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Igor Gayduchenko, Georgy Fedorov, Maxim Moskotin, Denis Yagodkin, Sergey Seliverstov, Gregory N Gol'tsman, Alexander Kuntsevich, Maxim Rybin, Elena D Obraztsova, Vladimir Leiman, Michael S Shur, Taiichi Otsuji, Victor Ryzhii
We report on the sub-THz (129 - 450 GHz) photoresponse of devices based on single layer graphene and graphene nanoribbons with asymmetric source and drain (vanadium and gold) contacts. Vanadium forms a barrier at the graphene interface while gold forms an Ohmic contact. We find that at low temperatures (77K) the detector responsivity rises with the increasing frequency of the incident sub-THz radiation. We interpret this result as a manifestation of a plasmonic effect in the devices with the relatively long plasmonic wavelengths...
March 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Zakaria Aboulbanine, Naïma El Khayati
The use of phase space in medical linear accelerator Monte Carlo (MC) simulations significantly improves the execution time and leads to results comparable to those obtained from full calculations. The classical representation of phase space stores directly the information of millions of particles, producing bulky files. This paper presents a virtual source model (VSM) based on a reconstruction algorithm, taking as input a compressed file of roughly 800 kb derived from phase space data freely available in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) database...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Tokio Higaki, Osamu Aramaki, Masamichi Moriguchi, Hisashi Nakayama, Yutaka Midorikawa, Tadatoshi Takayama
Conventional regimens for unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma are considered of limited effectiveness. To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of combination chemotherapy with hepatic arterial infusion of IA-call (a fine-powder formulation of cisplatin) plus oral S-1 in patients with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The clinicopathological data and long-term outcome of 12 patients who were received with IA-call plus S-1 were compared with those of 16 patients who were received other treatments, such as radiation therapy, trans-arterial chemoembolization, and systemic chemotherapy...
2018: Bioscience Trends
Airi Ohsaki, Yuki Miyano, Rei Tanaka, Sei-Ichi Tanuma, Shuji Kojima, Mitsutoshi Tsukimoto
Skin inflammation is caused by excessive production of cytokines and chemokines in response to an external stimulus, such as radiation, but the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism of γ-irradiation-induced IL-6 production mediated by P2Y11 receptors in epidermal cells. After irradiation of HaCaT cells derived from human epidermal keratinocytes with 5 Gy of γ-rays (137 Cs : 0.78 Gy/min), IL-6 production was unchanged at 24 h after γ-irradiation, but was increased at 48 h...
March 16, 2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Kotaro Ozasa, Eric J Grant, Kazunori Kodama
Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors-including those exposed in utero-and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
Vassilis Kouloulias, Evridiki Patriki, Eftychia Mosa, Kalliopi Platoni, John Georgakopoulos, Anna Zygogianni, Maria Dilvoi, George Patatoukas, Christos Antypas, Christina Armpilia, Nikolaos Trogkanis, Eyfrosini Kypraiou, Stella Nikoloudi, George Giannakouras, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, John Kouvaris
PURPOSE: To evaluate in an observational way the clinical impact of a hypofractionated irradiation schedule in patients with unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Forty elderly patients (24 men/16 women) diagnosed with unresectable stage IIIb/IV NSCLC unfit for chemotherapy, were treated with once-a-week hypofractionation schedule. All patients had a poor performance status. A dose of 255 Gy in 3 weekly fractions was prescribed while a 3D conformal technique (3D-CRT) was used for irradiation...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Benedito Jamilson Araújo Pereira, Antônio Nogueira de Almeida, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Suely Kazue Nagahashi Marie
Evaluate whether radiotherapy (RT) after the neurosurgical treatment of atypical meningiomas (AM) has an impact on the reduction rate of recurrence. A Medline search through October 2017 using "atypical meningioma" returned 1277 papers for initial review. Inclusion criteria were as follows. We analyzed the database and included articles in which the anatomic pathological classification of atypical meningiomas was in accordance with WHO 2007 or WHO 2016 criteria, patients > 18 years of age, and there was postoperative external beam radiation to the tumor bed...
