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enterococcus vre

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449171/changes-in-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-commonly-clinically-significant-isolates-before-and-after-the-interventions-on-surgical-prophylactic-antibiotics-spas-in-shanghai
#1
Su Wang, Li-Zhong Han, Yu-Xing Ni, Yi-Bo Zhang, Qun Wang, Da-Ke Shi, Wen-Hui Li, Yi-Chen Wang, Chen-Rong Mi
Surveillances and interventions on antibiotics use have been suggested to improve serious drug-resistance worldwide. Since 2007, our hospital have proposed many measures for regulating surgical prophylactic antibiotics (carbapenems, third gen. cephalosporins, vancomycin, etc.) prescribing practices, like formulary restriction or replacement for surgical prophylactic antibiotics and timely feedback. To assess the impacts on drug-resistance after interventions, we enrolled infected patients in 2006 (pre-intervention period) and 2014 (post-intervention period) in a tertiary hospital in Shanghai...
February 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445637/virulence-determinants-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-different-sources-in-southwest-iran
#2
Maniya Arshadi, Mahmood Mahmoudi, Moloud Sadat Motahar, Saber Soltani, Mohammad Reza Pourmand
Background: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from different sources in southwest Iran from Mar to Sep 2015. Methods: Overall, 120 E. faecium isolates (80 VRE and 40 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci [VSE] isolates) were obtained from four hospitals. The resistance of the VRE isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was performed to detect the virulence genes carried by the E...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442195/the-changing-epidemiology-of-vanb-enterococcus-faecium-in-poland
#3
Ewa Sadowy, Iwona Gawryszewska, Alicja Kuch, Dorota Żabicka, Waleria Hryniewicz
Increasing prevalence of VanB Enterococcus faecium in Polish hospitals reported to National Reference Centre for Susceptibility Testing (NRCST) prompted us to investigate the basis of this phenomenon. Two-hundred seventy-eight E. faecium isolates of VanB phenotype from the period 1999 to 2010 obtained by NRCST were investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multilocus VNTR analysis (MLVA). Localization, transferability, and partial structure of the vanB-carrying Tn1549 transposon were studied by hybridization, PCR mapping, sequencing, and conjugation...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436593/l%C3%A2-histidine-augments-the-oxidative-damage-against-gram%C3%A2-negative-bacteria-by-hydrogen-peroxide
#4
Tamiko Nagao, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Miad Elahi, Ayano Tada, Emika Toyonaga, Hisashi Yamasaki, Katsuichiro Okazaki, Hirokazu Miyoshi, Koichiro Tsuchiya, Tomomi Kuwahara
Excessive damage to DNA and lipid membranes by reactive oxygen species reduces the viability of bacteria. In the present study, the proliferation of recA‑deficient Escherichia coli strains was revealed to be inhibited by 1% L‑histidine under aerobic conditions. This inhibition of proliferation was not observed under anaerobic conditions, indicating that L‑histidine enhances oxidative DNA damage to E. coli cells. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the expression of recA in E...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432868/repurposing-niclosamide-for-intestinal-decolonization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#5
Haroon Mohammad, Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Nader S Abutaleb, Mohamed N Seleem
Enterococci are commensal microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans. Though normally innocuous to the host, strains of Enterococcus exhibiting resistance to vancomycin (VRE) have been associated with high rates of infection and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Decolonization of VRE represents a key strategy to curb infection in highly-susceptible patients. However, there is a dearth of decolonizing agents available clinically that are effective against VRE. The present study confirms that niclosamide, an anthelmintic drug, has potent antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant E...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427322/comparison-of-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-daptomycin-susceptible-and-nonsusceptible-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-infections-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#6
Jessica D Lewis, Andrew J Barros, Costi D Sifri
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) infections are common in liver transplant recipients (LTRs). Daptomycin (DAP) is an important treatment for such infections; however, DAP-nonsusceptible VRE (DNS-VRE) are increasingly frequent. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of LTRs with infections due to DNS-VRE and DAP-susceptible VRE (DS-VRE). METHODS: A single center, retrospective review of patients who underwent liver transplantation between 1/1/2010 and 12/31/15 and developed infections due to DS-VRE or DNS-VRE post-transplant was performed...
