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Lacrimal gland

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549901/degradation-of-proteoglycan-4-lubricin-by-cathepsin-s-potential-mechanism-for-diminished-ocular-surface-lubrication-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#1
Suresh C Regmi, Michael L Samsom, Miriam Heynen, Gregory D Jay, Benjamin D Sullivan, Sruthi Srinivasan, Barbara Caffery, Lyndon Jones, Tannin A Schmidt
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the lacrimal and salivary glands with hallmark clinical symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Recently, markedly increased cathepsin S (CTSS) activity has been observed in the tears of SS patients. Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), also known as lubricin, is an effective boundary lubricant that is naturally present on the ocular surface. While PRG4 is susceptible to proteolytic digestion, the potential effect of CTSS on PRG4 remains unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of CTSS to enzymatically degrade purified PRG4, and PRG4 naturally present in human tears, and alter ocular surface boundary lubricating properties...
May 23, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549557/aberrant-distribution-of-the-trochlear-nerve-a-cadaveric-study-supported-by-immunohistochemistry
#2
Kojiro Takezawa, Grant Townsend, Jim Manavis, Mounir Ghabriel
The trochlear nerve is generally considered to be a purely motor nerve supplying one extraocular muscle, the superior oblique. In the current study, 28 orbits were dissected and in one orbit (3.6%), the trochlear nerve divided into two main branches. The medial branch followed the classical course, entered the superior oblique muscle and was presumed to be motor in function. However, before entering the muscle, it partially fused with the frontal nerve, and gave a bundle of nerve fibres to the frontal nerve...
May 23, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546918/b-cell-receptor-signaling-pathway-involved-in-benign-lymphoepithelial-lesions-of-the-lacrimal-gland
#3
Xiao-Na Wang, Xin Ge, Jing Li, Xiao Liu, Jian-Min Ma
AIM: To detect the expression of B cell receptor signaling pathway (BCRSP) in lacrimal gland benign lymphoepithelial lesions (LGBLEL). METHODS: Gene microarray was used to compare whole-genome expression in lacrimal gland tissues from LGBLEL patients to tissues from orbital cavernous hemangioma (control tissues). Expression of BCRSP was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The expression of 22 genes of the BCRSP increased significantly in LGBLEL patients...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537471/characteristics-of-labial-gland-mesenchymal-stem-cells-of-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome-a-preliminary-study
#4
Shiqin Wang, Hong Hua, Yixiang Wang
Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by focal lymphocytic infiltration into exocrine organs such as salivary and lacrimal glands, resulting in dry mouth and eyes, and other systemic injuries. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the salivary glands of healthy individuals and patients with SS have not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to eluciadate the characteristics of MSCs from the labial glands of healthy controls and of those from patients with SS in order to elucidate the related pathogenesis and uncover potential avenues for novel clinical interventions...
May 24, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526333/systemic-manifestations-of-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-in-the-nod-b10sn-h2-b-j-mouse-model
#5
Jeremy Kiripolsky, Long Shen, Yichen Liang, Alisa Li, Lakshmanan Suresh, Yun Lian, Quan-Zhen Li, Daniel P Gaile, Jill M Kramer
Animal models that recapitulate human disease are crucial for the study of Sjögren's Syndrome (SS). While several SS mouse models exist, there are few primary SS (pSS) models that mimic systemic disease manifestations seen in humans. Similar to pSS patients, NOD.B10Sn-H2(b)/J (NOD.B10) mice develop exocrine gland disease and anti-nuclear autoantibodies. However, the disease kinetics and spectrum of extra-glandular disease remain poorly characterized in this model. Our objective was to characterize local and systemic SS manifestations in depth in NOD...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511845/mir-205-is-a-critical-regulator-of-lacrimal-gland-development
#6
D'Juan T Farmer, Jennifer K Finley, Feeling Y Chen, Estefania Tarifeño-Saldivia, Nancy A McNamara, Sarah M Knox, Michael T McManus
The tear film protects the terrestrial animal's ocular surface and the lacrimal gland provides important aqueous secretions necessary for its maintenance. Despite the importance of the lacrimal gland in ocular health, molecular aspects of its development remain poorly understood. We have identified a noncoding RNA (miR-205) as an important gene for lacrimal gland development. Mice lacking miR-205 fail to properly develop lacrimal glands, establishing this noncoding RNA as a key regulator of lacrimal gland development...
