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cox 2 in preventive colorectal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137605/effects-of-aspirin-and-non-aspirin-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-on-the-incidence-of-recurrent-colorectal-adenomas-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#1
Sajesh K Veettil, Kean Ghee Lim, Siew Mooi Ching, Surasak Saokaew, Pochamana Phisalprapa, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of aspirin and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against recurrent colorectal adenomas have been documented in systematic reviews; however, the results have not been conclusive. Uncertainty remains about the appropriate dose of aspirin for adenoma prevention. The persistence of the protective effect of NSAIDs against recurrent adenomas after treatment cessation is yet to be established. METHODS: Our objective was to update and systematically evaluate the evidence for aspirin and other NSAIDs on the incidence of recurrent colorectal adenomas taking into consideration the risks of random error and to appraise the quality of evidence using GRADE (The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach...
November 14, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136951/chemopreventive-effect-of-myricetin-a-natural-occurring-compound-on-colonic-chronic-inflammation-and-inflammation-driven-tumorigenesis-in-mice
#2
Mei-Jia Zhang, Han Su, Jing-Yue Yan, Na Li, Zhi-Yu Song, Huai-Jie Wang, Lian-Guang Huo, Feng Wang, Wan-Sheng Ji, Xian-Jun Qu, Mei-Hua Qu
Myricetin is a flavonoids compound extracted from edible myrica rubra. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Myricetin on colonic chronic inflammation and inflammation-driven tumorigenesis in mice. Myricetin was administrated by gavage for 4 consecutive weeks. Mice were sacrificed and the number of colonic polyps was counted. Myricetin significantly inhibited AOM/DSS-induced colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis. Myricetin prevented the incidence of colorectal tumorigenesis and reduced the size of colorectal polyps...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114386/suppression-of-inflammation-and-tissue-damage-by-a-hookworm-recombinant-protein-in-experimental-colitis
#3
Ivana B Ferreira, Darren A Pickering, Sally Troy, John Croese, Alex Loukas, Severine Navarro
Gastrointestinal parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts when present in small numbers, allowing them to establish chronic infections for decades. They do so by creating an immunoregulatory environment that promotes their own survival, but paradoxically also benefits the host by protecting against the onset of many inflammatory diseases. To harness the therapeutic value of hookworms without using live parasites, we have examined the protective properties of the recombinant protein anti-inflammatory protein (AIP)-1, secreted in abundance by hookworms within the intestinal mucosa, in experimental colitis...
October 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986187/aldose-reductase-inhibitor-fidarestat-regulates-mitochondrial-biogenesis-via-nrf2-ho-1-ampk-pathway-in-colon-cancer-cells
#4
Kirtikar Shukla, Himangshu Sonowal, Ashish Saxena, Kota V Ramana, Satish K Srivastava
Although we have shown earlier that aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors prevent colorectal cancer cell (CRC) growth in culture as well as in nude mice xenografts, the mechanism(s) is not well understood. In this study, we have investigated how AR inhibition prevents CRC growth by regulating the mitochondrial biogenesis via Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Incubation of CRC cells such as SW-480, HT29, and HCT116 with AR inhibitor, fidarestat that non-covalently binds to the enzyme, increases the expression of Nrf2. Further, fidarestat augmented the EGF-induced expression of Nrf2 in CRC cells...
December 28, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983734/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-enhanced-recovery-programs-on-early-stage-colorectal-cancer-surgery
#5
Aurélien Venara, Emilie Duchalais, Anne Dariel, Philippe Aubert, Tony Durand, Guillaume Meurette, Malvyne Rolli-Derkinderen, Antoine Hamy, Michel Neunlist
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) is observed in 20-30% of patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery, despite enhanced recovery programs (ERPs). Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is identified as a key enzyme in POI, but other arachidonic acid pathway enzymes have received little attention despite their potential as selective targets to prevent POI. The objectives were to compare the expression of arachidonic acid metabolism (AAM) enzymes (1) between patients who underwent colorectal cancer surgery and followed an ERP or not (NERP), (2) and between ERP patients who experimented POI or not and (3) to determine the ability of antagonists of these pathways to modulate contractile activity of colonic muscle...
