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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333831/deployed-skills-training-for-whole-blood-collection-by-a-special-operations-expeditionary-surgical-team
#1
Linda C Benavides, Iain M Smith, Jerome M Benavides, Douglas M Bowley, Heidi A Doughty, Jonathan B Lundy
BACKGROUND: Non-compressible hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially preventable battlefield death. Combining casualty retrieval from the battlefield and damage control resuscitation (DCR) within the "golden hour" increases survival. However, transfusion requirements may exceed the current blood component stocks held by forward surgical teams. Warm fresh whole blood (WFWB) is an alternative. We report WFWB transfusion training developed by and delivered to a US Golden Hour Offset Surgical Treatment Team (GHOST-T) and the resulting improvement in confidence with WFWB transfusion...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328685/whole-blood-transfusion-closest-to-the-point-of-injury-during-french-remote-military-operations
#2
Yann Daniel, Anne Sailliol, Thomas Pouget, Sébastien Peyrefitte, Sylvain Ausset, Christophe Martinaud
To improve the survival of combat casualties, interest in the earliest resort to whole blood (WB) transfusion on the battlefield has been emphasized. Providing volume, coagulation factors, plasma and oxygenation capacity, WB appears actually as an ideal product severe trauma management. WB can be collected in advance, and stored for subsequent utilization, or can be drawn, directly on the battlefield, once a soldier is wounded, from an uninjured companion and immediately transfused.Such concepts require a great control of risks at each step, especially regarding ABO mismatches, and transfusion transmitted diseases...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316437/a-comparative-study-showing-the-potency-of-anti-c3d-and-anti-immunoglobulin-g-in-polyspecific-anti-human-globulin-using-fresh-and-cryopreserved-red-blood-cells
#3
Kanchan Ahuja, Ranjan Kumar Satapathy, Garima Gulati, Surinder Singh
BACKGROUND: The antiglobulin test is used to determine red blood cells (RBCs) having surface-bound immunoglobulin G (IgG) and/or complement (C3b, C3d, C4b, and C4d) free in serum or attached to antigens on RBCs. In such circumstances, the quality of the anti-human globulin (AHG) which is used in routine cross-match/indirect agglutination test plays a vital role in blood transfusion medicine. For potency testing of polyspecific AHG, it is recommended by the Food and Drug Administration and the Centre for Biologics Evaluation and Research to use fresh O +ve RBCs within 1 hr of collection for sensitization with anti-C3d...
January 2017: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277822/comparison-of-dna-isolation-using-salting-out-procedure-and-automated-isolation-magna-system
#4
Marta Kalousová, Kateřina Levová, Aleš A Kuběna, Marie Jáchymová, Věra Franková, Tomáš Zima
INTRODUCTION: Isolation of genomic DNA is a key step in genetic analysis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of isolation of DNA from peripheral blood with manual salting out procedure and automated MagNA system under specific conditions. EXPERIMENTAL: The impact of storage conditions, type of material (whole blood or blood cells) and method used for DNA extraction were evaluated in terms of DNA yield, its purity and integrity. Fresh material, material stored at 2-8°C for 1-4 weeks and frozen at -80°C were tested...
March 9, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271672/evaluation-of-the-lyophilized-platelets-function-by-thromboelastography-in-an-in-vitro-platelet-transfusion-model
#5
Xiaojun Deng, Xinguang Wu, Gaoshun Ge, Lihong Huang, Ning Li, Dan Wang
BACKGROUND: At present, liquid conserved platelets (PLTs) can only be stored at 22°C for up to 5 days. Waste of outdated PLTs and short supply of fresh PLTs were both seen in blood banks. Lyophilized PLTs were considered as one of the candidate replacements for liquid conserved PLTs. It is important to evaluate the function before it can be used in clinical trial. METHODS: In this study, an in vitro platelet transfusion model was established to evaluate the function of rehydrated lyophilized platelets (RLPs) by thromboelastography (TEG)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264143/a-flowcytometric-analysis-to-efficiently-quantify-multiple-innate-immune-cells-and-t-cell-subsets-in-human-blood
#6
D F Draxler, M T Madondo, G Hanafi, M Plebanski, R L Medcalf
The balance of inflammation and immunosuppression driven by changed ratios in diverse myeloid and T cell subsets, as well as their state of activation and ability to migrate to lymphoid compartments or inflammatory sites, has emerged as a highly active area of study across clinical trials of vaccines and therapies against cancer, trauma, as well as autoimmune and infectious diseases. There is a need for effective protocols which maximally use the possibilities offered by modern flow cytometers to characterize such immune cell changes in peripheral blood using small volumes of human blood...
