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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931208/treatment-of-palm-oil-mill-effluent-using-combination-system-of-microbial-fuel-cell-and-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor
#1
Sze Pin Tan, Hong Feng Kong, Mohammed J K Bashir, Po Kim Lo, Chii-Dong Ho, Choon Aun Ng
It was found that the operational temperature and the incorporation of microbial fuel cell (MFC) into anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) have significant effect on AnMBRs' filtration performance. This paper addresses two issues (i) effect of temperature on AnMBR; and (ii) effect of MFC on AnMBRs' performance. The highest COD removal efficiency was observed in mesophilic condition (45°C). It was observed that the bioreactors operated at 45°C had the highest filtration resistance compared to others, albeit the excellent performance in removing the organic pollutant...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927609/structure-and-properties-of-oil-palm-based-nanocellulose-reinforced-chitosan-nanocomposite-for-efficient-synthesis-of-butyl-butyrate
#2
Nursyafiqah Elias, Sheela Chandren, Nursyafreena Attan, Naji Arafat Mahat, Fazira Ilyana Abdul Razak, Joazaizulfazli Jamalis, Roswanira Abdul Wahab
In this study, nanocellulose (NC) was successfully extracted from oil palm frond leaves (OPFL) using a combination of bleaching, alkaline treatment and acid hydrolysis. X-ray diffractogram revealed the extracted NC was crystalline with a crystallinity index of 70.2%. This indicates its suitability as nano-fillers for preparing the chitosan/nanocellulose (CS-NC) supports to immobilize Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) to produce the CRL/CS-NC biocatalysts. FTIR, FESEM and TGA characterizations of the CRL/CS-NC confirm the CRLs were successfully conjugated to the CS-NC supports...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917873/bionanocomposites-produced-from-cassava-starch-and-oil-palm-mesocarp-cellulose-nanowhiskers
#3
Adriana de Campos, Alfredo R de Sena Neto, Vanessa B Rodrigues, Bruno R Luchesi, Francys K V Moreira, Ana Carolina Correa, Luiz H C Mattoso, José M Marconcini
Cassava starch films reinforced with cellulose nanowhiskers from oil palm mesocarp fibers were produced by casting. Nanowhiskers were obtained by sulphuric acid hydrolysis followed by microfluidization and incorporated in starch films at various loadings (1-10wt%). Morphological and mechanical characterizations showed that the reinforcing effect of oil palm cellulose nanowhiskers was significant at loadings of up to 6wt%, which was determined to be the nanowhiskers percolation threshold. Above this content, formation of agglomerates became more significant, causing a decrease in mechanical properties of starch bionanocomposites...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915931/nutrient-removal-from-wastewater-using-microalgae-a-kinetic-evaluation-and-lipid-analysis
#4
(no author information available yet)
The objective of this study was to examine the performance of mixed microalgal bioreactors in treating three differenttypes of wastewaters - kitchen wastewater (KWW), palm oil mill effluent (POME), and pharmaceutical wastewater (PWW) in semi-continuous mode and to analyze the lipid content in the harvested algal biomass. The reactors were monitored for total nitrogen and phosphate removal at eight solid retention times (SRTs) - 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 days. The nutrient uptake kinetic parameters were quantified using linearized Michaelis-Menten and Monod models at steady-state conditions...
September 15, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892702/production-of-wax-esters-via-microbial-oil-synthesis-from-food-industry-waste-and-by-product-streams
#5
Aikaterini Papadaki, Athanasios Mallouchos, Maria-Nefeli Efthymiou, Chryssavgi Gardeli, Nikolaos Kopsahelis, Erika C G Aguieiras, Denise M G Freire, Seraphim Papanikolaou, Apostolis A Koutinas
The production of wax esters using microbial oils was demonstrated in this study. Microbial oils produced from food waste and by-product streams by three oleaginous yeasts were converted into wax esters via enzymatic catalysis. Palm oil was initially used to evaluate the influence of temperature and enzyme activity on wax ester synthesis catalysed by Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme lipases using cetyl, oleyl and behenyl alcohols. The highest conversion yields (up to 79.6%) were achieved using 4U/g of Novozyme 435 at 70°C...
August 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886750/evidence-based-gene-models-for-structural-and-functional-annotations-of-the-oil-palm-genome
#6
Kuang-Lim Chan, Tatiana V Tatarinova, Rozana Rosli, Nadzirah Amiruddin, Norazah Azizi, Mohd Amin Ab Halim, Nik Shazana Nik Mohd Sanusi, Nagappan Jayanthi, Petr Ponomarenko, Martin Triska, Victor Solovyev, Mohd Firdaus-Raih, Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi, Denis Murphy, Eng-Ti Leslie Low
BACKGROUND: Oil palm is an important source of edible oil. The importance of the crop, as well as its long breeding cycle (10-12 years) has led to the sequencing of its genome in 2013 to pave the way for genomics-guided breeding. Nevertheless, the first set of gene predictions, although useful, had many fragmented genes. Classification and characterization of genes associated with traits of interest, such as those for fatty acid biosynthesis and disease resistance, were also limited...
