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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886601/ambient-air-pollution-and-cancer-mortality-in-the-cancer-prevention-study-ii
#1
Michelle C Turner, Daniel Krewski, W Ryan Diver, C Arden Pope, Richard T Burnett, Michael Jerrett, Julian D Marshall, Susan M Gapstur
BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified both outdoor air pollution and airborne particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) for lung cancer. There may be associations with cancer at other sites; however, the epidemiological evidence is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify whether ambient air pollution is associated with specific types of cancer other than lung cancer by examining associations of ambient air pollution with nonlung cancer death in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II)...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854891/cancer-related-risk-factors-and-incidence-of-major-cancers-by-race-gender-and-region-analysis-of-the-nih-aarp-diet-and-health-study
#2
Tomi Akinyemiju, Howard Wiener, Maria Pisu
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in the incidence of major cancers may be attributed to differences in the prevalence of established, modifiable risk factors such as obesity, smoking, physical activity and diet. METHODS: Data from a prospective cohort of 566,398 adults aged 50-71 years, 19,677 African-American and 450,623 Whites, was analyzed. Baseline data on cancer-related risk factors such as smoking, alcohol, physical activity and dietary patterns were used to create an individual adherence score...
August 30, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852270/the-role-of-proinflammatory-pathways-in-the-pathogenesis-of-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Chengxin Luo, Hu Zhang
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The risk factors of CRC in IBD patients include long disease duration, extensive colitis, severe histological inflammation, and coexistence with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Several molecular pathways that contribute to sporadic CRC are also involved in the pathogenesis of colitis-associated CRC. It is well established that long-standing chronic inflammation is a key predisposing factor of CRC in IBD...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815043/the-mek-inhibitor-selumetinib-complements-ctla-4-blockade-by-reprogramming-the-tumor-immune-microenvironment
#4
Edmund Poon, Stefanie Mullins, Amanda Watkins, Geoffrey S Williams, Jens-Oliver Koopmann, Gianfranco Di Genova, Marie Cumberbatch, Margaret Veldman-Jones, Shaun E Grosskurth, Vasu Sah, Alwin Schuller, Corrine Reimer, Simon J Dovedi, Paul D Smith, Ross Stewart, Robert W Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: T-cell checkpoint blockade and MEK inhibitor combinations are under clinical investigation. Despite progress elucidating the immuno-modulatory effects of MEK inhibitors as standalone therapies, the impact of MEK inhibition on the activity of T-cell checkpoint inhibitors remains incompletely understood. Here we sought to characterize the combined effects of MEK inhibition and anti-CTLA-4 mAb (anti-CTLA-4) therapy, examining effects on both T-cells and tumor microenvironment (TME)...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807001/the-mek-inhibitor-selumetinib-complements-ctla-4-blockade-by-reprogramming-the-tumor-immune-microenvironment
#5
Edmund Poon, Stefanie Mullins, Amanda Watkins, Geoffrey S Williams, Jens-Oliver Koopmann, Gianfranco Di Genova, Marie Cumberbatch, Margaret Veldman-Jones, Shaun E Grosskurth, Vasu Sah, Alwin Schuller, Corrine Reimer, Simon J Dovedi, Paul D Smith, Ross Stewart, Robert W Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: T-cell checkpoint blockade and MEK inhibitor combinations are under clinical investigation. Despite progress elucidating the immuno-modulatory effects of MEK inhibitors as standalone therapies, the impact of MEK inhibition on the activity of T-cell checkpoint inhibitors remains incompletely understood. Here we sought to characterize the combined effects of MEK inhibition and anti-CTLA-4 mAb (anti-CTLA-4) therapy, examining effects on both T-cells and tumor microenvironment (TME)...
August 15, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797636/modulating-effect-of-inositol-hexaphosphate-on-arachidonic-acid-dependent-pathways-in-colon-cancer-cells
#6
Małgorzata Kapral, Joanna Wawszczyk, Stanisław Sośnicki, Katarzyna Jesse, Ludmiła Węglarz
Cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) are key enzymes of arachidonic acid metabolism. Their products, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a naturally occurring phytochemical, on the expression of genes encoding COX and LOX isoforms and synthesis of their products (PGE2 and LTB4) in colon cancer cell line Caco-2 stimulated with pro-inflammatory agents (IL-1β/TNFα)...
August 8, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755421/smoking-is-a-risk-factor-of-pulmonary-metastasis-in-colorectal-cancer
#7
Masashi Yahagi, Masashi Tsuruta, Hirotoshi Hasegawa, Koji Okabayashi, Naoyuki Toyoda, Nozomi Iwama, Satoru Morita, Yuko Kitagawa
AIM: The hepatic microenvironment, which may include chronic inflammation and fibrosis, is considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of liver metastases of colorectal cancer. A similar mechanism is anticipated in pulmonary metastases, although no reports are available. Smoking causes pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, we hypothesized that smokers would be especially affected by pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer. In this study, we attempted to clarify the impact of smoking on pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer...