March 6, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256603/exome-sequencing-identifies-potentially-druggable-mutations-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#7
Yock Ping Chow, Lu Ping Tan, San Jiun Chai, Norazlin Abdul Aziz, Siew Woh Choo, Paul Vey Hong Lim, Rajadurai Pathmanathan, Noor Kaslina Mohd Kornain, Chee Lun Lum, Kin Choo Pua, Yoke Yeow Yap, Tee Yong Tan, Soo Hwang Teo, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo, Vyomesh Patel
In this study, we first performed whole exome sequencing of DNA from 10 untreated and clinically annotated fresh frozen nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies and matched bloods to identify somatically mutated genes that may be amenable to targeted therapeutic strategies. We identified a total of 323 mutations which were either non-synonymous (n = 238) or synonymous (n = 85). Furthermore, our analysis revealed genes in key cancer pathways (DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, immune response, lipid signaling) were mutated, of which those in the lipid-signaling pathway were the most enriched...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251561/platelet-rich-fibrin-prepared-from-stored-whole-blood-samples
#8
Kazushige Isobe, Masashi Suzuki, Taisuke Watanabe, Yutaka Kitamura, Taiji Suzuki, Hideo Kawabata, Masayuki Nakamura, Toshimitsu Okudera, Hajime Okudera, Kohya Uematsu, Koh Nakata, Takaaki Tanaka, Tomoyuki Kawase
BACKGROUND: In regenerative therapy, self-clotted platelet concentrates, such as platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), are generally prepared on-site and are immediately used for treatment. If blood samples or prepared clots can be preserved for several days, their clinical applicability will expand. Here, we prepared PRF from stored whole-blood samples and examined their characteristics. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from non-smoking, healthy male donors (aged 27-67 years, N = 6), and PRF clots were prepared immediately or after storage for 1-2 days...
December 2017: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250912/identification-and-preliminary-validation-of-radiation-response-protein-s-in-human-blood-for-a-high-throughput-molecular-biodosimetry-technology-for-the-future
#9
Saibadaiahun Nongrum, S Thangminlal Vaiphei, Joshua Keppen, Mandahakani Ksoo, Ettrika Kashyap, Rajesh N Sharan
The absence of a rapid and high-throughput technology for radiation biodosimetry has been a great obstacle in our full preparedness to cope with large-scale radiological incidents. The existing cytogenetic technologies have limitations, primarily due to their time-consuming methodologies, which include a tissue culture step, and the time required for scoring. This has seriously undermined its application in a mass casualty scenario under radiological emergencies for timely triage and medical interventions. Recent advances in genomics and proteomics in the postgenomic era have opened up new platforms and avenues to discover molecular biomarkers for biodosimetry in the future...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217266/methodology-and-early-findings-of-the-fifth-survey-of-childhood-and-adolescence-surveillance-and-prevention-of-adult-noncommunicable-disease-the-caspian-v-study
#10
Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Hasan Ziaodini, Mostafa Qorbani, Majzoubeh Taheri, Tahereh Aminaei, Azam Goodarzi, Asal Ataie-Jafari, Fatemeh Rezaei, Zeinab Ahadi, Gita Shafiee, Ali Shahsavari, Ramin Heshmat, Roya Kelishadi
BACKGROUND: This paper presents the methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of a school-based surveillance program in Iran. METHODS: This nationwide study was conducted in 2015 as the fifth survey of a surveillance program entitled "Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non- communicable disease" (CASPIAN-V) study. The protocol was mainly based on the World Health Organization-Global School student Health Survey. We studied 14400 students, aged 7-18 years, and their parents living in 30 provinces in Iran...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210886/the-use-of-frozen-plasma-samples-in-thromboelastometry
#11
Christian Schoergenhofer, Nina Buchtele, Michael Schwameis, Johann Bartko, Bernd Jilma, Petra Jilma-Stohlawetz
Thromboelastometry is increasingly used in the clinical and scientific setting. The use of frozen plasma samples may be useful in overcoming certain limitations such as local and timely availability. Whole blood (WB) samples of 20 healthy volunteers were obtained, and plasma was generated. NATEM (n = 20), EXTEM (n = 20) and INTEM (n = 8) analyses were performed in WB, fresh plasma and frozen and thawed plasma. Dabigatran (500, 1000 ng/ml), rivaroxaban (100, 200 ng/ml) or alteplase (333 ng/ml) were added ex vivo to WB, and thromboelastometry was performed in WB and in frozen and thawed plasma samples...