September 8, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884067/optimization-of-thermostable-organic-solvent-tolerant-lipase-production-by-thermotolerant-rhizopus-sp-using-solid-state-fermentation-of-palm-kernel-cake
#7
Fatimah Azizah Riyadi, Md Zahangir Alam, Md Noor Salleh, Hamzah Mohd Salleh
This study enhanced the production of thermostable organic solvent-tolerant (TS-OST) lipase by locally isolated thermotolerant Rhizopus sp. strain using solid-state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The optimum conditions were achieved using a series of statistical approaches. The cultivation parameters, which include fermentation time, moisture content, temperature, pH, inoculum size, various carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as other supplements, were initially screened by the definitive screening design, and one-factor-at-a-time using PKC as the basal medium...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880894/in-ovo-and-dietary-administration-of-oligosaccharides-extracted-from-palm-kernel-cake-influence-general-health-of-pre-and-neonatal-broiler-chicks
#8
Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Parisa Shokryazdan, Zulkifli Idrus, Rohollah Ebrahimi, Juan Boo Liang
Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the main byproduct from the palm oil industry in several tropical countries that contains considerable amounts of oligosaccharide. We earlier demonstrated beneficial prebiotic effects of oligosaccharides extract of PKC (OligoPKC) in starter and finisher broiler birds. This study was envisaged to elucidate the effects of in ovo and/or oral administration of the OligoPKC on prenatal and post-hatched broiler chicks. A total of 140 broiler (Cobb500) eggs were randomly divided into two groups (n = 70 each), and on day 12 of incubation, eggs in one group received in ovo injection of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880217/the-ameliorative-effects-of-a-tocotrienol-rich-fraction-on-the-age-rage-axis-and-hypertension-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Hong Sheng Cheng, So Ha Ton, Joash Ban Lee Tan, Khalid Abdul Kadir
The clinical value of tocotrienols is increasingly appreciated because of the unique therapeutic effects that are not shared by tocopherols. However, their effect on metabolic syndrome is not well-established. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil in high-fat-diet-treated rats. Male, post-weaning Sprague Dawley rats were provided high-fat (60% kcal) diet for eight weeks followed by a TRF (60 mg/kg) treatment for another four weeks. Physical, metabolic, and histological changes were compared to those on control and high-fat diets respectively...
September 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877572/safety-efficacy-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-tinospora-crispa-ointment-a-community-based-formulation-against-pediculus-humanus-capitis
#10
Gerwin Louis Tapan Dela Torre, Kerstin Mariae Gonzales Ponsaran, Angelica Louise Dela Peña de Guzman, Richelle Ann Mallapre Manalo, Erna Custodio Arollado
The high prevalence of pediculosis capitis, commonly known as head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation, has led to the preparation of a community-based pediculicidal ointment, which is made of common household items and the extract of Tinospora crispa stem. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and physicochemical characteristics of the T. crispa pediculicidal ointment. The physicochemical properties of the ointment were characterized, and safety was determined using acute dermal irritation test (OECD 404), while the efficacy was assessed using an in vitro pediculicidal assay...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877281/effect-of-vegetable-oils-applied-over-acquired-enamel-pellicle-on-initial-erosion
#11
Franciny Querobim Ionta, Catarina Ribeiro Barros de Alencar, Poliana Pacifico Val, Ana Paula Boteon, Maisa Camillo Jordão, Heitor Marques Honório, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Daniela Rios
Objective: The prevalence of dental erosion has been recently increasing, requiring new preventive and therapeutic approaches. Vegetable oils have been studied in preventive dentistry because they come from a natural, edible, low-cost, and worldwide accessible source. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of different vegetable oils, applied in two concentrations, on initial enamel erosion. Material and Methods: Initially, the acquired pellicle was formed in situ for 2 hours...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873757/the-effect-of-adding-a-commercial-phytosterol-ester-mixture-on-the-phase-behavior-of-palm-oil
#12
Eva Daels, Imogen Foubert, Bart Goderis
The objective of this study was to investigate in depth the non-isothermal crystallization and melting behavior of binary blends of palm oil (PO) with a commercial, multi-component phytosterol ester (PE) mixture. DSC and time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were conducted on blends with a PE concentration from 0 to 100% at intervals of 10% for DSC and 20% for XRD. Based on XRD, two different ordered structures were identified in pure the PEs. The structure designated as PEx was truly crystalline and needed a very high degree of supercooling for its nucleation from the melt...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871411/histodifferentiation-of-oil-palm-somatic-embryo-development-at-low-auxin-concentration
#13
M S Pádua, R S Santos, C R G Labory, V C Stein, E G Mendonça, E Alves, L V Paiva
Large-scale propagation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) is difficult due to its single apical meristem. Thus, obtaining plants is mainly through seed germination, and a long growing period is required before oil production is possible. An alternative to large-scale seedling production is indirect somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the somatic embryogenesis process in oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq.) with amino acids and low concentrations of auxins. The Tenera hybrid was analyzed by cytochemical and ultrastructural methods and was used to regenerate oil palm plants...