October 5, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938583/ppa1-regulates-tumor-malignant-potential-and-clinical-outcome-of-colon-adenocarcinoma-through-jnk-pathways
#6
Ping Wang, Yi Zhou, Qi Mei, Jing Zhao, Liu Huang, Qiang Fu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents one of the most prevalent malignancies and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate to inorganic phosphate, therefore participates in the energy metabolism. Proteomic studies have demonstrated the up-regulated expression of PPA1 in various tumors, however, its expression pattern in CRC hasn't been reported. In the current study, we used RT-qCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining to explore the expression of PPA1 in 113 paired colon cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues, which revealed that PPA1 was correlated with lymph node metastasis...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886601/ambient-air-pollution-and-cancer-mortality-in-the-cancer-prevention-study-ii
#7
Michelle C Turner, Daniel Krewski, W Ryan Diver, C Arden Pope, Richard T Burnett, Michael Jerrett, Julian D Marshall, Susan M Gapstur
BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified both outdoor air pollution and airborne particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) for lung cancer. There may be associations with cancer at other sites; however, the epidemiological evidence is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify whether ambient air pollution is associated with specific types of cancer other than lung cancer by examining associations of ambient air pollution with nonlung cancer death in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II)...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854891/cancer-related-risk-factors-and-incidence-of-major-cancers-by-race-gender-and-region-analysis-of-the-nih-aarp-diet-and-health-study
#8
Tomi Akinyemiju, Howard Wiener, Maria Pisu
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in the incidence of major cancers may be attributed to differences in the prevalence of established, modifiable risk factors such as obesity, smoking, physical activity and diet. METHODS: Data from a prospective cohort of 566,398 adults aged 50-71 years, 19,677 African-American and 450,623 Whites, was analyzed. Baseline data on cancer-related risk factors such as smoking, alcohol, physical activity and dietary patterns were used to create an individual adherence score...
August 30, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852270/the-role-of-proinflammatory-pathways-in-the-pathogenesis-of-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Chengxin Luo, Hu Zhang
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The risk factors of CRC in IBD patients include long disease duration, extensive colitis, severe histological inflammation, and coexistence with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Several molecular pathways that contribute to sporadic CRC are also involved in the pathogenesis of colitis-associated CRC. It is well established that long-standing chronic inflammation is a key predisposing factor of CRC in IBD...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815043/the-mek-inhibitor-selumetinib-complements-ctla-4-blockade-by-reprogramming-the-tumor-immune-microenvironment
#10
Edmund Poon, Stefanie Mullins, Amanda Watkins, Geoffrey S Williams, Jens-Oliver Koopmann, Gianfranco Di Genova, Marie Cumberbatch, Margaret Veldman-Jones, Shaun E Grosskurth, Vasu Sah, Alwin Schuller, Corrine Reimer, Simon J Dovedi, Paul D Smith, Ross Stewart, Robert W Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: T-cell checkpoint blockade and MEK inhibitor combinations are under clinical investigation. Despite progress elucidating the immuno-modulatory effects of MEK inhibitors as standalone therapies, the impact of MEK inhibition on the activity of T-cell checkpoint inhibitors remains incompletely understood. Here we sought to characterize the combined effects of MEK inhibition and anti-CTLA-4 mAb (anti-CTLA-4) therapy, examining effects on both T-cells and tumor microenvironment (TME)...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807001/the-mek-inhibitor-selumetinib-complements-ctla-4-blockade-by-reprogramming-the-tumor-immune-microenvironment
#11
Edmund Poon, Stefanie Mullins, Amanda Watkins, Geoffrey S Williams, Jens-Oliver Koopmann, Gianfranco Di Genova, Marie Cumberbatch, Margaret Veldman-Jones, Shaun E Grosskurth, Vasu Sah, Alwin Schuller, Corrine Reimer, Simon J Dovedi, Paul D Smith, Ross Stewart, Robert W Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: T-cell checkpoint blockade and MEK inhibitor combinations are under clinical investigation. Despite progress elucidating the immuno-modulatory effects of MEK inhibitors as standalone therapies, the impact of MEK inhibition on the activity of T-cell checkpoint inhibitors remains incompletely understood. Here we sought to characterize the combined effects of MEK inhibition and anti-CTLA-4 mAb (anti-CTLA-4) therapy, examining effects on both T-cells and tumor microenvironment (TME)...
August 15, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797636/modulating-effect-of-inositol-hexaphosphate-on-arachidonic-acid-dependent-pathways-in-colon-cancer-cells
#12
Małgorzata Kapral, Joanna Wawszczyk, Stanisław Sośnicki, Katarzyna Jesse, Ludmiła Węglarz
Cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) are key enzymes of arachidonic acid metabolism. Their products, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a naturally occurring phytochemical, on the expression of genes encoding COX and LOX isoforms and synthesis of their products (PGE2 and LTB4) in colon cancer cell line Caco-2 stimulated with pro-inflammatory agents (IL-1β/TNFα)...
August 8, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755421/smoking-is-a-risk-factor-for-pulmonary-metastasis-in-colorectal-cancer
#13
M Yahagi, M Tsuruta, H Hasegawa, K Okabayashi, N Toyoda, N Iwama, S Morita, Y Kitagawa
AIM: The hepatic microenvironment, which may include chronic inflammation and fibrosis, is considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of liver metastases of colorectal cancer. A similar mechanism is anticipated for pulmonary metastases, although no reports are available. Smoking causes pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, we hypothesized that smokers would be especially affected by pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer. In this study, we attempted to clarify the impact of smoking on pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer...