May 13, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501670/treg-recruiting-microspheres-prevent-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-dry-eye-disease
#7
Michelle L Ratay, Andrew J Glowacki, Stephen C Balmert, Abhinav P Acharya, Julia Polat, Lawrence P Andrews, Morgan V Fedorchak, Joel S Schuman, Dario A A Vignali, Steven R Little
Dry eye disease (DED) is a common ocular disorder affecting millions of individuals worldwide. The pathology of DED involves the infiltration of CD4(+) lymphocytes, leading to tear film instability and destructive inflammation. In the healthy steady state, a population of immunosuppressive T-cells called regulatory T-cells (Treg) regulates proliferation of immune cells that would otherwise lead to a disruption of immunological homeostasis. For this reason, it has been suggested that Tregs could restore the immunological imbalance in DED...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496965/malt-lymphoma-of-minor-salivary-glands-in-a-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Savvas Titsinides, Nikolaos Nikitakis, Evangelia Piperi, Alexandra Sklavounou
BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic systemic disease, characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and destruction mainly of the salivary and lacrimal glands, resulting in xerostomia and xeropthalmia. Sjögren's syndrome patients have a 44-fold excess risk for the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma particularly mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, prevalently affecting the major salivary glands. In this report, a rare case of MALT lymphoma of minor salivary glands in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome is described...
January 2017: Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483646/micrornas-in-ocular-surface-and-dry-eye-diseases-good-bad-and-healing-situations
#9
REVIEW
Diane Meyre Rassi, Cintia S De Paiva, Lara Cristina Dias, Carolina Maria Módulo, Leidiane Adriano, Marina Zilio Fantucci, Eduardo Melani Rocha
Since the first description of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the nineties of last century, more than 60 papers have described the role of miRNAs on the ocular surface and lacrimal gland. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in several physiological events and also as mediators of diseases. They inhibit the gene expression by blocking the messenger RNA. Diseases as Sjögren Syndrome (SS), ocular surface neoplasias and infections are known to increase or reduce the expression of specific miRNAs. These miRNAs play key activities in modulating inflammation, delaying or enhancing wound healing, cell differentiation metabolism, and survival...
May 5, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481787/evaluation-of-practical-interpretation-hurdles-in-68ga-psma-pet-ct-in-55-patients-physiological-tracer-distribution-and-incidental-tracer-uptake
#10
Julian Kirchner, Benedikt Michael Schaarschmidt, Lino Morris Sawicki, Philipp Heusch, Hubertus Hautzel, Johannes Ermert, Robert Rabenalt, Gerald Antoch, Christian Buchbender
PURPOSE: To investigate the physiologic Ga-PSMA distribution and evaluate focal or diffuse radiotracer uptake in nonprostate cancer malignancies and in incidental findings. METHODS: Ga-PSMA PET/CT scans in 55 men performed for prostate cancer (49) or renal cell carcinoma (6) staging were analyzed retrospectively. Two radiologists evaluated the datasets in 2 reading sessions. First, physiological Ga-PSMA uptake was evaluated. Second, scans were analyzed for incidental uptake...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476437/sjogren-s-syndrome-from-the-perspective-of-ophthalmology
#11
Eric Kuklinski, Penny A Asbell
Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the lacrimal glands resulting in dry eye disease (DED). Ophthalmologists may be the first line of detection of Sjogren's syndrome given the frequency of DED in SS and that dry eye is often the presenting symptom. Numerous symptom questionnaires and tests have been developed to help diagnose DED, but as of yet, there is no "gold standard." Minimally invasive objective metrics are needed for a reliable diagnosis of DED. Currently there is no single test to diagnose SS-associated DED...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465508/cd8-t-cells-contribute-to-lacrimal-gland-pathology-in-the-nonobese-diabetic-mouse-model-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#12
Jennifer Y Barr, Xiaofang Wang, David K Meyerholz, Scott M Lieberman
Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by targeted destruction of the lacrimal and salivary glands resulting in symptoms of severe ocular and oral dryness. Despite its prevalence, the mechanisms driving autoimmune manifestations are unclear. In patients and in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of Sjögren syndrome, lymphocytic infiltrates consist of CD4 and CD8 T cells, although the role of CD8 T cells in disease pathogenesis has been largely unexplored. Here, we evaluated the contribution of CD8 T cells to lacrimal and salivary gland autoimmunity...