March 19, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Yasuhiro Fujisawa, Koji Yoshino, Taku Fujimura, Yoshiyuki Nakamura, Naoko Okiyama, Yosuke Ishitsuka, Rei Watanabe, Manabu Fujimoto
The most widely accepted treatment for cutaneous angiosarcoma (CAS) is wide local excision and postoperative radiation to decrease the risk of recurrence. Positive surgical margins and large tumors (T2, >5 cm) are known to be associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, T2 tumors are known to be associated with positive surgical margins. According to previous reports, the majority of CAS patients in Japan had T2 tumors, whereas less than half of the patients in the studies from western countries did so. Consequently, the reported 5-year overall survival of Japanese CAS patients without distant metastasis was only 9%, lower than that for stage-IV melanoma...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Shihao Ran, Sebastian Berisha, Rupali Mankar, Wei-Chuan Shih, David Mayerich
Infrared (IR) spectroscopic microscopes provide the potential for label-free quantitative molecular imaging of biological samples, which can be used to aid in histology, forensics, and pharmaceutical analysis. Most IR imaging systems use broadband illumination combined with a spectrometer to separate the signal into spectral components. This technique is currently too slow for many biomedical applications such as clinical diagnosis, primarily due to the availability of bright mid-infrared sources and sensitive MCT detectors...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Arash Ahmadivand, Burak Gerislioglu, Asahi Tomitaka, Pandiaraj Manickam, Ajeet Kaushik, Shekhar Bhansali, Madhavan Nair, Nezih Pala
Engineered terahertz (THz) plasmonic metamaterials have emerged as promising platforms for quick infection diagnosis, cost-effective and real-time pharmacology applications owing to their non-destructive and harmless interaction with biological tissues in both in vivo and in vitro assays. As a recent member of THz metamaterials family, toroidal metamaterials have been demonstrated to be supporting high-quality sharp resonance modes. Here we introduce a THz metasensor based on a plasmonic surface consisting of metamolecules that support ultra-narrow toroidal resonances excited by the incident radiation and demonstrate detection of an ultralow concertation targeted biomarker...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Chenxue Jiang, Shuiyun Han, Wucheng Chen, Xiaozhen Ying, He Wu, Yaoyao Zhu, Guodong Shi, Xiaojiang Sun, Yaping Xu
Background: and purpose: This retrospective study aimed to investigate the feasibility of shrinking field radiotherapy during chemoradiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods: Ninety-seven patients with stage III NSCLC who achieved a good response to chemoradiation were analyzed. Computed tomography was performed after 40-50 Gy dose radiation to evaluate curative effect. Patients in the shrinking field group underwent resimulation CT scans and shrinking field radiotherapy...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Rashmi Sarkar, Pallavi Ailawadi, Shilpa Garg
Melasma is a common skin condition that affects both men and women. However, it is more commonly seen in women and dark-skinned individuals, such as in Hispanics, Asians, and African Americans who live in areas with intense ultraviolet radiation. Melasma is less common in men, but it negatively affects the quality of life in men as much as it does in women. While melasma has been studied in detail in women, however, there is a paucity of studies on the clinico- etiopathology and therapeutics of melasma in men...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Blake P Sampson, Aaron M Secrest, Christopher B Hansen, Alan C Geller
BACKGROUND: The commercial tanning industry has opposed efforts to educate the public on the risks of tanning as well as attempts to restrict minors' access to tanning services. Despite a paucity of supporting literature, statements from the tanning industry claiming that dermatologists routinely use in-office phototherapy for cosmetic treatments and refer patients to tanning salons have successfully derailed and defeated legislation in many states. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate dermatologist referrals for ultraviolet radiation for cosmetic and medical purposes via tanning beds or phototherapy, as well as their opinions on tanning, legislation, and ultraviolet radiation counseling practices...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Amy Huang, Arianna Phillips, Tony Adar, Andrea Hui
