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cox 2 in preventive colorectal

Rebeccah B Baucom, Jenny Ousley, Gloria B Beveridge, Sharon E Phillips, Richard A Pierce, Michael D Holzman, Kenneth W Sharp, William H Nealon, Benjamin K Poulose
BACKGROUND: Cancer survivorship focuses largely on improving quality of life. We aimed to determine the rate of ventral incisional hernia (VIH) formation after cancer resection, with implications for survivorship. METHODS: Patients without prior VIH who underwent abdominal malignancy resections at a tertiary center were followed up to 2 years. Patients with a viewable preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan and CT within 2 years postoperatively were included...
October 14, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Patricia A Thompson, Erin L Ashbeck, Denise J Roe, Liane Fales, Julie Buckmeier, Fang Wang, Achyut Bhattacharyya, Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, Sherry H H Chow, Dennis J Ahnen, C Richard Boland, Russell I Heigh, David E Fay, Stanley R Hamilton, Elizabeth T Jacobs, Elena Maria Martinez, David S Alberts, Peter Lance
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors such as celecoxib were designed to preserve anti-inflammatory activity without inhibiting COX-1. Downregulation of COX-2 inhibits colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: The Selenium and Celecoxib Trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of once-daily selenium 200 µg and celecoxib 400 mg, alone or together, for colorectal adenoma prevention. Men and women between age 40 and 80 years were eligible following colonoscopic removal of adenomas...
December 2016: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Yaser Gamallat, Abdo Meyiah, Eugene D Kuugbee, Ahmed Musa Hago, Gift Chiwala, Annoor Awadasseid, Djibril Bamba, Xin Zhang, Xueqi Shang, Fuwen Luo, Yi Xin
BACKGROUND/AIM: Probiotics have been suggested as prophylactic measure in colon carcinogenesis. This study aimed at determining the potential prophylactic activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG CGMCC 1.2134 (LGG) strain on colorectal carcinogenesis via measuring its effect on Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) inflammatory pathway and apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 64 Sprague Dawley rats were grouped into four as follows; Group 1 (Healthy control), Group 2 (LGG), Group 3 (cancer control Dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)) and Group 4 (LGG+DMH)...
July 19, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Eugene Dogkotenge Kuugbee, Xueqi Shang, Yaser Gamallat, Djibril Bamba, Annoor Awadasseid, Mohammed Ahmed Suliman, Shizhu Zang, Yufang Ma, Gift Chiwala, Yi Xin, Dong Shang
BACKGROUND: Structural change in the gut microbiota is implicated in cancer. The beneficial modulation of the microbiota composition with probiotics and prebiotics prevents diseases. AIM: We investigated the effect of oligofructose-maltodextrin-enriched Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria bifidum, and Bifidobacteria infantum (LBB), on the gut microbiota composition and progression of colorectal cancer. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were acclimatized, given ampicillin (75 mg/kg), and treated as follows; GCO: normal control; GPR: LBB only; GPC: LBB+ 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH); and GCA: DMH only (cancer control)...
October 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Liat Sorski, Rivka Melamed, Pini Matzner, Hagar Lavon, Lee Shaashua, Ella Rosenne, Shamgar Ben-Eliyahu
Liver metastases are a major cause of colorectal cancer death, and the perioperative period is believed to critically affect the metastatic process. Here we tested whether blocking excess release of catecholamines and prostaglandins during surgical procedures of different extent can reduce experimental liver metastasis of the syngeneic CT26 colon cancer in female and male BALB/c mice. Animals were either treated with the beta-blocker, propranolol, the COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac, both drugs, or vehicle. The role of NK cells in controlling CT26 hepatic metastasis and in mediating the effect of the drugs was assessed by in vivo depletion or stimulation of NK cells, using anti-asialo GM1 or CpG-C, respectively...
May 25, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Sarah J O Nomura, Chiranjeev Dash, Lynn Rosenberg, Jeffrey Yu, Julie R Palmer, Lucile L Adams-Campbell
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations was associated with colorectal cancer incidence in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS). METHODS: In this ongoing prospective cohort of African American women (analytic cohort n = 49,103), 354 incident colorectal cancers were diagnosed between baseline (1995) and 2011. Adherence scores for seven WCRF/AICR recommendations (adherent = 1 point, non-adherent level 1 = 0...