February 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184256/immunomethylomic-approach-to-explore-the-blood-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-nlr-in-glioma-survival
#12
John K Wiencke, Devin C Koestler, Lucas A Salas, Joseph L Wiemels, Ritu P Roy, Helen M Hansen, Terri Rice, Lucie S McCoy, Paige M Bracci, Annette M Molinaro, Karl T Kelsey, Margaret R Wrensch, Brock C Christensen
BACKGROUND: Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within DNA isolated from whole blood can be used to estimate the proportions of circulating leukocyte subtypes. We use the term "immunomethylomics" to describe the application of these immune lineage DMRs to studying leukocyte profiles. Here, we applied this approach to peripheral blood DNA from 72 glioma patients with molecularly defined brain tumors, representing common patient groups with defined characteristic survival times and risk factors...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167274/characterization-of-human-leukocyte-huvec-adhesion-effect-of-cell-preparation-methods
#13
Franca Marino, Laura Schembri, Emanuela Rasini, Monica Pinoli, Angela Scanzano, Alessandra Luini, Terenzio Congiu, Marco Cosentino
OBJECTIVE: Sample manipulation to obtain isolated granulocytes represents a key, and often necessary, step in the in vitro studies. We investigated by the means of flow cytometry and microscopic techniques (both optical microscopy [OM] and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]), the granulocyte-endothelium adhesion and the role of sample manipulation. METHODS: By means of a co-culture method, we have analysed the adhesion of human leukocytes, originated from two different blood samples (fresh venous blood [FB] and buffy coat [BC]), to the human umbilical venous endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149790/evaluation-of-vegf-gene-polymorphisms-and-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy-in-mexican-population
#14
Roberto Gonzalez-Salinas, Maria C Garcia-Gutierrez, Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre, Virgilio Morales-Canton, Raul Velez-Montoya, Vidal R Soberon-Ventura, Victoria Gonzalez, Rodrigo Lechuga, Pablo Garcia-Solis, David G Garcia-Gutierrez, Marco Vinicio Garcia-Solis, Manuel Saenz de Viteri, Juan C Solis-S
AIM: To assess if the included vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms rs3025035, rs3025021 and rs2010963 are associated to proliferative retinopathy in a Mexican population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in adult individuals with T2DM associated to proliferative retinopathy or non-proliferative retinopathy from Oct. 2014 to Jun. 2015 from the Retina Department of the Asociation to Prevent Blindness in Mexico...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043385/development-of-a-rapid-antibody-test-for-point-of-care-diagnosis-of-animal-african-trypanosomosis
#15
Alain Boulangé, Davita Pillay, Cyrille Chevtzoff, Nicolas Biteau, Vanessa Comé de Graça, Leonie Rempeters, Dimitrios Theodoridis, Théo Baltz
Trypanosoma congolense and T. vivax are the main causative agents of animal African trypanosomosis (AAT), a disease which hinders livestock production throughout sub-Saharan Africa and in some parts of South America. Although two trypanocidal drugs are currently available, the level of treatment is low due to the difficulty in diagnosing the disease in the field. The major clinical signs of AAT such as anaemia, weight loss, and infertility, are common to several other endemic livestock diseases. Current diagnostic methods, based on the visualization of the parasite in the blood, or on the detection of its DNA or the antibodies it triggers in the host, are not suitable for direct use in the field as they require specialized equipment and personnel...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009639/increased-expression-of-the-type-i-interferon-receptor-on-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#16
M Scott Killian, Sue H Fujimura, Ramu G Sudhagoni
