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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911327/bismuth-phosphinates-in-bi-nanocellulose-composites-and-their-efficacy-towards-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#1
Philip C Andrews, Melissa Werrett, Megan Herdman, Rajini Brammananth, Uthpala Garusinghe, Warren Batchelor, Paul Crellin, Ross Coppel
A series of poorly soluble phenyl bis-phosphinato bismuth(III) complexes [BiPh(OP(=O)R1R2)2] (R1 = R2 = Ph; R1 = R2 = p-OMePh; R1 = R2 = m-NO2Ph; R1 = Ph, R2 = H; R1 = R2 = Me) have been synthesised and characterised, and shown to have effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). The bismuth complexes were incorporated into microfibrillated (nano-) cellulose generating a bismuth-cellulose composite as paper sheets...
June 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903421/patient-and-hospital-level-predictors-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-vre-bacteremia-in-ontario-canada
#2
Jennie Johnstone, Cynthia Chen, Laura Rosella, Kwaku Adomako, Michelle E Policarpio, Freda Lam, Chatura Prematunge, Gary Garber
BACKGROUND: Data are limited on risk factors for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteremia. METHODS: All patients with a confirmed VRE bacteremia in Ontario, Canada, between January 2009 and December 2013 were linked to provincial healthcare administrative data sources and frequency matched to 3 controls based on age, sex, and aggregated diagnosis group. Associations between predictors and VRE bacteremia were estimated by generalized estimating equations and summarized using odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877755/combatting-resistant-enterococcal-infections-a-pharmacotherapy-review
#3
Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Marcus J Zervos, Erica S Herc
The role of enterococci in infectious diseases has evolved from a gut and urinary commensal to a major pathogen of concern. Few options exist for resistant enterococci, and appropriate use of the available agents is crucial. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss antibiotics with clinically useful activity against Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. The article specifically discusses: antibiotics active against enterococci and their mechanism of resistance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles, in vitro combinations, and clinical studies which focus on urinary tract, intra-abdominal, central nervous system, and bloodstream infections due to enterococci...
June 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870913/wild-corvid-birds-colonized-with-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-of-human-origin-harbor-epidemic-vana-plasmids
#4
Veronika Oravcová, Luísa Peixe, Teresa M Coque, Carla Novais, Maria V Francia, Ivan Literák, Ana R Freitas
The most prevalent type of acquired vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) is encoded by the vanA transposon Tn1546, mainly located on transferable plasmids. vanA plasmids have been characterized in VREfm from a variety of sources but not wild birds. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic context of VREfm strains recovered from wild corvid birds and to compare their plasmid and strain characteristics with human strains. To achieve that, 75 VREfm isolates, including strains from wild birds recovered during wide surveillance studies performed in Europe, Canada and the United States (2010-2013), and clinical and wastewater strains from Czech Republic, a region lacking data about vanA plasmids, were analysed...
June 2, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866870/-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-a-novel-catheter-lock-solution-against-bacterial-and-fungal-biofilms
#5
J Chandra, L Long, N Isham, P K Mukherjee, G DiSciullo, K Appelt, M A Ghannoum
Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are increasingly recognized to be associated with intralumenal microbial biofilms, and effective measures for the prevention and treatment of BSI remain lacking. This report evaluates a new commercially developed antimicrobial catheter lock solution (ACL) containing trimethoprim (5 mg/ml) and ethanol (25%) and calcium Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CA-EDTA) 3% for activity against bacterial and fungal biofilms using in vitro and in vivo (rabbit) catheter biofilm models...
June 4, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848938/a-novel-high-resolution-melting-analysis-approach-for-rapid-detection-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#6
Hani Adnan Ozbak
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are resistant to most classes of antibiotics. Diagnosis of VRE using standard methods takes 2 to 5 days. Development of a rapid PCR-assay that detects and identifies resistant genes in bacteria would provide time-critical information on the presence of VRE in clinical samples allowing early treatment and management of infected patients. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the use of high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and 16S-rRNA-PCR approach for rapid and cost-effective identification of VRE...
May 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804335/-the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-aspects-pertaining-to-treatment-with-vancomycin-at-assaf-harofeh-medical-center
#7
Ilan Youngster, Tsillia Lazarovitch, Marina Bondorenco, Yael Kachlon, Limor Toledano, Bethlehem Mengesha, Ronit Zaidenstein, Chen Daniel, Mor Dadon, Dror Marchaim
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have evolved dramatically in the past decade. Vancomycin is the treatment of choice for moderate to severe CDI. However, controlled comparative data pertaining to mild CDI is lacking. Furthermore, the potential impact of vancomycin treatment on subsequent vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) isolation remains unknown. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was executed at the Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, from 2013 to 2015...