July 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Yue Guo, Yue Liu, Chengyue Zhang, Zheng-Yuan Su, Wenji Li, Mou-Tuan Huang, Ah-Ng Kong
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Chronic inflammation appears to enhance the risk of CRC. Emerging evidence has suggested that epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in CRC. Aspirin [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)] has been shown to prevent CRC; however, the epigenetic mechanisms of its action remain unknown. This study investigated the protective role of ASA in azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-promoted colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) and examined the epigenetic effects, particularly on histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac), underlying the preventive effect of ASA...
June 2016: Carcinogenesis
Josiane Semaan, Aline Pinon, Benjamin Rioux, Lama Hassan, Youness Limami, Christelle Pouget, Catherine Fagnère, Vincent Sol, Mona Diab-Assaf, Alain Simon, Bertrand Liagre
Increasing incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer brings the necessity to uncover new possibilities in its prevention and treatment. Chalcones have been identified as interesting compounds having chemopreventive and antitumor properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of the synthetic chalcone derivative 3-hydroxy-3',4,4',5'-tetra-methoxy-chalcone (3-HTMC) on proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and its mechanism of action in human colorectal HT-29 (COX-2 sufficient) and HCT116 (COX-2 deficient) cancer cells...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Andreana N Holowatyj, Julie J Ruterbusch, Laura S Rozek, Michele L Cote, Elena M Stoffel
PURPOSE: Racial disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) persist, despite overall reductions in morbidity and mortality. In addition, incidence is rising among individuals younger than 50 years of age. We compared the survival of young-onset CRC among non-Hispanic black (NHB), non-Hispanic white (NHW), and Hispanic individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data, we identified individuals between the ages of 20 and 49 years, diagnosed with CRC between 2000 and 2009...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Paulette D Chandler, Yiqing Song, Jennifer Lin, Shumin Zhang, Howard D Sesso, Samia Mora, Edward L Giovannucci, Kathryn E Rexrode, M Vinayaga Moorthy, Chunying Li, Paul M Ridker, I-Min Lee, JoAnn E Manson, Julie E Buring, Lu Wang
BACKGROUND: Lipid biomarkers, such as HDL-cholesterol concentrations, have been shown to have positive, inverse, and null associations with total, breast, and colorectal cancer risks. Studies of novel lipid biomarkers, such as apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100), and cancer risk have been sparse, to our knowledge. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the prospective association of total, breast, colorectal, and lung cancers and cancer mortality with circulating lipid biomarkers in 15,602 female health professionals in the Women's Health Study (aged ≥45 y, free of cardiovascular disease and cancer, and without hormone replacement therapy or lipid-lowering medications at baseline)...
June 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Elizabeth L Yanik, Hormuzd A Katki, Eric A Engels
OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected people and elderly people have higher cancer risk, but the combined effects of aging and HIV are not well described. We aimed to evaluate the magnitude of cancer risk in the HIV-infected elderly population. DESIGN: We conducted a case-cohort study including a 5% sample of U.S. Medicare enrollees and all cancer cases aged at least 65 in linked cancer registries. METHODS: HIV was identified through Medicare claims. Among the HIV-infected, absolute cancer risk was calculated accounting for the competing risk of death...
June 19, 2016: AIDS
Mona M Saber, May A Galal, Afaf A Ain-Shoka, Samia A Shouman
BACKGROUND: The link between inflammation and cancer has been confirmed by the use of anti-inflammatory therapies in cancer prevention and treatment. 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was shown to decrease the growth and survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Studies also revealed that metformin induced apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. METHODS: We investigated the combinatory effect of 5-ASA and metformin on HCT-116 and Caco-2 CRC cell lines. Apoptotic markers were determined using western blotting...
2016: BMC Cancer
Mehnaz Pervin, Md Abul Hasnat, Ji-Hong Lim, Yoon-Mi Lee, Eun Ok Kim, Byung-Hun Um, Beong Ou Lim
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory disorder caused by hyperactivation of effector immune cells that produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines. The aims of our study were to determine whether orally administered blueberry extract (BE) could attenuate or prevent the development of experimental colitis in mice and to elucidate the mechanism of action. Female Balb/C mice (n=7) were randomized into groups differing in treatment conditions (prevention and treatment) and dose of BE (50 mg/kg body weight)...