BACKGROUND: Type I interferons (IFN1; e.g. IFN-α and IFN-β) are potent cytokines that inhibit the replication of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and other viruses. The antiviral and immunoregulatory activities of IFN1 are mediated through ligand/receptor interactions with the IFN1 receptor complex (IFNAR). Variation in the cell surface density of IFNAR could play a role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of fresh whole blood, we used flow cytometry to evaluate the expression of IFNAR2 on lymphocyte subsets from HIV-1-infected (n=33) and -uninfected (n=22) individuals...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009388/acute-gastrointestinal-haemorrhage-on-board-a-cruise-ship-in-the-antarctic-peninsula
#17
Mathieu Carron, Peter Globokar, Bruno A Sicard
Antarctic tourism on board cruise ships has expanded since the 1990s, essentially in the Antarctic Peninsula. Due to remoteness, medical cases may evolve into life threatening conditions as emergency medical evacuations are challenging. We discuss the case of a young crew member who suddenly fainted with an epigastric pain and abundant rectal bleeding while on board a cruise ship heading to the Deception Island (62°57.6 South, 60°29.5 West), 44 h away from Ushuaia by sea. A medical evacuation was necessary to save the patient whose haemoglobin level rapidly decreased from 11 g/dL to 8...
2016: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003931/stability-of-thawed-apheresis-fresh-frozen-plasma-stored-for-up-to-120-hours-at-1%C3%A2-c-to-6%C3%A2-c
#18
William P Sheffield, Varsha Bhakta, Qi-Long Yi, Craig Jenkins
Regulations concerning the storage of transfusable plasma differ internationally. In Canada, plasma obtained from whole blood donations and frozen within 24 hours of phlebotomy (frozen plasma, FP) may be thawed and transfused within 120 hours of refrigerated storage. However, plasma frozen within 8 hours of phlebotomy following apheresis donation (FFPA) must be transfused within 24 hours of thawing and refrigeration. Our objectives were to measure coagulation factors (F) V, VII, and VIII, fibrinogen activities, and the prothrombin time (PT) in thawed refrigerated FFPA at 0, 24, and 120 hours of storage and to compare these values to those in thawed refrigerated FP...
2016: Journal of Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002053/in-vitro-thrombolytic-efficacy-of-echogenic-liposomes-loaded-with-tissue-plasminogen-activator-and-octafluoropropane-gas
#19
Himanshu Shekhar, Kenneth B Bader, Shenwen Huang, Tao Peng, Shaoling Huang, David D McPherson, Christy K Holland
Echogenic liposomes loaded with the thrombolytic recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are under development for the treatment of ischemic stroke. These agents are designed to co-encapsulate cavitation nuclei to promote bubble activity in response to ultrasound exposure, and to enable localized delivery of thrombolytic. Stable cavitation improves the efficacy of the thrombolytic through enhanced fluid mixing. Echogenic liposomes that encapsulate air-filled microbubbles nucleate scant stable cavitation activity in response to 120 kHz intermittent ultrasound exposure, and have demonstrated thrombolytic efficacy equivalent to rt-PA alone...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992495/options-to-expand-hiv-viral-load-testing-in-south-africa-evaluation-of-the-genexpert%C3%A2-hiv-1-viral-load-assay
#20
Natasha Gous, Lesley Scott, Leigh Berrie, Wendy Stevens
BACKGROUND: Expansion of HIV viral load (VL) testing services are required to meet increased targets for monitoring patients on antiretroviral treatment. South Africa currently tests >4million VLs per annum in 16 highly centralised, automated high-throughput laboratories. The Xpert HIV-1 VL assay (Cepheid) was evaluated against in-country predicates, the Roche Cobas Taqmanv2 and Abbott HIV-1RT, to investigate options for expanding VL testing using GeneXpert's random access, polyvalent capabilities and already established footprint in South Africa with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (207 sites)...
2016: PloS One
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