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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434197/multi-modal-signalling-in-estrildid-finches-song-dance-and-colour-are-associated-with-different-ecological-and-life-history-traits
#1
Ana Cristina R Gomes, Caterina Funghi, Masayo Soma, Michael D Sorenson, Gonçalo C Cardoso
Sexual traits (e.g., visual ornaments, acoustic signals, courtship behaviour) are often displayed together as multi-modal signals. Some hypotheses predict joint evolution of different sexual signals (e.g., to increase the efficiency of communication), or that different signals trade-off with each other (e.g., due to limited resources). Alternatively, multiple signals may evolve independently for different functions, or to communicate different information (multiple message hypothesis). We evaluated these hypotheses with a comparative study in the family Estrildidae, one of the largest songbird radiations, and one that includes many model species for research in sexual selection and communication...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434181/management-options-for-biochemically-recurrent-prostate-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Farhad Fakhrejahani, Ravi A Madan, William L Dahut
Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor malignancy in men worldwide. Treatment with surgery and radiation can be curative in organ-confined disease. Unfortunately, about one third of men develop biochemically recurrent disease based only on rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the absence of visible disease on conventional imaging. For these patients with biochemical recurrent prostate cancer, there is no uniform guideline for subsequent management. Based on available data, it seems prudent that biochemical recurrent prostate cancer should initially be evaluated for salvage radiation or prostatectomy, with curative intent...
May 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434140/radiation-therapy-for-recurrent-cardiac-undifferentiated-pleomorphic-sarcoma-after-three-operations
#3
Kazunobu Hirooka, Masahiro Oonuki, Susumu Manabe, Daisuke Hiraoka, Takashi Yasukawa, Keiko Suzuki
We report the case of a 57-year-old female suffering from recurrent malignant undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the left atrium. Metastasis to the posterior mediastinum was detected upon first presentation. Incomplete resections were carried out twice before mitral valve replacement was finally performed. The tumor recurred 16 months later and was treated with radiation therapy, which has proved to be effective in bringing about tumor regression for 2 years, to date. The patient has survived for 7 years since the first surgery...
April 22, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434110/the-risk-of-radiation-necrosis-following-stereotactic-radiosurgery-with-concurrent-systemic-therapies
#4
Joseph M Kim, Jacob A Miller, Rupesh Kotecha, Roy Xiao, Aditya Juloori, Matthew C Ward, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Alireza M Mohammadi, David M Peereboom, Erin S Murphy, John H Suh, Gene H Barnett, Michael A Vogelbaum, Lilyana Angelov, Glen H Stevens, Samuel T Chao
To investigate late toxicity among patients with newly-diagnosed brain metastases undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with concurrent systemic therapies with or without whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Patients with newly-diagnosed brain metastasis who underwent SRS at a single tertiary-care institution from 1997 to 2015 were eligible for inclusion. The class and timing of all systemic therapies were collected for each patient. The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of radiographic radiation necrosis (RN)...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434105/far-infrared-ray-for-treating-chronic-lower-extremity-lymphedema-with-dermatolymphangioadenitis-a-postoperative-complication-of-gynecological-tumor-resection
#5
Ke Li, Heng Xu, Ning Fei Liu, Parviz Sadigh, Verity Evans, Yi Xin Zhang
PURPOSE: Lower extremity lymphedema is regarded as a relatively common postoperative complication and is often accompanied with dermatolymphangioadenitis (DLA). This study combines clinical assessment and laboratory investigation to explore therapeutic effects of far-infrared radiation (FIR) therapy for chronic lower extremity lymphedema accompanied with DLA, occurring after gynecological tumor resection. METHODS: Patients who met inclusion and exclusion criteria would be enrolled...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434073/direct-downregulation-of-b-cell-translocation-gene-3-by-microrna-93-is-required-for-desensitizing-esophageal-cancer-to-radiotherapy
#6
Hujun Cui, Shengqiang Zhang, Hongbo Zhou, Ling Guo
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESC) is one of the most fatal malignancies worldwide with increasing occurrences yet poor outcome. MicroRNAs were reported to play roles in ESC. AIMS: We aimed to understand how miRNAs affect the radiotherapy resistance of ESC. METHODS: MicroRNA assays, real-time PCR, and Western blot were performed for expression analysis of miR-93 and BTG3. Luciferase activity assay was conducted with mutated B-cell translocation gene 3 (BTG3) 3'-UTR sequence in the 3' end of luciferase sequence with miR-93 inhibitor...