September 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751477/associations-of-coffee-drinking-and-cancer-mortality-in-the-cancer-prevention-study-ii
#14
Susan M Gapstur, Rebecca L Anderson, Peter T Campbell, Eric J Jacobs, Terryl J Hartman, Janet S Hildebrand, Ying Wang, Marjorie L McCullough
Background: Associations of coffee consumption with cancer mortality are inconsistent for many types of cancer, and confounding by smoking is an important concern.Methods: Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs for coffee consumption associated with death from all cancers combined and from specific cancer types among 922,896 Cancer Prevention Study-II participants ages 28-94 years who completed a four-page questionnaire and were cancer free at baseline in 1982.Results: During follow-up through 2012, there were 118,738 cancer-related deaths...
July 27, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736986/adolescent-body-mass-index-and-risk-of-colon-and-rectal-cancer-in-a-cohort-of-1-79-million-israeli-men-and-women-a-population-based-study
#15
Zohar Levi, Jeremy D Kark, Lior H Katz, Gilad Twig, Estela Derazne, Dorit Tzur, Yaara Leibovici Weissman, Adi Leiba, Irena Lipshiez, Lital Keinan Boker, Arnon Afek
BACKGROUND: This study examined the association between the body mass index (BMI) in late adolescence and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. METHODS: This study analyzed a cohort of 1,087,358 Jewish men and 707,212 Jewish women who underwent health examinations at the ages of 16 to 19 years between 1967 and 2002 and were followed by linkage to the national cancer registry up to 2012. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer according to age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentiles from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (overweight, 85th percentile to <95th percentile; obesity, ≥95th percentile)...
October 15, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676858/jacalin-has-chemopreventive-effects-on-colon-cancer-development
#16
Thais Herrero Geraldino, Patricia Modiano, Luciana Chain Veronez, Milena Flória-Santos, Sergio Britto Garcia, Gabriela Pereira-da-Silva
Colorectal cancer, which is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, has a slow natural history that provides a great opportunity for prevention strategies. Plant-derived natural products have received considerable attention because of their inherent colorectal cancer chemopreventive effects. The plant lectin jacalin specifically recognizes the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen and has antiproliferative effects on human colon cancer cells, highlighting its potential antitumor activity...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500842/ppa1-regulates-tumor-malignant-potential-and-clinical-outcome-of-colon-adenocarcinoma-through-jnk-pathways
#17
Ping Wang, Yi Zhou, Qi Mei, Jing Zhao, Liu Huang, Qiang Fu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents one of the most prevalent malignancies and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate to inorganic phosphate, therefore participates in the energy metabolism. Proteomic studies have demonstrated the up-regulated expression of PPA1 in various tumors, however, its expression pattern in CRC hasn't been reported. In the current study, we used RT-qCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining to explore the expression of PPA1 in 113 paired colon cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues, which revealed that PPA1 was correlated with lymph node metastasis...
April 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423729/digitalis-use-and-risk-of-gastrointestinal-cancers-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#18
Shao-Hua Xie, Tomas Jernberg, Fredrik Mattsson, Jesper Lagergren
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal cancers are characterized by a male predominance, suggesting a role of sex hormones. We hypothesized that digitalis medication, due to its estrogenic properties, decreases the risk of male-predominated gastrointestinal cancers. RESULTS: Long -term digitalis use (≥2 years) was followed by decreased risk for several gastrointestinal cancers, but associations were statistically significant only for liver cancer (hazard ratio [HR]=0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376154/annual-report-to-the-nation-on-the-status-of-cancer-1975-2014-featuring-survival
#19
Ahmedin Jemal, Elizabeth M Ward, Christopher J Johnson, Kathleen A Cronin, Jiemin Ma, Blythe Ryerson, Angela Mariotto, Andrew J Lake, Reda Wilson, Recinda L Sherman, Robert N Anderson, S Jane Henley, Betsy A Kohler, Lynne Penberthy, Eric J Feuer, Hannah K Weir
Background: The American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate to provide annual updates on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States. This Annual Report highlights survival rates. Data were from the CDC- and NCI-funded population-based cancer registry programs and compiled by NAACCR. Trends in age-standardized incidence and death rates for all cancers combined and for the leading cancer types by sex were estimated by joinpoint analysis and expressed as annual percent change...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320475/decreased-expression-of-semaphorin-3d-is-associated-with-genesis-and-development-in-colorectal-cancer
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Zhen Wang, Meiman Ding, Naiying Qian, Beifeng Song, Jiayin Yu, Jinlong Tang, Jingyu Wang
BACKGROUND: Semaphorin 3D (SEMA3D) plays important roles in the genesis and progress of many cancers. However, the relationship between SEMA3D and colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SEMA3D can be used as a predictive marker for the diagnosis, metastasis, and prognosis of CRC by assessing the expression of SEMA3D in the tissues and serum of CRC patients. METHODS: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to measure the expression of SEMA3D mRNA in 100 CRC tissues and matched normal tissues...
March 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
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