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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621590/vancomycin-resistance-in-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-danish-chicken-meat-is-located-on-a-pvef4-like-plasmid-persisting-in-poultry-for-18-years
#1
Helena Leinweber, Sulaiman M I Alotaibi, Søren Overballe-Petersen, Frank Hansen, Henrik Hasman, Valeria Bortolaia, Anette M Hammerum, Hanne Ingmer
The occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) in food has public health relevance since foodborne VREfm may colonize the gut of consumers and transfer vancomycin resistance genes to the indigenous gut microbiota. Therefore, we determined occurrence and elucidated genetic traits of VREfm in Danish retail chicken meat. Three out of 40 samples (7.5%) from two slaughterhouses yielded VREfm (vancomycin MIC > 32mg/L). This is the first report of VREfm in Danish retail poultry meat since 2010 (DANMAP)...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620418/determination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-to-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-quinolones-and-vancomycin-in-selected-human-enteric-pathogens-from-prince-edward-island-canada
#2
Babafela Awosile, Greg J German, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Matthew Elijah Saab, Luke C Heider, J Trenton McClure
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of fecal carriage of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp and Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and quinolones in humans on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Convenience fecal samples from individuals on Prince Edward Island were screened phenotypically using selective culture and genotypically using multiplex polymerase chain reactions to detect E. coli and Enterococcus spp. resistant to critically important antimicrobials...
April 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611491/defining-the-role-of-the-environment-in-the-emergence-and-persistence-of-vana-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-vre-in-an-intensive-care-unit-a-molecular-epidemiological-study
#3
Andie S Lee, Elizabeth White, Leigh G Monahan, Slade O Jensen, Raymond Chan, Sebastiaan J van Hal
OBJECTIVETo describe the transmission dynamics of the emergence and persistence of vanA vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) in an intensive care unit (ICU) using whole-genome sequencing of patient and environmental isolates.DESIGNRetrospective cohort study.SETTINGICU in a tertiary referral center.PARTICIPANTSPatients admitted to the ICU over an 11-month period.METHODS VanA VRE isolated from patients (n=31) were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Environmental samples from bed spaces, equipment, and waste rooms were collected...
April 3, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589825/unintended-consequences-of-pretransplant-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-screening-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-among-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients
#4
Erica J Stohs, Trenton MacAllister, Steven A Pergam, Elizabeth M Krantz, Rupali Jain, Ania Sweet, Catherine Liu
We examined vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)-directed antimicrobial use and VRE bacteremia in a cohort of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation patients from a center where VRE screening is standard prior to transplant. In this cohort, VRE bacteremia (VREB) was infrequent. In patients without VREB, colonized patients received VRE therapy more often than noncolonized patients.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-4.
March 28, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588851/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-sequence-type-796-rapid-international-dissemination-of-a-new-epidemic-clone
#5
Andrew A Mahony, Andrew H Buultjens, Susan A Ballard, Elizabeth A Grabsch, Shirley Xie, Torsten Seemann, Rhonda L Stuart, Despina Kotsanas, Allen Cheng, Helen Heffernan, Sally A Roberts, Geoffrey W Coombs, Narin Bak, John K Ferguson, Glen C Carter, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear, Paul D R Johnson
Background: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. New, presumably better-adapted strains of VRE appear unpredictably; it is uncertain how they spread despite improved infection control. We aimed to investigate the relatedness of a novel sequence type (ST) of vanB E. faecium - ST796 - very near its time of origin from hospitals in three Australian states and New Zealand. Methods: Following near-simultaneous outbreaks of ST796 in multiple institutions, we gathered then tested colonization and bloodstream infection isolates' antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes, and phylogenomic relationships using whole genome sequencing (WGS)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581054/typing-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-with-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-in-a-nosocomial-outbreak-setting
#6
Barbara J Holzknecht, Rimtas Dargis, Michael Pedersen, Mette Pinholt, Jens Jørgen Christensen
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the usefulness of Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) typing as a first-line epidemiological tool in a nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). METHODS: Fifty-five VREfm, previously characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS), were included and analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. To take peak reproducibility into account, ethanol-formic acid extraction and other steps of the protocol were conducted as triplets...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580304/impact-of-discontinuing-contact-precautions-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#7
Gonzalo Bearman, Salma Abbas, Nadia Masroor, Kakotan Sanogo, Ginger Vanhoozer, Kaila Cooper, Michelle Doll, Michael P Stevens, Michael B Edmond
OBJECTIVETo investigate the impact of discontinuing contact precautions among patients infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) on rates of healthcare-associated infection (HAI). DESIGN: Single-center, quasi-experimental study conducted between 2011 and 2016.METHODSWe employed an interrupted time series design to evaluate the impact of 7 horizontal infection prevention interventions across intensive care units (ICUs) and hospital wards at an 865-bed urban, academic medical center...
