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palm oil

Surya Sudheer, Asgar Ali, Sivakumar Manickam
Rigorous research has been carried out regarding the cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum using different agricultural residues. Nevertheless, large-scale cultivation and the separation of active compounds of G. lucidum are still challenges for local farmers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of oil palm waste fibers such as empty fruit bunch fibers and mesocarp fibers as effective substrates for the growth of G. lucidum mycelia to study the possibility of solid-state cultivation and to determine the optimum conditions necessary for the growth of mycelia of this mushroom on these waste fibers...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
U Krogh, T S Bruun, J Poulsen, P K Theil
Sow lactation diets often include fat sources without considering the impact on digestion, metabolism and performance. Fiber ingredients may reduce feed intake and are often completely excluded from lactation diets, although locally available ingredients may be cost-efficient alternatives to partly replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Muhammad Nuruddin Mohd Nor, Vikineswary Sabaratnam, Geok Yuan Annie Tan
A bacterial isolate, designated strain S37T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Strain S37T was found to be Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile and rod shaped. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain S37T was most closely related to Devosia albogilva IPL15T (97.3%), Devosia chinhatensis IPL18T (96.8%) and Devosia subaequoris HST3-14T (96.5%). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.0 mol% and dominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c), 11-methyl C18:1ω7c and C16:0...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Keila A P Bonetti, Marguerite Quoirin, Regina C Quisen, Suelen C S Lima
The interspecific oil palm hybrid BRS Manicoré (E. guineensis x E. oleifera) has superior agronomic characteristics. However, the germination rate is low (30%) and the process is slow when the seeds are sown in a conventional form. The purpose of this study was to optimize the in vitro germination of zygotic embryos of this hybrid comparing seed lots. The viability of zygotic embryos was evaluated by the tetrazolium test (0.075%) for 4 h. The embryos were cultured on MS and Y3 culture media, with and without the addition of NaH2PO4, as well as on MS, MS1/2 and N6 medium...
2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Raphaela Kübeck, Catalina Bonet-Ripoll, Christina Hoffmann, Alesia Walker, Veronika Maria Müller, Valentina Luise Schüppel, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Birgit Scholz, Karl-Heinz Engel, Hannelore Daniel, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Dirk Haller, Thomas Clavel, Martin Klingenspor
OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota may promote positive energy balance; however, germfree mice can be either resistant or susceptible to diet-induced obesity (DIO) depending on the type of dietary intervention. We here sought to identify the dietary constituents that determine the susceptibility to body fat accretion in germfree (GF) mice. METHODS: GF and specific pathogen free (SPF) male C57BL/6N mice were fed high-fat diets either based on lard or palm oil for 4 wks. Mice were metabolically characterized at the end of the feeding trial...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
L A Merriman, C L Walk, C M Parsons, H H Stein
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Yiing Yng Chow, Sadequr Rahman, Adeline Su Yien Ting
This study aimed to establish the colonization behavior and proliferation potential of three endophytes and one pathogen Ganoderma boninense (Gb) introduced into oil palm ramets (host model). The endophytes selected were Diaporthe phaseolorum (WAA02), Trichoderma asperellum (T2), and Penicillium citrinum (BTF08). Ramets were first inoculated with 100 mL of fungal cells (10(6) cfu mL(-)(1)) via soil drenching. For the next 7 days, ramets were sampled and subjected to three different assays to detect and identify fungal colonization, and establish their proliferation potential in planta...
January 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
Y K Chan, S C Budgett, A K MacGibbon, S Y Quek, S Kindleysides, S D Poppitt
Lipid emulsions have been proposed to suppress hunger and food intake. Whilst there is no consensus on optimal structural properties or mechanism of action, small particle size (small-PS) stable emulsions may have greatest efficacy. Fabuless®, a commercial lipid emulsion reported in some studies to decrease energy intake (EI), is a small-PS, 'hard' fat emulsion comprising highly saturated palm oil base (PS, 82nm). To determine whether small-PS dairy lipid emulsions can enhance satiety, firstly, we investigated 2 'soft' fat emulsions generated using dairy and soy emulsifying agents (PS, 114nm and 121nm) and a non-emulsified dairy control...
November 24, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Mohd Nazren Radzuan, Ibrahim M Banat, James Winterburn
In this research we assess the feasibility of using palm oil agricultural refinery waste as a carbon source for the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant through fermentation. The production and characterization of rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grown on palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) under batch fermentation were investigated. Results show that P. aeruginosa PAO1 can grow and produce 0.43gL(-1) of rhamnolipid using PFAD as the sole carbon source. Identification of the biosurfactant product using mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of monorhamnolipid and dirhamnolipid...
November 16, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Bhavani Shankar, Nalitra Thaiprasert, Shabbir Gheewala, Richard Smith
OBJECTIVE: Palm oil is a cheap and versatile edible oil in widespread use as a food ingredient that has been linked to negative health and environmental outcomes. The current study aimed to understand the prospects for future health-focused policy development to limit food use of palm oil and promote a greater diversity of oils in Thailand's food system. DESIGN: Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of stakeholders. The interviews probed views on the economic, health and environmental dimensions of the issue, the prospects for health-focused policy development and the policy development process...
