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pneumonia associated ventilator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103536/evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-use-of-tracheostomy-in-critically-ill-patients
#1
Néstor Raimondi, Macarena R Vial, José Calleja, Agamenón Quintero, Albán Cortés, Edgar Celis, Clara Pacheco, Sebastián Ugarte, José M Añón, Gonzalo Hernández, Erick Vidal, Guillermo Chiappero, Fernando Ríos, Fernando Castilleja, Alfredo Matos, Enith Rodriguez, Paulo Antoniazzi, José Mario Teles, Carmelo Dueñas, Jorge Sinclair, Lorenzo Martínez, Ingrid von der Osten, José Vergara, Edgar Jiménez, Max Arroyo, Camilo Rodríguez, Javier Torres, Sebastián Fernandez-Bussy, Joseph L Nates
OBJECTIVES: To provide evidence-based guidelines for tracheostomy in critically ill adult patients and identify areas needing further research. METHODS: A taskforce composed of representatives of 10 member countries of the Pan-American and Iberic Federation of Societies of Critical and Intensive Therapy Medicine and of the Latin American Critical Care Trial Investigators Network developed recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100714/the-dynamics-of-the-pulmonary-microbiome-during-mechanical-ventilation-in-the-intensive-care-unit-and-the-association-with-occurrence-of-pneumonia
#2
Tetyana Zakharkina, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Sébastien Matamoros, Pedro Povoa, Antoni Torres, Janine B Kastelijn, Jorrit J Hofstra, B de Wever, Menno de Jong, Marcus J Schultz, Peter J Sterk, Antonio Artigas, Lieuwe D J Bos
RATIONALE: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infections in patients admitted to the ICU. The adapted island model predicts several changes in the respiratory microbiome during intubation and mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that mechanical ventilation and antibiotic administration decrease the diversity of the respiratory microbiome and that these changes are more profound in patients who develop VAP. METHODS: Intubated and mechanically ventilated ICU-patients were included...
January 18, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100323/-high-risk-factors-and-clinical-characteristics-of-massive-pulmonary-hemorrhage-in-infants-with-extremely-low-birth-weight
#3
Dan Chen, Meng Wang, Xin Wang, Xue-Wei Ding, Rui-Hua Ba, Jian Mao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the high-risk factors and analyze the clinical characteristics of massive pulmonary hemorrhage (MPH) in infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW). METHODS: Two hundred and eleven ELBW infants were included in this study. Thirty-five ELBW infants who were diagnosed with MPH were labelled as the MPH group, and 176 ELBW infants without pulmonary hemorrhage were labelled as the control group. The differences in clinical characteristics, mortality rate, and incidence of complications between the two groups were analysed...
January 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096975/a-prospective-survey-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-colonization-and-infection-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#4
Regev Cohen, Frida Babushkin, Shoshana Cohen, Marina Afraimov, Maurice Shapiro, Martina Uda, Efrat Khabra, Amos Adler, Ronen Ben Ami, Svetlana Paikin
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) surveillance may improve empiric antimicrobial therapy, since colonizing strains frequently cause infections. This colonization may be 'endogenous' or 'exogenous', and the source determines infection control measures. We prospectively investigated the sources of PA, the clinical impact of PA colonization upon admission and the dynamics of colonization at different body sites throughout the intensive care unit stay. METHODS: Intensive care patients were screened on admission and weekly from the pharynx, endotracheal aspirate, rectum and urine...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096455/multicenter-prospective-study-on-device-associated-infection-rates-and-bacterial-resistance-in-intensive-care-units-of-venezuela-international-nosocomial-infection-control-consortium-inicc-findings
#5
Gabriel D Empaire, Maria E Guzman Siritt, Victor D Rosenthal, Fernando Pérez, Yvis Ruiz, Claudia Díaz, Gabriela Di Silvestre, Evelyn Salinas, Nelva Orozco
BACKGROUND: Device-associated healthcare-acquired infections (DA-HAI) pose a threat to patient safety in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in two adult medical/surgical ICUs at two hospitals in Caracas, Venezuela, in different periods from March 2008 to April 2015, using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions and criteria, and INICC methods...