February 10, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419918/isolation-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-vre-from-apparently-healthy-human-animal-attendants-cattle-and-cattle-wastes-in-tanzania
#7
B P Madoshi, M M A Mtambo, A P Muhairwa, A M Lupindu, J E Olsen
AIM: The study aimed to isolate and characterise Enterococcus species from apparently healthy waste attendants, cattle and cattle waste in Tanzania. Emphasis was given to antimicrobial resistance and in particular occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. METHODS AND RESULTS: Faecal samples were collected from healthy cattle, cattle waste attendants, and cattle house wastes and isolation of Enterococcus species was performed using Slanetz Bartley agar. Isolates were characterized with regard to species, antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of vancomycin resistance genes...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407752/presence-of-the-esp-gene-in-enterococcus-faecium-derived-from-oropharyngeal-microbiota-of-haematology-patients
#8
Milica Jovanović, Tanja Tošić, Snežana Jovanović, Rajica Stošović, Goran Stevanović, Branko Velebit, Marcus John Zervos
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic use and immunocompromised status in haematology patients have been shown to determine the constituents of commensal microbiota with highly increased resistance, including vancomycin resistant enterococci. We compared the carriage of virulence factor genes and the capacity for biofilm formation in vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) originating from the oropharyngeal and stool cultures of haematology patients. DESIGN: PCR tests were used to investigate the presence of genes encoding pathogenicity factors (esp and hyl) in VRE isolates...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403213/risk-factors-for-intestinal-colonization-with-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-prospective-study-in-a-level-iii-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#9
Rajesh Amberpet, Sujatha Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Ramachandran Rameshkumar
PURPOSE: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens across the globe. Gut colonization rate with VRE is higher in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) due to the higher antibiotic pressure. VRE colonization increases the risk of developing infection up to 5-10 folds. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of VRE colonization among the patients admitted to pediatric ICU (PICU) and risk factors associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs were collected after 48 h of admission to PICU from 198 patients...
January 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402952/histone-h5-is-a-potent-antimicrobial-agent-and-a-template-for-novel-antimicrobial-peptides
#10
Joelle Jodoin, Maxwell T Hincke
Modern medicine is challenged continuously by the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Cationic antimicrobial peptides and their derivatives are interesting potential alternatives to antibiotics due to their rapid action, broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity and limited emergence of bacterial resistance. This study reports the novel antimicrobial properties of histone H5, purified from chicken erythrocytes, and histone H5-derived synthetic peptides. Broth microdilution assays revealed that histone H5 has potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative planktonic bacteria (MIC range: 1...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374204/a-retrospective-clinical-comparison-of-daptomycin-vs-daptomycin-and-a-beta-lactam-antibiotic-for-treating-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-bloodstream-infections
#11
Yu-Chung Chuang, Pao-Yu Chen, Chi-Ying Lin, Yee-Chun Chen, Jann-Tay Wang, Shan-Chwen Chang
There is limited clinical evidence to support the combination of daptomycin and beta-lactam antibiotics (DAP + BLA) for treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) bloodstream infections (BSI). We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of VRE-BSI during 2010-2015. The primary endpoint was mortality at the end of treatment. We included 114 patients who received DAP for VRE-BSI. Of these 87 (76.3%) received DAP + BLA. There were no significant differences in mortality between the DAP and DAP + BLA groups on univariable analysis (10/27 vs...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373085/spread-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-despite-validated-infection-control-measures-in-an-italian-hospital-antibiotic-resistance-and-genotypic-characterization-of-the-endemic-strain
#12
Raffaela Bressan, Anna Knezevich, Jacopo Monticelli, Floriana Campanile, Marina Busetti, Maria Santagati, Lucilla Dolzani, Annalisa Milan, Dafne Bongiorno, Manuela Di Santolo, Enrico A Tonin, Stefania Stefani, Roberto Luzzati, Cristina Lagatolla
An alarming increase of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates was detected in an Italian referral hospital subjected to policies of infection control validated by the Joint Commission International. Analysis of the population structure of 122 consecutive, nonreplicate VREfm isolates collected over an 18-month period identified a single major clone that spread around the whole hospital, rapidly establishing an endemic state. It belonged to sequence type (ST) 17 and showed a highly multidrug-resistant phenotype, being resistant to all antimicrobial classes for the carriage of several resistance determinants...
January 26, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364407/-colonization-by-enterococcal-strains-resistant-to-vancomycin-in-patients-from-a-hospital-in-lima-peru
#13
Alisson Estrada-Román, Rafael Mendo-López, Lizeth Astocondor, Marcus Zervos, Coralith García
This cross-sectional study was conducted from November to December of 2013 at the Cayetano Heredia National Hospital in Lima, Peru, to determine the rate of infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), the resistance genotype, and associated factors. The rate of infection with VRE was 6.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-10.73) and the resistance genotype isolated from all strains was the vanA gene. The factors associated with colonization with VRE were previous hospitalizations (p = 0.001) and the use of third-generation cephalosporins (p = 0...
