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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352629/an-in-silico-comparative-dosimetric-study-of-postmastectomy-locoregional-irradiation-using-intensity-modulated-vs-3-dimensional-conventional-radiotherapy
#1
Pooja Khullar, Charu Garg, Sujit Nath Sinha, Inderjit Kaur, Niloy Ranjan Datta
An in silico dosimetric evaluation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) vs 3-dimensional conventional radiation therapy (3D-CRT) treatment plans in postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) to the chest wall and regional lymphatics was conducted. Twenty-five consecutive patients with breast cancer referred for locoregional PMRT, stages T2-4 with N1-3, were planned to receive 50 Gy in 25 fractions with IMRT. Additionally, a 3D-CRT plan was generated using identical contours for the clinical target volumes (CTV), planning target volumes (PTV), and organs at risk (OAR)...
January 15, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352608/differences-in-lung-injury-after-imrt-or-proton-therapy-assessed-by-18fdg-pet-imaging
#2
Nadya Shusharina, Zhongxing Liao, Radhe Mohan, Amy Liu, Andrzej Niemierko, Noah Choi, Thomas Bortfeld
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare lung injury among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with IMRT or proton therapy as revealed by 18F-FDG post-treatment uptake and to determine factors predictive for clinically symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For 83 patients treated with IMRT or proton therapy, planning CT and follow up 18F-FDG PET-CT were analyzed. Post-treatment PET-CT was aligned with planning CT to establish a voxel-to-voxel correspondence between PET and planning dose images...
January 15, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352433/development-and-clinical-application-of-vertebral-metrics-using-a-stereo-vision-system-to-assess-the-spine
#3
Ana Teresa Gabriel, Cláudia Quaresma, Mário Forjaz Secca, Pedro Vieira
The biomechanical changes in the spinal column are considered to be the main responsible for rachialgia. Although radiological techniques use ionizing radiation, they are the most applied tools to assess the biomechanics of the spine. To face this problem, non-invasive techniques must be developed. Vertebral Metrics is an ionizing radiation-free instrument designed to detect the 3D position of each vertebrae in a standing position. Using a stereo vision system combined with low intensity UV light, recognition is achieved with software capable of distinguishing fluorescent marks...
January 20, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352381/myocardial-perfusion-in-patients-with-suspected-coronary-artery-disease-comparison-between-320-mdct-and-rubidium-82-pet
#4
Roberto Nery Dantas, Antonildes Nascimento Assuncao, Ismar Aguiar Marques, Mateus Guimaraes Fahel, Cesar Higa Nomura, Luiz Francisco Rodrigues Avila, Maria Clementina Pinto Giorgi, Jose Soares, Jose Claudio Meneghetti, Jose Rodrigues Parga
OBJECTIVES: Despite advances in non-invasive myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) evaluation, computed tomography (CT) multiphase MPI protocols have not yet been compared with the highly accurate rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (82RbPET) MPI. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate agreement between 82RbPET and 320-detector row CT (320-CT) MPI using a multiphase protocol in suspected CAD patients. METHODS: Forty-four patients referred for MPI evaluation were prospectively enrolled and underwent dipyridamole stress 82RbPET and multiphase 320-CT MPI (five consecutive volumetric acquisitions during stress)...
January 19, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352228/dual-band-metamaterial-antenna-for-lte-bluetooth-wimax-system
#5
Md Mehedi Hasan, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal Faruque, Mohammad Tariqul Islam
A compact metamaterial inspired antenna operate at LTE, Bluetooth and WiMAX frequency band is introduced in this paper. For the lower band, the design utilizes an outer square metallic strip forcing the patch to radiate as an equivalent magnetic-current loop. For the upper band, another magnetic current loop is created by adding metamaterial structure near the feed line on the patch. The metamaterial inspired antenna dimension of 42 × 32 mm2 compatible to wireless devices. Finite integration technique based CST Microwave Studio simulator has been used to design and numerical investigation as well as lumped circuit model of the metamaterial antenna is explained with proper mathematical derivation...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352224/study-of-an-oxygen-supply-and-oxygen-saturation-monitoring-system-for-radiation-therapy-associated-with-the-active-breathing-coordinator
#6
Guanzhong Gong, Yujie Guo, Xuemei Sun, Xiuying Wang, Yong Yin, David Dagan Feng
In this study, we designed an oxygen supply and oxygen saturation monitoring (OSOSM) system. This OSOSM system can provide a continuous supply of oxygen and monitor the peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) of patients who accept radiotherapy and use an active breathing coordinator (ABC). A clinical test with 27 volunteers was conducted. The volunteers were divided into two groups based on the tendency of SpO2 decline in breath-holding without the OSOSM system: group A (12 cases) showed a decline in SpO2 of less than 2%, whereas the decline in SpO2 in group B (15 cases) was greater than 2% and reached up to 6% in some cases...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352222/artificial-chameleon-skin-that-controls-spectral-radiation-development-of-chameleon-cool-coating-c3
#7
Hiroki Gonome, Masashi Nakamura, Junnosuke Okajima, Shigenao Maruyama