January 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096000/effects-of-oral-care-with-glutamine-in-preventing-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-neurosurgical-intensive-care-unit-patients
#6
Hatice Kaya, Yüksel Turan, Yusuf Tunalı, Gülsün Özdemir Aydın, Neslihan Yüce, Şengül Gürbüz, Keziban Tosun
PURPOSE: The study was designed as a randomized, controlled, experimental study aiming to determine the effects of oral care with glutamine in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients admitted to neurosurgical intensive care unit. METHODS: The universe consisted of patients who are admitted to neurosurgical intensive care unit between January 2014 and August 2015, while the sample consisted of 88 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were randomly selected...
February 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094013/pulmonary-outcome-of-esophageal-atresia-patients-and-its-potential-causes-in-early-childhood
#7
René Dittrich, Philippe Stock, Karin Rothe, Petra Degenhardt
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to illustrate the pulmonary long term outcome of patients with repaired esophageal atresia and to further examine causes and correlations that might have led to this outcome. METHODS: Twenty-seven of 62 possible patients (43%) aged 5-20years, with repaired esophageal atresia were recruited. Body plethysmography and spirometry were performed to evaluate lung function, and the Bruce protocol treadmill exercise test to assess physical fitness...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093837/effects-of-simulation-education-on-oral-care-practices%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Miia M Jansson, Hannu P Syrjälä, Pasi P Ohtonen, Merja H Meriläinen, Helvi A Kyngäs, Tero I Ala-Kokko
BACKGROUND: Implementation of evidence-based oral care protocols, nurse education programmes and assessment tools may reduce the risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia by increasing critical care nurses' knowledge and skills in adhering to current oral care recommendations. AIMS: To evaluate the longitudinal effects of single-dose simulation education with structured debriefing and verbal feedback on critical care nurses' knowledge and skills in adhering to current oral care recommendations...
January 16, 2017: Nursing in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092309/microbiota-targeted-therapies-on-the-intensive-care-unit
#9
Bastiaan W Haak, Marcel Levi, W Joost Wiersinga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The composition and diversity of the microbiota of the human gut, skin, and several other sites is severely deranged in critically ill patients on the ICU, and it is likely that these disruptions can negatively affect outcome. We here review new and ongoing studies that investigate the use of microbiota-targeted therapeutics in the ICU, and provide recommendations for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Practically every intervention in the ICU as well as the physiological effects of critical illness itself can have a profound impact on the gut microbiota...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092204/impact-of-combination-therapy-and-early-de-escalation-on-outcome-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#10
Laurène Deconinck, Agnès Meybeck, Pierre Patoz, Nicolas Van Grunderbeeck, Nicolas Boussekey, Arnaud Chiche, Pierre-Yves Delannoy, Hugues Georges, Olivier Leroy
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Guidelines recommend dual coverage of P. aeruginosa, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy is controversial. We described antibiotic prescriptions and evaluated the clinical impact of initial combination antibiotic therapy and de-escalation strategy in patients with VAP caused by P. aeruginosa. METHODS: Between 1994 and 2014, all 100 patients with VAP caused by P...
January 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088436/injury-severity-sex-and-transfusion-volume-but-not-transfusion-ratio-predict-inflammatory-complications-after-traumatic-injury
#11
Allison R Jones, Heather M Bush, Susan K Frazier
BACKGROUND: Blood component (packed red blood cells [PRBC], fresh frozen plasma [FFP], platelets [PLT]) ratios transfused in a 1:1:1 fashion are associated with survival after trauma; the relationship among blood component ratios and inflammatory complications after trauma is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship among blood component ratios (1:1 vs other for PRBC:FFP and PRBC:PLT) and inflammatory complications (primary outcome) in patients with major trauma...
January 11, 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079629/duration-of-pneumonia-therapy-and-the-role-of-biomarkers
#12
Katerina Kaziani, Adamantia Sotiriou, George Dimopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide phenomenon that is threatening public health. Lower respiratory infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity that contribute to antibiotic consumption and thus the emergence of multidrug-resistant microbial strains. The goal of shortening antibiotic regimens' duration in common bacterial infections has been prioritized by antimicrobial stewardship programs as an action against this problem. RECENT FINDINGS: Data coming from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews support the shortening of antimicrobial regimens in community-acquired, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075489/cough-augmentation-techniques-for-extubation-or-weaning-critically-ill-patients-from-mechanical-ventilation
#13
REVIEW
Louise Rose, Neill Kj Adhikari, David Leasa, Dean A Fergusson, Douglas McKim
BACKGROUND: There are various reasons why weaning and extubation failure occur, but ineffective cough and secretion retention can play a significant role. Cough augmentation techniques, such as lung volume recruitment or manually- and mechanically-assisted cough, are used to prevent and manage respiratory complications associated with chronic conditions, particularly neuromuscular disease, and may improve short- and long-term outcomes for people with acute respiratory failure. However, the role of cough augmentation to facilitate extubation and prevent post-extubation respiratory failure is unclear...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074789/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-severe-influenza-infection-with-respiratory-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Shashvat Sukhal, Jaskaran Sethi, Malini Ganesh, Pedro A Villablanca, Anita K Malhotra, Harish Ramakrishna
INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been extensively used for potentially reversible acute respiratory failure associated with severe influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia; however, it remains an expensive, resource-intensive therapy, with a high associated mortality. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to summarize and pool outcomes data available in the published literature to guide clinical decision-making and further research. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE (1966 to April 15, 2015), EMBASE (1980 to April 15, 2015), CENTRAL, and Google Scholar for patients with severe H1N1 pneumonia and respiratory failure who received ECMO...