May 2018: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784838/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-effects-of-a-clpp-activating-antibiotic-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#8
Autumn Brown Gandt, Elizabeth C Griffith, Ida M Lister, Lisa L Billings, Angel Han, Rajendra Tangallapally, Ying Zhao, Aman P Singh, Richard E Lee, Michael D LaFleur
Antibiotics with novel bactericidal mechanisms of action are urgently needed. The antibiotic acyldepsipeptide 4 (ADEP4) activates the ClpP protease and causes cells to self-digest. The effects of ADEP4 and ClpP activation have not been sufficiently characterized for the enterococci, which are important pathogens known for high levels of acquired and intrinsic antibiotic resistance. In the present study, ADEP4 was found to be potently active against both Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium with an MIC90 of 0...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784578/quantitative-study-about-the-role-of-environmental-conditions-in-the-survival-capability-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#9
Adrienn Hanczvikkel, Ákos Tóth
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) are of global concern and hospital textiles can contribute to their transmission. MDRB are able to survive on textiles for more than enough time to spread in the environment. Some studies summarized the effect of environmental factors on the duration of bacterial survival, but it remained an open question how these factors influence the quantity of surviving bacteria in a period of a few days, which is relevant from the perspective of HAIs...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778894/new-n-phenylpyrrolamide-dna-gyrase-b-inhibitors-optimization-of-efficacy-and-antibacterial-activity
#10
Martina Durcik, Denise Lovison, Žiga Skok, Cristina Durante Cruz, Päivi Tammela, Tihomir Tomašič, Davide Benedetto Tiz, Gábor Draskovits, Ákos Nyerges, Csaba Pál, Janez Ilaš, Lucija Peterlin Mašič, Danijel Kikelj, Nace Zidar
The ATP binding site located on the subunit B of DNA gyrase is an attractive target for the development of new antibacterial agents. In recent decades, several small-molecule inhibitor classes have been discovered but none has so far reached the market. We present here the discovery of a promising new series of N-phenylpyrrolamides with low nanomolar IC50 values against DNA gyrase, and submicromolar IC50 values against topoisomerase IV from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The most potent compound in the series has an IC50 value of 13 nM against E...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777835/combined-bacteriophages-and-antibiotics-as-an-efficient-therapy-against-vre-enterococcus-faecalis-in-a-mouse-model
#11
Daniel Gelman, Shaul Beyth, Vanda Lerrer, Karen Adler, Ronit Poradosu-Cohen, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Ronen Hazan
Clinical applications of bacteriophage therapy have been recently gathering significant attention worldwide, used mostly as rescue therapy in cases of near-fatal antibiotic failure. Thus, clinically relevant in-vivo models presenting both short- and long-term implications of phage therapy given as rescue treatment for fulminant infections are of highest importance. In this study, a cocktail consisting of two lytic bacteriophages was used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of phage therapy as a rescue treatment for severe septic peritonitis in a mouse model...
May 16, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773638/draft-genome-sequence-of-new-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-sequence-type-1421
#12
Kelvin W C Leong, Louise A Cooley, Ronan F O'Toole
The spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has become a challenge to health care infection control worldwide. In 2015, a marked increase in VREfm isolation was detected in acute public hospitals in Tasmania. We report here the draft whole-genome sequence of a newly designated VREfm sequence type, sequence type 1421 (ST1421).
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773506/in-vitro-activity-of-salicylamide-derivatives-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#13
Sarka Pospisilova, Hana Michnova, Tereza Kauerova, Karel Pauk, Peter Kollar, Jarmila Vinsova, Ales Imramovsky, Alois Cizek, Josef Jampilek
A series of 13 salicylamide derivatives was assessed for antibacterial activity against three isolates of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 as a quality standard. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the broth microdilution method with subsequent subcultivation of aliquots to assess minimum bactericidal concentration. The growth kinetics was established by the time-kill assay. Ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and vancomycin were used as the reference antibacterial drugs...