April 22, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434027/can-ultrasound-be-used-as-the-primary-imaging-in-children-with-suspected-crohn-disease
#7
Timothy L Tsai, Megan B Marine, Matthew R Wanner, Matthew L Cooper, Steven J Steiner, Fangqian Ouyang, S Gregory Jennings, Boaz Karmazyn
BACKGROUND: There is growing literature on the use of ultrasound (US) for evaluation of Crohn disease in adults, but few studies have been conducted on children. Several studies demonstrated high accuracy of US in the diagnosis of Crohn disease. Using US as the primary screening imaging modality for Crohn disease can reduce health care costs, the need for sedation and ionizing radiation exposure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to determine if US can be used for screening evaluation of pediatric Crohn disease...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433875/framing-causal-questions-about-the-past-the-cambrian-explosion-as-case-study
#8
Greg Priest
About 540 million years ago, a rapid radiation of animal phyla radically changed the Earth's biota in a geological eye-blink. What caused this "Cambrian explosion"? Over the years, paleontologists have pointed to a wide array of different physical mechanisms as the causal "trigger" for the explosion. More recently, some paleontologists have proposed complex causal pathways to which multiple physical mechanisms are said to have contributed. Despite their variety, these answers share an assumption that a single explanation can in principle be constructed that identifies some factor or confluence of factors as the cause of the Cambrian explosion...
April 20, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433701/thyroid-monitoring-of-adults-and-children-after-reactor-accidents-with-a-new-dose-rate-measurement-device
#9
Oliver Meisenberg, Udo C Gerstmann
A specialized dose rate measurement device that was designed for monitoring the thyroid dose of children and adults after reactor accidents was tested. In measurements with neck phantoms and a human patient, the device was found to be capable of measuring the required low dose rates, even within increased ambient radiation. It is suitable for the application in emergency care centers.
April 6, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433591/-artificial-intelligence-applied-to-radiation-oncology
#10
J-E Bibault, A Burgun, P Giraud
Performing randomised comparative clinical trials in radiation oncology remains a challenge when new treatment modalities become available. One of the most recent examples is the lack of phase III trials demonstrating the superiority of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in most of its current indications. A new paradigm is developing that consists in the mining of large databases to answer clinical or translational issues. Beyond national databases (such as SEER or NCDB), that often lack the necessary level of details on the population studied or the treatments performed, electronic health records can be used to create detailed phenotypic profiles of any patients...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433590/low-dose-out-of-field-radiotherapy-part-3-qualitative-and-quantitative-impact-of-scattered-out-of-field-radiation-on-mda-mb-231-cell-lines
#11
K Zaleska, W M Suchorska, A Kowalik, M Kruszyna, W Jackowiak, A Skrobala, M Skorska, J Malicki
PURPOSE: Patients who undergo external beam radiotherapy are at risk of developing second tumours due to scattered radiation outside the path of the primary beam. The aim of this study was to experimentally determine the in vitro radiobiological effects of scattered radiation in cells located outside the primary photon beam and to compare this to the effects that occur in cells inside the primary beam. The comparison was performed by assessing cell viability, DNA damage, and apoptosis...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433589/low-dose-out-of-field-radiotherapy-part-1-measurement-of-scattered-doses
#12
M Kruszyna, S Adamczyk, A Skrobała, M Skórska, W Suchorska, K Zaleska, A Kowalik, W Jackowiak, J Malicki
PURPOSE: To measure out-of-field doses in a phantom model to better quantify this radiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The individual contribution of photons and neutrons to the total out-of-field dose for 6 MV and 20 MV photons at open beam were measured in a purpose-designed water phantom. Radiation doses were measured at seven separate points (P1-P7) in the phantom with thermoluminescent detectors (TLD 100, 600, and 700) and GAFchromic™ EBT films. RESULTS: At a prescribed dose of 75Gy to the isocentre, the photon dose level in the close-to-field area (P2) ranged from 2...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433524/an-analysis-of-knowledge-based-planning-for-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-of-the-spine
#13
Joseph J Foy, Robin Marsh, Randall K Ten Haken, Kelly C Younge, Matthew Schipper, Yilun Sun, Dawn Owen, Martha M Matuszak
PURPOSE: Planning for spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is time consuming, and differences in planner experience and technique result in discrepancies in plan quality between facilities. Here, knowledge-based planning is analyzed to determine if it may be effective in improving the quality and efficiency of spine SBRT planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight spine SBRT cases were collected from the University of Michigan database and inverse planned to deliver 3 10-Gy fractions to the planning target volume (PTV)...
March 2, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433523/association-of-preresidency-peer-reviewed-publications-with-radiation-oncology-resident-choice-of-academic-versus-private-practice-career
#14
Shearwood McClelland, Charles R Thomas, Lynn D Wilson, Emma B Holliday, Jerry J Jaboin
INTRODUCTION: The decision of radiation oncology residents to pursue academic versus private practice careers plays a central role in shaping the present and future of the field, but factors that are potentially predictive of this decision are lacking. This study was performed to examine the role of several factors publicly available before residency on postresidency career choice, including preresidency peer-reviewed publications (PRPs), which have been associated with resident career choice in comparably competitive subspecialties such as neurosurgery...