July 29, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751477/associations-of-coffee-drinking-and-cancer-mortality-in-the-cancer-prevention-study-ii
#8
Susan M Gapstur, Rebecca L Anderson, Peter T Campbell, Eric J Jacobs, Terryl J Hartman, Janet S Hildebrand, Ying Wang, Marjorie L McCullough
BACKGROUND: Associations of coffee consumption with cancer mortality are inconsistent for many types of cancer, and confounding by smoking is an important concern. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for coffee consumption associated with death from all cancers combined and from specific cancer types among 922,896 Cancer Prevention Study-II participants aged 28-94 years who completed a four-page questionnaire and were cancer free at baseline in 1982...
July 27, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736986/adolescent-body-mass-index-and-risk-of-colon-and-rectal-cancer-in-a-cohort-of-1-79-million-israeli-men-and-women-a-population-based-study
#9
Zohar Levi, Jeremy D Kark, Lior H Katz, Gilad Twig, Estela Derazne, Dorit Tzur, Yaara Leibovici Weissman, Adi Leiba, Irena Lipshiez, Lital Keinan Boker, Arnon Afek
BACKGROUND: This study examined the association between the body mass index (BMI) in late adolescence and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. METHODS: This study analyzed a cohort of 1,087,358 Jewish men and 707,212 Jewish women who underwent health examinations at the ages of 16 to 19 years between 1967 and 2002 and were followed by linkage to the national cancer registry up to 2012. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer according to age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentiles from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (overweight, 85th percentile to <95th percentile; obesity, ≥95th percentile)...
July 24, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676858/jacalin-has-chemopreventive-effects-on-colon-cancer-development
#10
Thais Herrero Geraldino, Patricia Modiano, Luciana Chain Veronez, Milena Flória-Santos, Sergio Britto Garcia, Gabriela Pereira-da-Silva
Colorectal cancer, which is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, has a slow natural history that provides a great opportunity for prevention strategies. Plant-derived natural products have received considerable attention because of their inherent colorectal cancer chemopreventive effects. The plant lectin jacalin specifically recognizes the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen and has antiproliferative effects on human colon cancer cells, highlighting its potential antitumor activity...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500842/ppa1-regulates-tumor-malignant-potential-and-clinical-outcome-of-colon-adenocarcinoma-through-jnk-pathways
#11
Ping Wang, Yi Zhou, Qi Mei, Jing Zhao, Liu Huang, Qiang Fu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents one of the most prevalent malignancies and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate to inorganic phosphate, therefore participates in the energy metabolism. Proteomic studies have demonstrated the up-regulated expression of PPA1 in various tumors, however, its expression pattern in CRC hasn't been reported. In the current study, we used RT-qCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining to explore the expression of PPA1 in 113 paired colon cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues, which revealed that PPA1 was correlated with lymph node metastasis...
April 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423729/digitalis-use-and-risk-of-gastrointestinal-cancers-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Shao-Hua Xie, Tomas Jernberg, Fredrik Mattsson, Jesper Lagergren
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal cancers are characterized by a male predominance, suggesting a role of sex hormones. We hypothesized that digitalis medication, due to its estrogenic properties, decreases the risk of male-predominated gastrointestinal cancers. RESULTS: Long -term digitalis use (≥2 years) was followed by decreased risk for several gastrointestinal cancers, but associations were statistically significant only for liver cancer (hazard ratio [HR]=0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376154/annual-report-to-the-nation-on-the-status-of-cancer-1975-2014-featuring-survival
#13
Ahmedin Jemal, Elizabeth M Ward, Christopher J Johnson, Kathleen A Cronin, Jiemin Ma, Blythe Ryerson, Angela Mariotto, Andrew J Lake, Reda Wilson, Recinda L Sherman, Robert N Anderson, S Jane Henley, Betsy A Kohler, Lynne Penberthy, Eric J Feuer, Hannah K Weir
Background: The American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate to provide annual updates on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States. This Annual Report highlights survival rates. Data were from the CDC- and NCI-funded population-based cancer registry programs and compiled by NAACCR. Trends in age-standardized incidence and death rates for all cancers combined and for the leading cancer types by sex were estimated by joinpoint analysis and expressed as annual percent change...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320475/decreased-expression-of-semaphorin-3d-is-associated-with-genesis-and-development-in-colorectal-cancer
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Zhen Wang, Meiman Ding, Naiying Qian, Beifeng Song, Jiayin Yu, Jinlong Tang, Jingyu Wang
BACKGROUND: Semaphorin 3D (SEMA3D) plays important roles in the genesis and progress of many cancers. However, the relationship between SEMA3D and colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SEMA3D can be used as a predictive marker for the diagnosis, metastasis, and prognosis of CRC by assessing the expression of SEMA3D in the tissues and serum of CRC patients. METHODS: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to measure the expression of SEMA3D mRNA in 100 CRC tissues and matched normal tissues...