October 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348921/genetic-characteristics-of-vana-type-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-in-cuba
#14
D Quiñones, M S Aung, J P Sousa Martins, N Urushibara, N Kobayashi
VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolates from bloodstream infections in Cuba were genetically characterized. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were assigned to sequence type (ST) 28, closely related to Eastern Europe, while Enterococcus faecium belonged to ST262, ST656 and ST1349, and showed different genetic profiles.
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348589/novel-miniature-membrane-active-lipopeptidomimetics-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-embedded-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Seema Joshi, Sana Mumtaz, Jyotsna Singh, Santosh Pasha, Kasturi Mukhopadhyay
Escalating multidrug resistance and highly evolved virulence mechanisms have aggravated the clinical menace of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Towards development of economically viable staphylocidal agents here we report eight structurally novel tryptophan-arginine template based peptidomimetics. Out of the designed molecules, three lipopeptidomimetics (S-6, S-7 and S-8) containing 12-amino dodecanoic acid exhibited cell selectivity and good to potent activity against clinically relevant pathogens MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (MIC: 1...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346643/genetic-characterization-of-a-vang-type-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-clinical-isolate
#16
Mohamed Sassi, François Guérin, Léonie Lesec, Christophe Isnard, Marguerite Fines-Guyon, Vincent Cattoir, Jean-Christophe Giard
Objectives: To characterize, phenotypically and genotypically, the first Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate harbouring a vanG operon. Methods: The antibiotic resistance profile of E. faecium 16-346 was determined and its whole genome sequenced using PacBio technology. Attempts to transfer vancomycin resistance by filter mating were performed and the inducibility of expression of the vanG operon was studied by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in the presence or absence of subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346493/antimicrobial-studies-using-the-therapeutic-tissue-cross-linking-agent-sodium-hydroxymethylglycinate-implication-for-treating-infectious-keratitis
#17
Patrick B Rapuano, Alexandra H Scanameo, Daeryl E Amponin, Sefy A Paulose, Mariya Zyablitskaya, Anna Takaoka, Leejee H Suh, Takayuki Nagasaki, Stephen L Trokel, David C Paik
Purpose: Our recent studies raise the possibility of using sodium hydroxymethylglycinate (SMG), for pharmacologic therapeutic tissue cross-linking (TXL) of the cornea. The present study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of SMG for potential use in treating infectious keratitis. Methods: In initial (group 1) experiments, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) were treated with SMG (10-40 mM) for 10 to 120 minutes...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333263/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-infection-in-the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-an-overview-of-epidemiology-management-and-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Esther Benamu, Stanley Deresinski
Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) is now one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections in the United States. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are at increased risk of VRE colonization and infection. VRE has emerged as a major cause of bacteremia in this population, raising important clinical questions regarding the role and impact of VRE colonization and infection in HSCT outcomes as well as the optimal means of prevention and treatment. We review here the published literature and scientific advances addressing these thorny issues and provide a rational framework for their approach...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331166/institution-wide-and-within-patient-evolution-of-daptomycin-susceptibility-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-bloodstream-infections
#19
Robert J Woods, Twisha S Patel, Jerod L Nagel, Duane W Newton, Andrew F Read
We report daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from bloodstream infections over a 4-year period. The daptomycin MIC increased over time hospital-wide for initial isolates and increased over time within patients, culminating in 40% of patients having daptomycin-nonsusceptible isolates in the final year of the study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
January 14, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329389/in-vivo-daptomycin-efficacy-against-experimental-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-endocarditis
#20
Sophie Reissier, Azzam Saleh-Mghir, François Guerin, Laurent Massias, Idir Ghout, Clara Sinel, Vincent Cattoir, Anne-Claude Cremieux
Objectives: Daptomycin has become a first-line therapeutic option for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infective endocarditis (IE). Although high doses (≥8 mg/kg) are often recommended, optimal doses, particularly for strains with MICs close to the susceptibility breakpoint (4 mg/L), are still debated. Methods: Daptomycin efficacy at doses equivalent to 8 mg/kg daptomycin (DAP8) and 12 mg/kg daptomycin (DAP12) in humans was evaluated in a rabbit model of aortic valve IE induced by 108 cfu of E...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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