Chameleons have a diagnostic thermal protection that enables them to live under various conditions. Our developed special radiative control therefore is inspired by the chameleon thermal protection ability by imitating its two superposed layers as two pigment particles in one coating layer. One particle imitates a chameleon superficial surface for color control (visible light), and another particle imitates a deep surface to reflect solar irradiation, especially in the near-infrared region. Optical modeling allows us to optimally design the particle size and volume fraction...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351920/exceptional-response-to-pembrolizumab-in-a-metastatic-chemotherapy-radiation-resistant-ovarian-cancer-patient-harboring-a-cd274-pd-l1-genetic-rearrangement
#8
Stefania Bellone, Natalia Buza, Jungmin Choi, Luca Zammataro, Laurie Gay, Julia A Elvin, David L Rimm, Yuting Liu, Elena Ratner, Peter E Schwartz, Alessandro D Santin
PURPOSE: Ovarian carcinoma no longer responsive to surgery and chemotherapy remains an incurable disease. Alternative therapeutic options remain desperately needed. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We describe a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient with recurrent disease experiencing a remarkable clinical response to treatment with the anti-PD1 immune check-point inhibitor pembrolizumab. The clinical, pathological, and genomic characteristics of this exceptional ovarian cancer responder were carefully investigated using immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative multiplex fluorescence methods (ie, automated quantitative analysis, AQUA) and whole exome sequencing (WES) techniques...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351788/elevated-inflammatory-cytokines-in-aqueous-cytokine-profile-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-with-cataracts-in-uganda
#9
Juliet Otiti-Sengeri, Robert Colebunders, Steven J Reynolds, Musa Muwonge, Getrude Nakigozi, Valerian Kiggundu, Fred Nalugoda, Damalie Nakanjako
BACKGROUND: Cataracts occur earlier among HIV-infected adults and this is attributed to various intraocular inflammatory processes that result in early degeneration. In this study we purposed to investigate whether HIV infected individuals with cataracts develop heightened intraocular inflammatory processes compared to their HIV negative counterparts by determining the concentration of 8 cytokines in the aqueous humour of HIV-positive adults with cataracts and their HIV-negative counterparts...
January 19, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351692/homonymous-hemianopia-in-children-and-adolescents-an-mri-study
#10
Manja Haaga, Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski, Anna Krumm, Stephan Küster, Iliya Ivanov, Angelika Cordey, Claudia Gehrlich, Martin Staudt
AIM:  Diagnosing homonymous hemianopia (HH) in children can be difficult due to inability to comply with perimetry. Therefore, HH can often only be suspected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing lesions to the retrochiasmatic visual pathways. The aim of our retrospective observational cross-sectional study was to improve the radiologic detection of HH. METHODS:  MRIs of 21 subjects (5-17 years old) with ophthalmologically confirmed HH (14 complete, 7 incomplete hemianopias) were analyzed...
January 19, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351691/out-of-field-doses-in-children-treated-for-large-arteriovenous-malformations-using-hypofractionated-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-and-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy
#11
Marijke De Saint-Hubert, Marija Majer, Hrvoje Hršak, Zdravko Heinrich, Željka Kneževic, Saveta Miljanic, Paulina Porwol, Liliana Stolarczyk, Filip Vanhavere, Roger M Harrison
The purpose of this study was to measure out-of-field organ doses in two anthropomorphic child phantoms for the treatment of large brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using hypofractionated gamma knife (GK) radiosurgery and to compare these with an alternative treatment using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Target volume was identical in size and shape in all cases. Radiophotoluminescent (RPL), thermoluminescent (TL) and optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters were used for out-of-field dosimetry during GK treatment and a good agreement within 1-2% between results was shown...
January 17, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351655/establishing-diagnostic-reference-levels-for-cardiac-computed-tomography-angiography-in-saudi-arabia
#12
Ali B Alhailiy, Peter L Kench, Mark F McEntee, Patrick C Brennan, Elaine A Ryan
Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a commonly used diagnostic imaging tool for cardiovascular disease. Despite constant improvements to imaging technologies, the radiation dose to patients remains a concern when using this procedure. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are used as a trigger to identify and alert individual facilities that are using high doses during CT. This study aims to assess patient radiation dose and establish new national DRLs (NDRL) associated with CCTA in Saudi clinical practices...
January 17, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351645/dosimetry-during-percutaneous-coronary-interventions-of-chronic-total-occlusions
#13
Jérémie Dabin, Joren Maeremans, Danielle Berus, Werner Schoonjans, Giulia Tamborino, Jo Dens, Peter Kayaert
Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) of coronary chronic total occlusions (CTO) increase the risk of high radiation exposure for both the patient and the cardiologist. This study evaluated the maximum dose to the patients' skin (MSD) and the exposure of the cardiologists during CTO-PCI. Moreover, the efficiency of radioprotective drapes to reduce cardiologist exposure was assessed. Patient dose was measured during 31 procedures; dose to the cardiologist's extremities were measured during 65 procedures, among which 31 were performed with radioprotective drapes...