March 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212276/preventive-effects-of-pentoxifylline-on-the-development-of-colonic-premalignant-lesions-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#15
Kazufumi Fukuta, Yohei Shirakami, Akinori Maruta, Koki Obara, Soichi Iritani, Nobuhiko Nakamura, Takahiro Kochi, Masaya Kubota, Hiroyasu Sakai, Takuji Tanaka, Masahito Shimizu
Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including enhanced oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, are closely related to colorectal tumorigenesis. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative, has been reported to suppress the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and possess anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of PTX on the development of carcinogen-induced colorectal premalignant lesions in obese and diabetic mice. Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice, which are severely obese and diabetic, were administered weekly subcutaneous injections of the colonic carcinogen azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight) for four weeks and then received drinking water containing 125 or 500 ppm PTX for eight weeks...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139830/low-dose-aspirin-acetylates-cyclooxygenase-1-in-human-colorectal-mucosa-implications-for-the-chemoprevention-of-colorectal-cancer
#16
P Patrignani, A Sacco, C Sostres, A Bruno, M Dovizio, E Piazuelo, L Di Francesco, A Contursi, M Zucchelli, S Schiavone, S Tacconelli, C Patrono, A Lanas
The mechanism of action of low-dose aspirin in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely hypothetical. We aimed to compare the effects of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day for 7 days) given to 40 individuals undergoing CRC screening on the extent of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 acetylation at serine-529 (AceCOX-1), in blood platelets vs. colorectal mucosa, at 7 (group 1) and 24 h (group 2) after dosing. A significantly (P < 0.01) lower %AceCOX-1 was detected in colonic and rectal mucosa (average 64%) vs...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120565/parameters-of-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-affect-the-occurrence-of-colorectal-adenomas-detected-by-surveillance-colonoscopies
#17
Nam Hee Kim, Jung Yul Suh, Jung Ho Park, Dong Il Park, Yong Kyun Cho, Chong Il Sohn, Kyuyong Choi, Yoon Suk Jung
PURPOSE: Limited data are available regarding the associations between parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and the occurrence of metachronous adenomas. We investigated whether these parameters affect the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This longitudinal study was performed on 5289 subjects who underwent follow-up colonoscopy between 2012 and 2013 among 62171 asymptomatic subjects who underwent an initial colonoscopy for a health check-up between 2010 and 2011...
March 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965474/a%C3%A3-a%C3%A3-berries-inhibit-colon-tumorigenesis-in-azoxymethane-dextran-sulfate-sodium-treated-mice
#18
Yoon Jin Choi, Yoon Jeong Choi, Nayoung Kim, Ryoung Hee Nam, Seonmin Lee, Hye Seung Lee, Ha-Na Lee, Young-Joon Surh, Dong Ho Lee
Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of açaí against azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colorectal cancer development. Methods: The effect of açaí on tumorigenesis was assessed by evaluating tumor incidence, multiplicity and invasiveness in the mouse colon. The levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 15, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910140/side-effects-of-irinotecan-cpt-11-the-clinically-used-drug-for-colon-cancer-therapy-are-eliminated-in-experimental-animals-treated-with-latex-proteins-from-calotropis-procera-apocynaceae
#19
Nylane Maria Nunes de Alencar, Flávio da Silveira Bitencourt, Ingrid Samantha Tavares de Figueiredo, Patrícia Bastos Luz, Roberto César P Lima-Júnior, Karoline Sabóia Aragão, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito, Ronaldo Albuquerque Ribeiro, Ana Paula Fragoso de Freitas, Marcio Viana Ramos
Intestinal mucositis (IM) is the critical side effect of irinotecan (CPT-11), which is the front-line drug used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of latex proteins (LP) from Calotropis procera to prevent IM and diarrhea in animals. Swiss mice were treated daily with saline or LP (1, 5, or 50 mg/kg, i.v.) 24 h prior to CTP-11 (75 mg/kg/4 days, i.p) and for additional 6 days. Animal survival, body weight variation, and diarrhea were registered. After animal sacrifice (day 7 post first injection of CPT-11), intestinal samples were collected to study morphology and inflammatory parameters...
February 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902713/association-of-n-linked-glycoprotein-acetyls-and-colorectal-cancer-incidence-and-mortality
#20
Paulette D Chandler, Akintunde O Akinkuolie, Deirdre K Tobias, Patrick R Lawler, Chungying Li, M Vinayaga Moorthy, Lu Wang, Daniel A Duprez, David R Jacobs, Robert J Glynn, James Otvos, Margery A Connelly, Wendy S Post, Paul M Ridker, JoAnn E Manson, Julie E Buring, I-Min Lee, Samia Mora
BACKGROUND: Acute phase proteins highlight the dynamic interaction between inflammation and oncogenesis. GlycA, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) inflammatory marker that identifies primarily circulating N-acetyl glycan groups attached to acute phase proteins, may be a future CRC risk biomarker. METHODS: We examined the association between GlycA and incident CRC and mortality in two prospective cohorts (N = 34,320); Discovery cohort: 27,495 participants from Women's Health Study (WHS); Replication cohort: 6,784 participants from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)...
2016: PloS One
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