May 14, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771255/return-of-the-tetracyclines-omadacycline-a-novel-aminomethylcycline-antimicrobial
#14
J C Cho, L M Childs-Kean, M T Zmarlicka, M P Crotty
Omadacycline is a novel aminomethylcycline antimicrobial agent that is available in both oral and intravenous formulations. The distinguishing structural characteristics of omadacycline from other tetracyclines allow for its continued antimicrobial activity in the presence of traditional tetracycline resistance mechanisms (efflux pumps and ribosomal protection proteins). Omadacycline has been found to have potent activity against antibiotic-resistant pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
March 2018: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746380/one-year-incidence-of-infection-in-pediatric-intestine-transplantation
#15
Jared W Clouse, Chandrashekhar A Kubal, Jonathan A Fridell, Richard S Mangus
BACKGROUND: This study reports the infection rate, location of infection, and pathogen causing bacterial, fungal, or viral infections in intestine transplant recipients at a pediatric transplant center. METHODS: Records from a pediatric center were reviewed for patients receiving an intestine transplant. Positive cultures and pathology reports were used to diagnose bacterial, fungal, and viral infections and also to determine location and infectious agent. Risk for infection was assessed based on liver or colon inclusion, and immunosuppression induction, as part of the intestine transplant...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745356/noninfectious-hospital-adverse-events-decline-after-elimination-of-contact-precautions-for-mrsa-and-vre
#16
Elise M Martin, Brandy Bryant, Tristan R Grogan, Zachary A Rubin, Dana L Russell, David Elashoff, Daniel Z Uslan
OBJECTIVETo evaluate the impact of discontinuing routine contact precautions (CP) for endemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) on hospital adverse events.DESIGNRetrospective, nonrandomized, observational, quasi-experimental study.SETTINGAcademic medical center with single-occupancy rooms.PARTICIPANTSInpatients.METHODSWe compared hospital reportable adverse events 1 year before and 1 year after discontinuation of routine CP for endemic MRSA and VRE (preintervention and postintervention periods, respectively)...
May 10, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740989/activity-of-fosfomycin-against-nosocomial-multiresistant-bacterial-pathogens-from-croatia-a-multicentric-study
#17
Luka Bielen, Robert Likić, Viktorija Erdeljić, Ivana Mareković, Nataša Firis, Marijana Grgić-Medić, Ana Godan, Ivan Tomić, Blaženka Hunjak, Alemka Markotić, Danijela Bejuk, Vladimira Tičić, Silvana Balzar, Branka Bedenić
AIM: To determine in vitro susceptibility of multiresistant bacterial isolates to fosfomycin. METHODS: In this prospective in vitro study (local non-random sample, level of evidence 3), 288 consecutively collected multiresistant bacterial isolates from seven medical centers in Croatia were tested from February 2014 until October 2016 for susceptibility to fosfomycin and other antibiotics according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. Susceptibility to fosfomycin was determined by agar dilution method, while disc diffusion was performed for in vitro testing of other antibiotics...
April 30, 2018: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726892/environmental-panels-as-a-proxy-for-nursing-facility-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aure-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-colonization
#18
Marco Cassone, Julia Mantey, Mary Beth Perri, Kristen Gibson, Bonnie Lansing, Sara McNamara, Payal K Patel, Vincent C C Cheng, Maroya S Walters, Nimalie D Stone, Marcus J Zervos, Lona Mody
Background: Most nursing facilities (NFs) lack methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) surveillance programs due to limited resources and high costs. We investigated the utility of environmental screening of high-touch surfaces in patient rooms as a way to circumvent these challenges. Methods: We compared MRSA and VRE culture data from high-touch surfaces in patients' rooms (14450 samples from 6 NFs) and ranked each site's performance in predicting patient colonization (7413 samples)...
May 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720968/biosynthetic-potential-of-bioactive-streptomycetes-isolated-from-arid-region-of-the-thar-desert-rajasthan-india
#19
Meeta Masand, Kunjukrishnan Kamalakshi Sivakala, Ekta Menghani, Thangathurai Thinesh, Rangasamy Anandham, Gaurav Sharma, Natesan Sivakumar, Solomon R D Jebakumar, Polpass Arul Jose
Acquisition of Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces from previously underexplored habitats and the exploration of their biosynthetic potential have gained much attention in the rejuvenated antibiotics search programs. Herein, we isolated some Streptomyces strains, from an arid region of the Great Indian Thar Desert, which possess an ability to produce novel bioactive compounds. Twenty-one morphologically distinctive strains differing in their aerial and substrate mycelium were isolated by employing a stamping method...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709404/microbiology-of-french-military-casualties-repatriated-from-overseas-for-an-open-traumatic-injury
#20
S Larréché, A Bousquet, C Soler, C Mac Nab, D de Briel, D Delaune, C Bigaillon, P Pasquier, C Dubost, T Demoures, B Malgras, S Ausset, S de Rudnicki, T Leclerc, B de Loynes, S Bonnet, N Mocellin, C Ficko, R Haus, O Hersan, S Rigal, A Mérens
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the microbiological epidemiology of repatriated French soldiers with an open traumatic injury, and to measure the proportion of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB). METHODS: Retrospective study including all French soldiers repatriated in 2011 and 2012 in Parisian military hospitals for open traumatic injury. Results of clinical samples and MDRB screening were collected. The antibiotic susceptibility was assessed using the agar disk diffusion method...
April 27, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
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