January 17, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351627/repair-kinetics-of-dna-double-strand-breaks-and-incidence-of-apoptosis-in-mouse-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-and-their-differentiated-neurons-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#14
Hiroki Kashiwagi, Kazunori Shiraishi, Kenta Sakaguchi, Tomoya Nakahama, Seiji Kodama
Neuronal loss leads to neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Because of their long lifespans, neurons are assumed to possess highly efficient DNA repair ability and to be able to protect themselves from deleterious DNA damage such as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by intrinsic and extrinsic sources. However, it remains largely unknown whether the DSB repair ability of neurons is more efficient compared with that of other cells. Here, we investigated the repair kinetics of X-ray-induced DSBs in mouse neural cells by scoring the number of phosphorylated 53BP1 foci post irradiation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351567/whole-thorax-irradiation-of-non-human-primates-induces-persistent-nuclear-damage-and-gene-expression-changes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#15
Shanaz A Ghandhi, Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Gregory O Dugan, J Daniel Bourland, John D Olson, Janet A Tooze, Shad R Morton, Ines Batinic-Haberle, J Mark Cline, Sally A Amundson
We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI) allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT) and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351341/labeling-for-big-data-in-radiation-oncology-the-radiation-oncology-structures-ontology
#16
Jean-Emmanuel Bibault, Eric Zapletal, Bastien Rance, Philippe Giraud, Anita Burgun
PURPOSE: Leveraging Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Oncology Information Systems (OIS) has great potential to generate hypotheses for cancer treatment, since they directly provide medical data on a large scale. In order to gather a significant amount of patients with a high level of clinical details, multicenter studies are necessary. A challenge in creating high quality Big Data studies involving several treatment centers is the lack of semantic interoperability between data sources...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351263/twenty-nine-new-limonoids-with-skeletal-diversity-from-the-mangrove-plant-xylocarpus-moluccensis
#17
Jianzhi Zhang, Wanshan Li, Yiguo Dai, Li Shen, Jun Wu
Twenty-nine new limonoids-named xylomolins A₁-A₇, B₁-B₂, C₁-C₂, D-F, G₁-G₅, H-I, J₁-J₂, K₁-K₂, L₁-L₂, and M-N, were isolated from the seeds of the mangrove plant, Xylocarpus moluccensis. Compounds 1-13 are mexicanolides with one double bond or two conjugated double bonds, while 14 belongs to a small group of mexicanolides with an oxygen bridge between C1 and C8. Compounds 15-19 are khayanolides containing a Δ8,14 double bond, whereas 20 and 21 are rare khayanolides containing a Δ14,15 double bond and Δ8,9, Δ14,15 conjugated double bonds, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351198/superoxide-dismutase-mimetic-gc4419-enhances-the-oxidation-of-pharmacological-ascorbate-and-its-anticancer-effects-in-an-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-dependent-manner
#18
Collin D Heer, Andrew B Davis, David B Riffe, Brett A Wagner, Kelly C Falls, Bryan G Allen, Garry R Buettner, Robert A Beardsley, Dennis P Riley, Douglas R Spitz
Lung cancer, together with head and neck cancer, accounts for more than one-fourth of cancer deaths worldwide. New, non-toxic therapeutic approaches are needed. High-dose IV vitamin C (aka, pharmacological ascorbate; P-AscH-) represents a promising adjuvant to radiochemotherapy that exerts its anti-cancer effects via metal-catalyzed oxidation to form H₂O₂. Mn(III)-porphyrins possessing superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity have been shown to increase the rate of oxidation of AscH-, enhancing the anti-tumor effects of AscH- in several cancer types...
January 19, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351124/feasibility-assessment-of-yttrium-90-liver-radioembolization-imaging-using-amplitude-based-gated-pet-ct
#19
Dustin R Osborne, Shelley N Acuff, Melissa L Neveu, Mumtaz Syed, Austin D Kaman, Yitong Fu
PURPOSE: The usage of PET/computed tomography (CT) to monitor hepatocellular carcinoma patients following yttrium-90 (Y) radioembolization has increased. Respiratory motion causes liver movement, which can be corrected using gating techniques at the expense of added noise. This work examines the use of amplitude-based gating on Y-PET/CT and its potential impact on diagnostic integrity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were imaged using PET/CT following Y radioembolization...
January 18, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351058/development-and-characterization-of-an-in-vitro-model-for-radiation-induced-fibrosis
#20
Dhruv Kumar, Sreeya Yalamanchali, Jacob New, Sean Parsel, Natalie New, Andrew Holcomb, Sumedha Gunewardena, Ossama Tawfik, Chris Lominska, Bruce F Kimler, Shrikant Anant, Kiran Kakarala, Terance Tsue, Yelizaveta Shnayder, Kevin Sykes, Subhash Padhye, Sufi Mary Thomas
Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a major side effect of radiotherapy in cancer patients with no effective therapeutic options. RIF involves excess deposition and aberrant remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to stiffness in tissues and organ failure. Development of preclinical models of RIF is crucial to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating fibrosis and to develop therapeutic approaches. In addition to radiation, the main molecular perpetrators of fibrotic reactions are cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)...
January 19, 2018: Radiation Research
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