kamler, Tienush Rassaf, Peter Luedike
BACKGROUND: Although the effect of infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients is well characterized, the influence of perioperative colonization on the development of infections in this patient cohort remains unknown. The study evaluated the effect of MDRB colonization on patient outcomes after LVAD implantation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the microbiological screening studies of nasal, throat, wound, and rectal swabs in 82 consecutive patients who received an LVAD at our center between 2010 and 2015...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168322/biosynthetically-guided-structure-activity-relationship-studies-of-merochlorin%C3%A2-a-an-antibiotic-marine-natural-product
#12
Borja López-Pérez, Henry P Pepper, Rong Ma, Benjamin J Fawcett, Ashok D Pehere, Qi Wei, Zengchun Ji, Steven W Polyak, Huanqin Dai, Fuhang Song, Andrew D Abell, Lixin Zhang, Jonathan H George
The onset of new multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria demands continuous development of antibacterial agents with new chemical scaffolds and mechanisms of action. We present the first structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of 16 derivatives of a structurally novel antibiotic merochlorin A that were designed using a biosynthetic blueprint. Our lead compounds are active against several Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) and Bacillus subtilis, inhibit intracellular growth of Mycobacterium bovis, and are relatively nontoxic to human cell lines...
November 23, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162049/rna-seq-and-tn-seq-reveal-fitness-determinants-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-during-growth-in-human-serum
#13
Xinglin Zhang, Vincent de Maat, Ana M Guzmán Prieto, Tomasz K Prajsnar, Jumamurat R Bayjanov, Mark de Been, Malbert R C Rogers, Marc J M Bonten, Stéphane Mesnage, Rob J L Willems, Willem van Schaik
BACKGROUND: The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract and a frequent cause of bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients. The mechanisms by which E. faecium can survive and grow in blood during an infection have not yet been characterized. Here, we identify genes that contribute to growth of E. faecium in human serum through transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) and a high-throughput transposon mutant library sequencing approach (Tn-seq)...
November 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152974/biocompatible-copper-oxide-nanoparticle-composites-from-cellulose-and-chitosan-facile-synthesis-unique-structure-and-antimicrobial-activity
#14
Chieu D Tran, James Makuvaza, Erik Munson, Brian Bennett
Copper in various forms has been known to have bactericidal activity. Challenges to its application include preventing mobilization of the copper, to both extend activity and avoid toxicity, and bioincompatibility of many candidate substrates for copper-immobilization. Using a simple ionic liquid, butylmethylimmidazolium chloride as the solvent, we developed a facile and green method to synthesize biocompatible composites containing copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) from cellulose (CEL) and chitosan (CS) or CEL and keratin (KER)...
November 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147662/effectiveness-of-a-lytic-phage-srg1-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-in-compost-and-soil
#15
Sidra Rahmat Ullah, Saadia Andleeb, Taskeen Raza, Muhsin Jamal, Khalid Mehmood
Nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus have become a major problem. Bacteriophage therapy is proposed as a potential alternative therapy. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and are ubiquitous in nature. Lytic bacteriophage was isolated from sewage water that infects VREF, the causative agent of endocarditis, bacteraemia, and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The phage produced clear plaques with unique clear morphology and well-defined boundaries. TEM results of phage revealed it to be 108 ± 0...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134935/susceptibility-of-vancomycin-resistant-and-sensitive-enterococcus-faecium-obtained-from-danish-hospitals-to-benzalkonium-chloride-chlorhexidine-and-hydrogen-peroxide-biocides
#16
Sulaiman M I Alotaibi, Alafate Ayibiekea, Annemette Frøling Pedersen, Lotte Jakobsen, Mette Pinholt, Heidi Gumpert, Anette M Hammerum, Henrik Westh, Hanne Ingmer
PURPOSE: In Danish hospitals, the number of infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE faecium) has dramatically increased in recent years. Hospital disinfectants are essential in eliminating pathogenic microorganisms, and reduced susceptibility may contribute to hospital-associated infections. We have addressed whether clinical VRE faecium display decreased biocide susceptibility when compared to vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium (VSE faecium) isolates...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127125/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-bacteraemia-as-a-complication-of-kayexalate-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate-sps-in-sorbitol-induced-ischaemic-colitis
#17
Roberto Christian Cerrud-Rodriguez, Diego Alcaraz-Alvarez, Brian Bobby Chiong, Abdurhman Ahmed
We present the case report of an 80-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease stage G5 admitted to the hospital with fluid overload and hyperkalaemia. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS, Kayexalate) in sorbitol suspension was given orally to treat her hyperkalaemia, which precipitated an episode of SPS in sorbitol-induced ischaemic colitis with the subsequent complication of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteraemia. SPS (Kayexalate) in sorbitol suspension has been implicated in the development of intestinal necrosis...
November 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110155/streptomyces-swartbergensis-sp-nov-a-novel-tyrosinase-and-antibiotic-producing-actinobacterium
#18
Marilize le Roes-Hill, Alaric Prins, Paul R Meyers
As part of an antibiotic screening program, an actinobacterium, strain HMC13(T), was isolated from soil collected from the banks of the Gamka River, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The isolate was found to produce branched mycelia that differentiated into spiral spore chains with spiny spores. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the strain to be closely related to Streptomyces caelestis NRRL 2418(T) (99.72%) and Streptomyces azureus NBRC 12744(T) (99.51%). Chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed the classification of the strain as a member of the genus Streptomyces: LL-DAP in the peptidoglycan, no diagnostic sugars in the whole cell sugar pattern, dominant menaquinones including MK9(H8), MK9(H6), and the polar lipids detected included phosphatidylethanolamine...
November 6, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109928/ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-associated-vancomycin-resistant-meningitis-complicating-a-patient-undergoing-plasmapheresis-for-presumed-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-associated-transverse-myelitis
#19
Adam John Covach, William Nicholas Rose
Objectives  We report a patient who had a working diagnosis of transverse myelitis secondary to a lupus exacerbation. As his clinical course evolved, continued vigilance clarified that he was in fact suffering from a nosocomial infection caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Methods  We performed a retrospective review of the patient's medical record. Results  Despite radiographic improvement, he did not improve clinically following immunosuppressive therapy including plasma exchange. Once meningitis was diagnosed and treated, he improved rapidly...
October 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109580/fosfomycin-susceptibility-in-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-species-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-urinary-isolates
#20
Linda B Ou, Lynn Nadeau
Background: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to drug-resistant species of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus (e.g., organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL] or AmpC β-lactamase, as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]). However, this type of therapy can promote selection of resistant organisms and may necessitate venous access. Fosfomycin is an orally administered, single-dose antibiotic for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
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