November 24, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Jung-Min Park, Jin-Man Kim
This study was conducted to investigate the condition of frying oil used for frying chicken nuggets in a deep fryer. The acidification of the frying oils used, soybean oil (SB), canola oil (CA), palm oil (PA), and lard (LA), were determined as peroxide value, acid value, and fatty acid composition, after chicken nuggets were fried in them for 101 times. The acid value and peroxide value obtained were 5.14 mg KOH/g and 66.03 meq/kg in SB, 4.47 mg KOH/g and 71.04 meq/kg in CA, 2.66 mg KOH/g and 15.48 meq/kg in PA, and 5...
October 31, 2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Josiane K Rutz, Caroline D Borges, Rui C Zambiazi, Michele M Crizel-Cardozo, Luiza S Kuck, Caciano P Z Noreña
This study aimed at microencapsulating palm oil, containing high carotenoid content, with chitosan/xanthan and chitosan/pectin, using the complex coacervation method, followed by atomization and lyophilization. The DSC technique was used to confirm the encapsulation. The atomized microparticles had spherical shape and irregular size, and the lyophilized microparticles had irregular shape and size. Lyophilization resulted in lower carotenoids losses, and higher yield and encapsulation efficiency. In addition, the release profile in both water and gastrointestinal fluid was satisfactory...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
T Soliman, F K S Lim, J S H Lee, L R Carrasco
Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Junidah Lamaming, Rokiah Hashim, Cheu Peng Leh, Othman Sulaiman
Cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from oil palm trunk by total chlorine free method. The samples were either water pre-hydrolyzed or non-water pre-hydrolyzed, subjected to soda pulping, acidified and ozone bleached. Cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) physical, chemical, thermal properties, and crystallinity index were investigated by composition analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. Water pre-hydrolysis reduced lignin (<0...
January 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Abdulwahab F Owolabi, M K Mohamad Haafiz, Md Sohrab Hossain, M Hazwan Hussin, M R Nurul Fazita
In the present study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were isolated from oil palm fronds (OPF) using chemo-mechanical process. Wherein, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) was utilized to extract OPF fibre at different AHP concentrations. The OPF pulp fibre was then bleached with acidified sodium chlorite solution followed by the acid hydrolysis using hydrochloric acid. Several analytical methods had been conducted to determine the influence of AHP concentration on thermal properties, morphological properties, microscopic and crystalline behaviour of isolated MCC...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hilaire Macaire Womeni, Fabrice Tonfack Djikeng, Naga Satya Surya Prabhakar Iruku, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi Karuna, Rachapudi Badari Narayana Prasad, Michel Linder
This study investigates the effect of soursop flowers methanolic extract on the physicochemical characteristics of palm olein during accelerated storage. After analysis of the extract by determining its total phenolic content by colorimetry and identification of some of its phenolic antioxidants by HPLC-DAD(Diode Array Detector), preliminary antioxidants tests have been done. After that, the extract was added in palm olein at concentrations 200-1800 ppm. BHT, at 200 ppm served as standard besides the Control...
November 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Swapnil V Shewale, Amanda L Brown, Xin Bi, Elena Boudyguina, Janet K Sawyer, Martha A Alexander-Miller, John S Parks
G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120/FFAR4) activation by n-3 PUFAs attenuates inflammation, but its impact on atherosclerosis is unknown. We determined whether in vivo activation of leukocyte GPR120/FFAR4 by n-3 vs. n-6 PUFA is atheroprotective. Leukocyte GPR120/FFAR4 WT or KO mice in the LDL receptor KO background were generated by bone marrow transplantation. Mice were fed one of the four atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and 10% calories as palm oil (PO) + 10% calories as: 1) PO, 2) fish oil (FO; 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 enriched), 3) echium oil (EO; 18:4 n-3 enriched), or 4) borage oil (BO; 18:3 n-6 enriched) for 16 weeks...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Miriam Teuscher, Anne Gérard, Ulrich Brose, Damayanti Buchori, Yann Clough, Martin Ehbrecht, Dirk Hölscher, Bambang Irawan, Leti Sundawati, Meike Wollni, Holger Kreft
Tropical biodiversity is threatened by the expansion of oil-palm plantations. Reduced-impact farming systems such as agroforests, have been proposed to increase biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In regions where oil-palm plantations already dominate the landscape, this increase can only be achieved through systematic ecological restoration. However, our knowledge about the underlying ecological and socio-economic processes, constraints, and trade-offs of ecological restoration in oil-palm landscapes is very limited...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lee Pei Lee Angel, Mohd Termizi Yusof, Intan Safinar Ismail, Bonnie Tay Yen Ping, Intan Nur Ainni Mohamed Azni, Norman Hj Kamarudin, Shamala Sundram
Ganoderma boninense is the causal agent of a devastating disease affecting oil palm in Southeast Asian countries. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease slowly rots the base of palms, which radically reduces productive lifespan of this lucrative crop. Previous reports have indicated the successful use of Trichoderma as biological control agent (BCA) against G. boninense and isolate T. virens 7b was selected based on its initial screening. This study attempts to decipher the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of G...
November 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Jignesh Shah, Erdem Arslan, John Cirucci, Julie O'Brien, Dave Moss
Alcohol ethoxylates surfactants are produced via ethoxylation of fatty alcohol (FA) with ethylene oxide. The source of FA could be either palm kernel oil (PKO) or petrochemicals. The study aimed to compare the potential environmental impacts for PKO-derived FA (PKO-FA) and petrochemicals-derived FA (petro-FA). Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment has been performed for this purpose because it enables understanding of the impacts across the life cycle and impact categories. The results show that petro-FA has overall lower average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (~2...
2016: Journal of Surfactants and Detergents
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