January 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074126/the-emergence-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-malaysia-correlation-between-microbiological-trends-with-host-characteristics-and-clinical-factors
#15
Ye-Mun Low, Polly Soo-Xi Yap, Kartini Abdul Jabar, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Rina Karunakaran, Rukumani Velayuthan, Chun-Wie Chong, Sazaly Abu Bakar, Mohd Yasim Md Yusof, Cindy Shuan-Ju Teh
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a growing concern worldwide including Malaysia. The emergence of this pathogen is worrying because carbapenem is one of the 'last-line' antibiotics. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of genetic mechanisms and clinical risk factors of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) in Malaysia. METHODS: In this study, seventeen carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae strains isolated from a tertiary teaching hospital in 2013 were studied...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073994/vibrating-mesh-nebulizer-compared-with-metered-dose-inhaler-in-mechanically-ventilated-subjects
#16
Meagan N Dubosky, Yi-Fan Chen, Mary E Henriksen, David L Vines
BACKGROUND: The impact of various aerosol delivery devices on patient outcomes during mechanical ventilation is unknown. If one method of delivery results in a higher ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate than another, multiple patient outcomes may be affected. This study aimed to determine whether there was a difference in VAP occurrence and patient outcomes (days receiving ventilation and in-hospital mortality) between the vibrating mesh nebulizer (AeroNeb Solo) and the metered-dose inhaler (MDI)...
January 10, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073416/-pathogenic-features-and-prognosis-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-patients-with-liver-failure
#17
Z S Wu, F Zhang, D Y Shi, L Y Xiao, L Zhang, Y S Zheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069649/antimicrobial-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-when-tested-against-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-patients-hospitalized-with-pneumonia-in-united-states-medical-centers-2011-2015
#18
Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
Bacterial isolates were collected from patients hospitalized with pneumonia (PHP), including ventilator-associated (VAP), from 76 USA medical centers in 2011-2015. The Gram-negative organisms (n=11,185; including 1,097 from VAP) were tested for susceptibility against ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators by broth microdilution method. β-lactamase-encoding genes were screened using a microarray based assay on selected isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. were the most common Gram-negatives isolated from PHP and VAP...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067677/the-microbiome-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#19
Yudong Yin, Peter Hountras, Richard G Wunderink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Discovery of a normal lung microbiome requires reassessment of our concepts of HAP/VAP pathogenesis and has important implications for clinical diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Changes in the microbiome of dental plaque are associated with increased risk of HAP/VAP. A transition to a lung microbiome enriched with gut flora is found in ARDS with an increased inflammatory response in patients with this change in microbial flora. A characteristic microbiome pattern of higher amounts of bacterial DNA, lower community diversity, and greater relative abundance of a single species characterize pneumonia and occasionally identify bacteria not found in culture...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060857/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-induces-lung-injury-through-tnf-%C3%AE-c-jun-nh2-terminal-kinase-pathways
#20
Ying-Wei Yang, Yu-Zhen Jiang, Ching-Mei Hsu, Lee-Wei Chen
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the most common multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogen and VAP caused by PA carries a high rate of morbidity and mortality. This study examined the molecular mechanism of PA VAP-induced lung injury. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and JNK1 knockout (JNK1-/-) mice received mechanical ventilation (MV) for 3 h at 2 days after receiving nasal instillation of PA. The WT and JNK1-/- mice also received MV after the induction of lung injury by instillation of supernatants from PA-stimulated alveolar macrophages (AMs)...
2017: PloS One
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