September 4, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861235/switching-from-monoculture-to-polyculture-farming-benefits-birds-in-oil-palm-production-landscapes-evidence-from-mist-netting-data
#14
Muhammad S Yahya, Muhamad Syafiq, Adham Ashton-Butt, Amal Ghazali, Siti Asmah, Badrul Azhar
Monoculture farming is pervasive in industrial oil palm agriculture, including those RSPO plantations certified as sustainably managed. This farming practice does not promote the maintenance of farmland biodiversity. However, little scientific attention has been given to polyculture farming in oil palm production landscapes. Polyculture farming is likely to increase the floristic diversity and stand structural complexity that underpins biodiversity. Mist nets were used to sample birds at 120 smallholdings in Peninsular Malaysia...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861093/the-phenylpropanoid-pathway-and-lignin-in-defense-against-ganoderma-boninense-colonized-root-tissues-in-oil-palm-elaeis-guineensis-jacq
#15
Nisha T Govender, Maziah Mahmood, Idris A Seman, Mui-Yun Wong
Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated) and infected (inoculated) seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi)] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and peroxidase (POD) genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852058/key-glycolytic-branch-influences-mesocarp-oil-content-in-oil-palm
#16
Nurliyana Ruzlan, Yoke Sum Jaime Low, Wilonita Win, Noor Azizah Musa, Ai-Ling Ong, Fook-Tim Chew, David Appleton, Hirzun Mohd Yusof, Harikrishna Kulaveerasingam
The fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase catalyzed glycolysis branch that forms dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate was identified as a key driver of increased oil synthesis in oil palm and was validated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Reduction in triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) activity in a yeast knockdown mutant resulted in 19% increase in lipid content, while yeast strains overexpressing oil palm fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (EgFBA) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EgG3PDH) showed increased lipid content by 16% and 21%, respectively...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847084/choline-chloride-chcl-and-monosodium-glutamate-msg-based-green-solvents-from-optimized-cactus-malic-acid-for-biomass-delignification
#17
Chung Loong Yiin, Armando T Quitain, Suzana Yusup, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Mitsuru Sasaki, Tetsuya Kida
This work aimed to develop an efficient microwave-hydrothermal (MH) extraction of malic acid from abundant natural cactus as hydrogen bond donor (HBD) whereby the concentration was optimized using response surface methodology. The ideal process conditions were found to be at a solvent-to-feed ratio of 0.008, 120°C and 20min with 1.0g of oxidant, H2O2. Next generation environment-friendly solvents, low transition temperature mixtures (LTTMs) were synthesized from cactus malic acid with choline chloride (ChCl) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) as hydrogen bond acceptors (HBAs)...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840040/predictors-of-hypertension-in-a-population-of-undergraduate-students-in-sierra-leone
#18
Aiah Lebbie, Richard Wadsworth, Janette Saidu, Camilla Bangura
We report on the first survey of hypertension in undergraduates in Sierra Leone. Levels of hypertension (12%) and obesity (4%) appear low compared to the general population but given the rapid increase of both and the expectation that many graduates will enter the formal employment sector and a sedentary lifestyle, there is still cause for concern. We measured their BMI (body mass index) and used a questionnaire to investigate demographic and lifestyle choices. In agreement with most authorities, we found that BMI and age were statistically significant predictors of systolic and diastolic blood pressure but that the explanatory power was low (r = 0...
2017: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839042/evolutionarily-conserved-alternative-splicing%C3%A2-across-monocots
#19
Wenbin Mei, Lucas Boatwright, Guanqiao Feng, James C Schnable, W Brad Barbazuk
One difficulty when identifying alternative splicing (AS) events in plants is distinguishing functional AS from splicing noise. One way to add confidence to the validity of a splice isoform is to observe that it is conserved across evolutionarily related species. We use a high throughput method to identify junction based conserved AS events from RNA-Seq data across nine plant species including: five grass monocots (maize, sorghum, rice, Brachpodium and foxtail millet), plus two non-grass monocots (banana and African oil palm), the eudicot Arabidopsis and the basal angiosperm Amborella In total, 9,804 AS events were found to be conserved between 2 or more species studied...
August 24, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837912/the-global-palm-oil-sector-must-change-to-save-biodiversity-and-improve-food-security-in-the-tropics
#20
REVIEW
Badrul Azhar, Norzanalia Saadun, Margi Prideaux, David B Lindenmayer
Most palm oil currently available in global markets is sourced from certified large-scale plantations. Comparatively little is sourced from (typically uncertified) smallholders. We argue that sourcing sustainable palm oil should not be determined by commercial certification alone and that the certification process should be revisited. There are so-far unrecognized benefits of sourcing palm oil from smallholders that should be considered if genuine biodiversity conservation is to be a foundation of 'environmentally sustainable' palm oil production...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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