April 5, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433483/functional-image-guided-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-planning-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Uranchimeg Tsegmed, Tomoki Kimura, Takeo Nakashima, Yuko Nakamura, Toru Higaki, Nobuki Imano, Yoshiko Doi, Masahiro Kenjo, Shuichi Ozawa, Yuji Murakami, Kazuo Awai, Yasushi Nagata
The aim of the current planning study is to evaluate the ability of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI)-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) planning by using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in sparing the functional liver tissues during SBRT for hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, 20 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled. Functional liver tissues were defined according to quantitative liver-spleen contrast ratios ≥ 1...
April 19, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433441/role-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-diagnosis-of-thyroid-nodules-in-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-gray-zone
#16
Jia Zhan, Xue-Hong Diao, Lin Chen, Jia-Mei Jin, Yue Chen
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules in the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) "gray zone" (the shear wave velocity is in the range 2.5-3 m/s). ARFI was performed before thyroidectomy in 70 patients with 200 thyroid nodules, and then CEUS was performed in 40 thyroid nodules in the "gray zone." The accuracy of ARFI for the 200 thyroid nodules was 82% (164/200). The accuracy of ARFI for the 40 "gray zone" thyroid nodules was 70% (28/40), whereas the accuracy of CEUS for the "gray zone" thyroid nodules was 90% (36/40)...
April 19, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433432/ascende-rt-an-analysis-of-treatment-related-morbidity-for-a-randomized-trial-comparing-a-low-dose-rate-brachytherapy-boost-with-a-dose-escalated-external-beam-boost-for-high-and-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer
#17
Sree Rodda, Scott Tyldesley, W James Morris, Mira Keyes, Ross Halperin, Howard Pai, Michael McKenzie, Graeme Duncan, Gerard Morton, Jeremy Hamm, Nevin Murray
PURPOSE: To report the genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity and erectile dysfunction in a randomized trial comparing 2 methods of dose escalation for high- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: ASCENDE-RT (Androgen Suppression Combined with Elective Nodal and Dose Escalated Radiation Therapy) enrolled 398 men, median age 68 years, who were then randomized to either a standard arm that included 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy and pelvic irradiation to 46 Gy followed by a dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT) boost to 78 Gy, or an experimental arm that substituted a low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB) boost...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433413/stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-low-and-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer-is-there-an-optimal-dose
#18
Joelle Helou, Laura D'Alimonte, Harvey Quon, Andrea Deabreu, Kristina Commisso, Patrick Cheung, William Chu, Alexandre Mamedov, Melanie Davidson, Ananth Ravi, Andrew Loblaw
PURPOSE: To investigate if stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) dose is associated with PSA at 3years (PSA3y) in the treatment of localized prostate cancer and to explore predictors of late genitourinary (GU) toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three prospective trials of SABR were undertaken at our institution: 1) 35Gy/5 fractions/29days; 2) 40Gy/5 fractions/29days; 3) 40Gy/5 fractions/11 or 29days. PSA3y was analyzed as a continuous variable. Toxicity was defined as the worst new toxicity and assessed using the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) late morbidity scheme...
April 19, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433399/simultaneous-68-ga-dotatate-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-meningioma-target-contouring-feasibility-and-impact-upon-interobserver-variability-versus-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-and-computed-tomography-magnetic
#19
J Maclean, N Fersht, K Sullivan, I Kayani, J Bomanji, J Dickson, C O'Meara, S Short
AIMS: The increasing use of highly conformal radiation techniques to treat meningioma confers a greater need for accurate targeting. Several groups have shown that positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) information alters meningioma targets contoured by single observers, but whether this translates into improved accuracy has not been defined. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the cornerstone of meningioma target contouring, simultaneous PET/MRI may be superior to PET/CT...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433225/adjuvant-chemotherapy-is-associated-with-improved-survival-in-locally-invasive-node-negative-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Usman Ahmad, Traves D Crabtree, Aalok P Patel, Daniel Morgensztern, Cliff G Robinson, A Sasha Krupnick, Daniel Kreisel, David R Jones, G Alexander Patterson, Bryan F Meyers, Varun Puri
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study are to explore factors that are associated with use of adjuvant chemotherapy and to evaluate its impact on overall survival in node-negative patients who undergo lung and chest wall resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients who underwent concomitant lung and chest wall resection for NSCLC were abstracted from the National Cancer Database. Clinical, pathologic, treatment, and follow-up data were obtained...
April 19, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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