March 27, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572473/lactobacillus-paracasei-cncm-i-3689-reduces-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-persistence-and-promotes-bacteroidetes-resilience-in-the-gut-following-antibiotic-challenge
#8
Laureen Crouzet, Muriel Derrien, Claire Cherbuy, Sandra Plancade, Mélanie Foulon, Benjamin Chalin, Johan E T van Hylckama Vlieg, Gianfranco Grompone, Lionel Rigottier-Gois, Pascale Serror
Enterococci, in particular vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Promoting intestinal resistance against enterococci could reduce the risk of VRE infections. We investigated the effects of two Lactobacillus strains to prevent intestinal VRE. We used an intestinal colonisation mouse model based on an antibiotic-induced microbiota dysbiosis to mimic enterococci overgrowth and VRE persistence. Each Lactobacillus spp. was administered daily to mice starting one week before antibiotic treatment until two weeks after antibiotic and VRE inoculation...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568465/teixobactin-analogues-reveal-enduracididine-to-be-non-essential-for-highly-potent-antibacterial-activity-and-lipid-ii-binding
#9
Anish Parmar, Abhishek Iyer, Stephen H Prior, Daniel G Lloyd, Eunice Tze Leng Goh, Charlotte S Vincent, Timea Palmai-Pallag, Csanad Z Bachrati, Eefjan Breukink, Annemieke Madder, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan, Edward J Taylor, Ishwar Singh
Teixobactin is a highly promising antibacterial depsipeptide consisting of four d-amino acids and a rare l- allo -enduracididine amino acid. l- allo -Enduracididine is reported to be important for the highly potent antibacterial activity of teixobactin. However, it is also a key limiting factor in the development of potent teixobactin analogues due to several synthetic challenges such as it is not commercially available, requires a multistep synthesis, long and repetitive couplings (16-30 hours). Due to all these challenges, the total synthesis of teixobactin is laborious and low yielding (3...
December 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566173/relentless-spread-and-adaptation-of-non-typeable-vana-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-a-genome-wide-investigation
#10
Sebastiaan J van Hal, Alicia G Beukers, Verlaine J Timms, Justin A Ellem, Peter Taylor, Michael W Maley, Peter J Newton, John K Ferguson, Andie Lee, Sharon C-A Chen, Vitali Sintchenko
Background: VRE are prevalent among patients in ICUs. Non-typeable vanA VRE, due to loss of one of the genes used for MLST (pstS), have increased in Australia, suggestive of a new, hospital-acquired lineage. Objectives: To understand the significance of this lineage and its transmission using WGS of strains isolated from patients in ICUs across New South Wales, Australia. Methods: A total of 240 Enterococcus faecium isolates collected between February and May 2016, and identified by conventional PCR as vanA positive, were sequenced...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566004/prevalence-of-vancomycin-variable-enterococcus-faecium-vve-among-vana-positive-sterile-site-isolates-and-patient-factors-associated-with-vve-bacteremia
#11
Philipp Kohler, Alireza Eshaghi, Hyunjin C Kim, Agron Plevneshi, Karen Green, Barbara M Willey, Allison McGeer, Samir N Patel
Vancomycin-variable enterococci (VVE) are vanA-positive, vancomycin-susceptible enterococci with the ability to revert to a vancomycin-resistant phenotype on exposure to vancomycin. We sought to assess the prevalence of VVE and to determine clinical characteristics of patients infected with VVE. We prospectively collected Enterococcus faecium sterile site isolates from Toronto Invasive Bacterial Diseases Network hospitals from January 2015 to June 2016 and calculated VVE (defined as vanA-positive, vancomycin-susceptible isolates) prevalence among vanA-containing isolates...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560521/diversified-transporters-and-pathways-for-bacteriocin-secretion-in-gram-positive-bacteria
#12
REVIEW
Sen Zheng, Kenji Sonomoto
Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesised small antimicrobial peptides produced from a wide range of bacteria, and also rich sources for potential alternatives to traditional antibiotics. Many bacteriocins have highly specific antibacterial activity against target pathogens, even including drug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. As the final and essential step during biosynthesis, the leader sequence removal and exportation of matured bacteriocin are lacking of research and therefore the last to be understood...
March 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553417/active-surveillance-for-asymptomatic-colonisation-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-patients-transferred-to-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-the-occupied-palestinian-territory
#13
Adham Abu Taha, Ayman Daoud, Sawsan Zaid, Sajida Sammour, Maram Belleh, Refqa Daifi
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance is important in infection control programmes, allowing the detection of patients colonised with multi-drug resistant organisms and preventing the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of asymptomatic colonisation with multi-drug resistant organisms and the prevalence of each organism in patients transferred to An-Najah National University Hospital, Nablus, occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: Patients transferred from other hospitals between January and December, 2015, were screened at time of admission by taking nasal, groin, and axillary swabs...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547589/phocoenamicins-b-and-c-new-antibacterial-spirotetronates-isolated-from-a-marine-micromonospora-sp
#14
Mercedes Pérez-Bonilla, Daniel Oves-Costales, Mercedes de la Cruz, Maria Kokkini, Jesús Martín, Francisca Vicente, Olga Genilloud, Fernando Reyes
Phocoenamicins B and C ( 1 and 2 ), together with the known spirotetronate phocoenamicin ( 3 ), were isolated from cultures of Micromonospora sp. The acetone extract from a culture of this strain, isolated from marine sediments collected in the Canary Islands, displayed activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and Mycobacterium bovis . Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract using SP207ss column chromatography and preparative reversed-phased HPLC led to the isolation of the new compounds 1 and 2 belonging to the spirotetronate class of polyketides...