February 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Caitriona B O'Neill, Coral L Atoria, Eileen M O'Reilly, Martin C Henman, Peter B Bach, Elena B Elkin, Caitriona B O'Neill, Coral L Atoria, Eileen M O'Reilly, Martin C Henman, Peter B Bach, Elena B Elkin
PURPOSE: Hospital readmissions are often cited as a marker of poor quality of care. Limited data suggest some readmissions may be preventable depending upon definitions and available outpatient support. METHODS: General criteria to define preventable and not preventable admissions were developed before data collection began. The records of sequential nonsurgical oncology readmissions were reviewed independently by two reviewers. When the reviewers disagreed about assigning admissions as preventable or not preventable, a third reviewer was the tie breaker...
February 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Anupam Bishayee, Gautam Sethi, Pallu Reddanna, Arunasree M Kalle, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya, Kaladhar S V G K Dowluru, Ramakrishna Chintala, Govinda Rao Duddukuri
Arachidonic acid (AA) pathway, a metabolic process, plays a key role in carcinogenesis. Hence, AA pathway metabolic enzymes phospholipase A2s (PLA2s), cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolic products, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been considered novel preventive and therapeutic targets in cancer. Bioactive natural products are a good source for development of novel cancer preventive and therapeutic drugs, which have been widely used in clinical practice due to their safety profiles...
February 4, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Lianjie Lin, Yan Sun, Dongxu Wang, Shihang Zheng, Jing Zhang, Changqing Zheng
Celastrol, also named as tripterine, is a pharmacologically active ingredient extracted from the root of traditional Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F with potent anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of celastrol on ulcerative colitis-related colorectal cancer (UC-CRC) as well as CRC in vivo and in vitro and explored its underlying mechanisms. UC-CRC model was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kamonwan Promtes, Piengchai Kupradinun, Anudep Rungsipipat, Siriporn Tuntipopipat, Chaniphun Butryee
To investigate the potential effects of Eryngium foetidum Linn. leaves (EF) in colitis-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), 39 ICR male mice were studied and divided into 6 groups. The mice were received a modified AIN-76 diet in Group 1, whereas Group 2 was given an AOM, DSS, and AIN-76 diet. Groups 3 and 4 were fed with 0.8% and 3.2% freeze-dried EF with AIN-76 diets, for 5 wk. Groups 5 and 6 were fed with 0.8% and 3.2% EF diets for 5 wk during AOM/DSS administration...
2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Napapan Kangwan, Yoon-Jae Kim, Young Min Han, Migyeong Jeong, Jong-Min Park, Eun-Jin Go, Ki-Baik Hahm
Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling is essential in normal development of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, whereas aberrantly activated SHH is implicated in GI cancers because it facilitates carcinogenesis by redirecting stem cells. Since colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, in which SHH and IL-6 signaling, inflammation propagation, and cancer stem cell (CSC) activation have been implicated, we hypothesized that SHH inhibitors may prevent CAC by blocking the above SHH-related carcinogenic pathways...
February 16, 2016: Oncotarget
L Paleari, M Puntoni, M Clavarezza, M DeCensi, J Cuzick, A DeCensi
AIMS: Regular aspirin use has been associated with inhibition of the whole spectrum of colorectal carcinogenesis, including prevention of metastases and reduced total mortality in colorectal cancer. Preclinical data show that aspirin down-regulates PI3 kinase (PI3K) signalling activity through cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition, leading to the hypothesis that the effect of aspirin might be different according to PIK3CA mutational status, but epidemiological studies have led to conflicting results...
May 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Xiao-Hang Che, Chun-Lin Chen, Xiao-Lei Ye, Guo-Bin Weng, Xian-Zhi Guo, Wen-Ying Yu, Jin Tao, Yi-Chen Chen, Xiaodong Chen
Inflammation is emerging as a new hallmark of cancer. Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, the family of cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenase (LOX) play important roles in AA-related inflammatory cascades. In 94 colorectal cancer samples collected from the Han population, the immunohistochemical results indicated that 68% of the patients with colorectal cancer had a co-expression of both COX-2 and 5-LOX, while both displayed low expression in the matched normal tissues. In cell lines, three colorectal cancer cell lines exhibited high expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX...
March 2016: Oncology Reports
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