May 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460477/inhibition-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-ameliorates-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-in-nod-mice
#13
Eunhye Park, Donghee Kim, Song Mi Lee, Hee-Sook Jun
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lysophospholipid, is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of LPA/LPA receptor (LPAR) signaling in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We found that autotaxin, an LPA producing enzyme, and LPAR1 and LPAR3 mRNA, and IL-17 mRNA were highly expressed in the exocrine glands of 20-week-old nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, which show SS symptoms at this age, as compared with non-symptomatic 8-week-old NOD mice...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458319/overlap-of-igg4-related-disease-and-multicentric-castleman-s-disease-in-a-patient-with-skin-lesions
#14
Hiroki Mochizuki, Manako Kato, Takakazu Higuchi, Ryosuke Koyamada, Satoru Arai, Sadamu Okada, Hikaru Eto
A 59-year-old man presented with multiple dark red erythemas with induration, anemia, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. A skin biopsy revealed the infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells and he was initially diagnosed with multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Glucocorticoid treatment was only partially effective. Four years later, the patient's bilateral lacrimal glands gradually became enlarged and a biopsy revealed dense lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration with an IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratio of 70%...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450562/double-targeting-ligands-with-modulated-pharmacokinetics-for-endoradiotherapy-of-prostate-cancer
#15
James M Kelly, Alejandro Amor-Coarasa, Anastasia Nikolopoulou, Till Wüstemann, Peter Barelli, Dohyun Kim, Clarence Williams, Xiwei Zheng, Cong Bi, Bao Hu, J David Warren, David S Hage, Stephen G DiMagno, John W Babich
PSMA-targeted radiotherapy of prostate cancer (PCa) has emerged recently as a promising approach to the treatment of disseminated disease. A small number of ligands have been evaluated in patients, and while early tumor response is encouraging, relapse rate is high, and these compounds localize to the parotid, salivary and lacrimal glands as well as the kidney, leading to dose-limiting toxicities and adverse events affecting quality of life. We envision that dual targeting ligands displaying high affinity for PSMA and appropriate affinity for human serum albumin (HSA) may demonstrate a higher therapeutic index and be suitable for treatment of PCa by targeted alpha therapy (TAT)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436752/quantitative-mr-imaging-of-intra-orbital-structures-tissue-specific-measurements-and-age-dependency-compared-to-extra-orbital-structures-using-multispectral-quantitative-mr-imaging
#16
Memi Watanabe, Karen Buch, Akifumi Fujita, Hernán Jara, Muhammad Mustafa Qureshi, Osamu Sakai
The orbit can be affected by unique pathologic conditions and often requires MRI evaluation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in multiple intra-orbital structures using quantitative MRI (qMRI). Thirty-eight subjects (20 males, 18 females; ages 0.5-87 years) underwent MRI with a mixed turbo spin echo sequence. T1 and T2 measurements were obtained within ROI in 6 intra-orbital structures (medial and lateral rectus muscles, medial and lateral retrobulbar fat, lacrimal gland, and optic nerve), and compared with those of corresponding extra-orbital structures (masseter muscle, subcutaneous cheek fat, buccal fat, parotid gland, and frontal white matter)...
April 24, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431436/enhanced-tearing-by-electrical-stimulation-of-the-anterior-ethmoid-nerve
#17
Mark Brinton, Andrea L Kossler, Zara M Patel, James Loudin, Manfred Franke, Christopher N Ta, Daniel Palanker
Purpose: Electrical neurostimulation enhances tear secretion, and can be applied to treatment of dry eye disease. Using a chronic implant, we evaluate the effects of stimulating the anterior ethmoid nerve on the aqueous, lipid, and protein content of secreted tears. Methods: Neurostimulators were implanted beneath the nasal mucosa in 13 New Zealand white rabbits. Stimulations (2.3-2.8 mA pulses of 75-875 μs in duration repeated at 30-100 Hz for 3 minutes) were performed daily, for 3 weeks to measure changes in tear volume (Schirmer test), osmolarity (TearLab osmometer), lipid (Oil-Red-O staining), and protein (BCA assay, mass spectrometry)...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423973/neurological-involvement-of-igg4-related-disease-description-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Marco Varrassi, Camilla Gianneramo, Francesco Arrigoni, Paolo Cerrone, Patrizia Sucapane, Carmine Marini, Alessandra Splendiani
IgG4-related disease is a recently discovered pathological entity, histologically characterised by fibrosis and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration. This condition may virtually involve every site of the organism, with a various range of clinical presentations. The most commonly affected organ is the pancreatic gland, but it can also involve the biliary tract, salivary and lacrimal glands, kidneys, orbital tissues, lymph nodes, lungs and many others. More recently, IgG4-related disease has been demonstrated to involve, in rare cases, also the central nervous system, with a pattern mainly characterised by hypertrophic pachymeningitis...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422804/a-review-of-ocular-graft-versus-host-disease
#19
Saleha Z Munir, James Aylward
: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication that occurs following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is a potential curative therapy used in a variety of malignant or benign hematological diseases. Graft-versus-host disease primarily occurs in many organs, but most notably in the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, eyes, mucosa, and musculoskeletal system. Ocular manifestations of GVHD may precede other systemic GVHD findings, and it may be a poor prognosis for mortality...
May 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416688/knockout-of-the-lrrc26-subunit-reveals-a-primary-role-of-lrrc26-containing-bk-channels-in-secretory-epithelial-cells
#20
Chengtao Yang, Vivian Gonzalez-Perez, Taro Mukaibo, James E Melvin, Xiao-Ming Xia, Christopher J Lingle
Leucine-rich-repeat-containing protein 26 (LRRC26) is the regulatory γ1 subunit of Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent BK-type K(+) channels. BK channels that contain LRRC26 subunits are active near normal resting potentials even without Ca(2+), suggesting they play unique physiological roles, likely limited to very specific cell types and cellular functions. By using Lrrc26 KO mice with a β-gal reporter, Lrrc26 promoter activity is found in secretory epithelial cells, especially acinar epithelial cells in lacrimal and salivary glands, and also goblet and Paneth cells in intestine and colon, although absent from neurons...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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