March 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541067/defeating-antibiotic-and-phage-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-using-a-phage-cocktail-in-vitro-and-in-a-clot-model
#15
Leron Khalifa, Daniel Gelman, Mor Shlezinger, Axel Lionel Dessal, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Nurit Beyth, Ronen Hazan
The deteriorating effectiveness of antibiotics is propelling researchers worldwide towards alternative techniques such as phage therapy: curing infectious diseases using viruses of bacteria called bacteriophages. In a previous paper, we isolated phage EFDG1, highly effective against both planktonic and biofilm cultures of one of the most challenging pathogenic species, the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Thus, it is a promising phage to be used in phage therapy. Further experimentation revealed the emergence of a mutant resistant to EFDG1 phage: EFDG1r ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529667/late-reinfection-may-recur-more-than-5-years-after-reimplantation-of-tha-and-tka-analysis-of-pathogen-factors
#16
Kevin L Garvin, Ryan E Miller, Todd M Gilbert, Anthony M White, Elizabeth R Lyden
BACKGROUND: Two-stage reimplantation has consistently yielded high rates of success for patients with chronic prosthetic joint infection, although results more than 5 years after reimplantation are not commonly reported. Numerous factors may contribute to the risk of reinfection, although these factors-as well as the at-risk period after reimplantation-are not well characterized. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the risk of reinfection after reimplantation for prosthetic joint infection at a minimum of 5 years? (2) Is the bacteriology of the index infection associated with late reinfection? (3) Is the presence of bacteria at the time of reimplantation associated with late reinfection? METHODS: Between 1995 and 2010, we performed 97 two-stage revisions in 93 patients for prosthetic joint infection of the hip or knee, and all are included in this retrospective study...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521051/typing-of-enterococcus-spp-strains-in-4-hospitals-in-the-ma%C3%A5-opolska-region-in-poland
#17
Katarzyna Talaga, Dalma Odrowąż-Konduracka, Beata Paradowska, Barbara Jagiencarz-Starzec, Zdzisław Wolak, Małgorzata Bulanda, Anna Szczypta
BACKGROUND: In the Małopolska province, the first case of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) occurrence was an outbreak in 2001 caused by strains of the genus E. faecium carrying the vanA operon. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of virulence determinants among Enterococcus spp. in patients hospitalized in the Małopolska region in 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion and the E test...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519650/safe-removal-of-gloves-from-contact-precautions-the-role-of-hand-hygiene
#18
Susan Jain, Kate Clezy, Mary-Louise McLaws
BACKGROUND: Routine hand hygiene effectively removes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) from the ungloved hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) who are caring for patients under contact precautions, when exposure to bodily fluids is not expected. METHODS: HCWs' ungloved hands were cultured after hand hygiene with alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) or soap-and-water wash after routine clinical care of patients known to be colonized or infected with MRSA or VRE...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514600/low-incidence-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-and-nosocomial-infection-due-to-a-preventive-multimodal-nosocomial-infection-control-a-10-year-single-centre-prospective-cohort-study-in-neurocritical-care
#19
Vera Spatenkova, Ondrej Bradac, Daniela Fackova, Zdenka Bohunova, Petr Suchomel
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infection (NI) control is an important issue in neurocritical care due to secondary brain damage and the increased morbidity and mortality of primary acute neurocritical care patients. The primary aim of this study was to determine incidence of nosocomial infections and multidrug-resistant bacteria and seek predictors of nosocomial infections in a preventive multimodal nosocomial infection protocol in the neurointensive care unit (NICU). The secondary aim focused on their impact on stay, mortality and cost in the NICU...
March 7, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496381/prolonged-linezolid-use-is-associated-with-the-development-of-linezolid-resistant-enterococcus-faecium
#20
Tiffeny T Smith, Pranita D Tamma, Tiffany B Do, Kathryn E Dzintars, Yuan Zhao, Sara E Cosgrove, Edina Avdic
We assessed risk factors for and outcomes of linezolid-resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LRVREF) bacteremia over 7 years. Thirty-four LRVREF cases were matched to 68 linezolid-susceptible VREF controls. The odds of bacteremia with LRVREF increased by 7% for each additional day of prior linezolid exposure.
February 3, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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