BACKGROUND: The eye is a vulnerable and commonly injured organ in cosmetic laser procedures of the face. Treatment of the eyelids and periorbital areas increases this risk, especially when ocular protection devices are not used or are removed during the procedure. A study has shown that injury from laser epilation of the periocular areas is one of the most common causes of litigation in cutaneous laser surgery. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review is to determine the causes of ocular injury in cosmetic laser procedures and derive lessons on critical safety elements to prevent future injury...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Couger Jimenez Jaramillo, John Wojcik, Kristy Weber, Ronnie Sebro
Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors (PHATs) are rare mesenchymal soft tissue tumors of uncertain lineage and intermediate malignancy. The present study assesses two cases of PHAT and discusses the histological and immunophenotypical features, as well as the imaging appearance of these tumors on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/CT scans. The current study also reviews the literature and discusses the clinical management of these tumors. Wide local excision with tumor free margins is the current recommended treatment for PHAT...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Yajie Zhao, Lin Shen, Xinqiong Huang, Yuxiang He, Jun Fu, Yujie Qian, Shan Li, Na Zhao, Liangfang Shen
The present study retrospectively analyzed the prognostic factors of 135 patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who received intensity modulated radiation therapy between August 2008 and January 2012 at Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. Patients were staged from III-IVA according to the 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. Using Statistical Analysis System 9.3 software, the present study demonstrated that, among these 135 patients, the 5-year overall survival, the 5-year local relapse-free survival, and the 5-year disease metastasis-free survival were 84, 82, and 78%, respectively...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Chuandong Zhu, Lixue Wang, Yang Cai, Guoxiang Wang, Hanfeng Xu, Yuan Wan, Qin Zheng
The high atomic number of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) enables them to offer potential as practical and efficient radiosensitizing agents for cancer radiotherapy applications. In the present study, it was demonstrated that GNPs can significantly modulate the irradiation response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro and in vivo , of which the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Cetuximab (C225) is a targeting agent, which binds to the extracellular domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Rohit Gunan Ganju, Mindi TenNapel, Nicholas Mahan, Amir Zahra, Xinglei Shen
Background: There is little data regarding the effectiveness of palliative radiation with conventional fractionation for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which has been described as radioresistant. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with metastatic bony disease from RCC treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Methods: Forty patients with histologically confirmed RCC with a total of 53 treatment courses were included. Pain response after radiotherapy was recorded and freedom from progression was generated using posttreatment radiographs...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Kimberly M Arnold, Nicole J Flynn, Adam Raben, Lindsay Romak, Yan Yu, Adam P Dicker, Firas Mourtada, Jennifer Sims-Mourtada
In addition to inducing lethal DNA damage in tumor and stromal cells, radiation can alter the interactions of tumor cells with their microenvironment. Recent technological advances in planning and delivery of external beam radiotherapy have allowed delivery of larger doses per fraction (hypofractionation) while minimizing dose to normal tissues with higher precision. The effects of radiation on the tumor microenvironment vary with dose and fractionation schedule. In this review, we summarize the effects of conventional and hypofractionated radiation regimens on the immune system and tumor stroma...
2018: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Xuanxuan Wang, Yanjun Gu, Hai Liu, Liming Shi, Xiaonan Sun
Background: Radiotherapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy are currently considered as standard treatments employed for advanced cervical cancer (CC). However, patients with local recurrence or distant metastasis continue to have poor outcomes. EGFR overexpression correlated with chemo/radioresistance, and disease failure has been well proved in the previous studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy and underlying mechanism of the sensitization to radiation or cisplatin of icotinib hydrochloride (IH), a high-selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in the Hela S3 human CC cell line...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
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