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Vasorelaxation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106317/changes-in-vascular-reactivity-and-endothelial-ca-2-dynamics-with-chronic-low-flow
#1
Mark S Taylor, Chung-Sik Choi, Leith Bayazid, Katherine E Glosemeyer, Calvin C P Baker, David S Weber
Disruption of blood flow promotes endothelial dysfunction and predisposes vessels to remodeling and atherosclerosis. Recent findings suggest spatial and temporal tuning of local Ca(2+) signals along the endothelium is vital to vascular function. In the current study, we examined whether chronic flow disruption causes alteration of dynamic endothelial Ca(2+) signal patterning associated with changes in vascular structure and function. For these studies, we performed surgical partial-ligation (PL) of the left carotid arteries of mice to establish chronic low flow for 2 weeks; right carotid arteries remained open and served as controls (C)...
January 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103886/t-cadherin-deficiency-increases-vascular-vulnerability-in-t2dm-through-impaired-no-bioactivity
#2
Han Wang, Ling Tao, Anastasia Ambrosio, Wenjun Yan, Ross Summer, Wayne Bond Lau, Yajing Wang, Xinliang Ma
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). T-cadherin (T-cad) has gained recognition as a regulator of endothelial cell (EC) function. The present study examined whether T-cad deficiency increases vascular vulnerability in T2DM. METHODS: Vascular segments were isolated from WT or T-cad knockout mice. Endothelial function, total NO accumulation, and the expression of T-cad related proteins were determined...
January 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100216/antispasmodic-bronchodilator-vasorelaxant-and-cardiosuppressant-effects-of-buxus-papillosa
#3
Arif-Ullah Khan, Shamsher Ali, Anwarul-Hassan Gilani, Manzoor Ahmed, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary
BACKGROUND: The present research was carried out to investigate pharmacological properties of Buxus papillosa C.K. Schneid. (Buxaceae). METHODS: Buxus papillosa extracts of leaves (BpL), stem (BpS), roots (BpR) and BpL fractions: hexane (BpL-H), aqueous (BpL-A) also plant constituent, cyclomicrobuxine effect were studied in jejunum, atria, aorta and tracheal preparations from rabbit and guine-peg. RESULTS: Ca(++) antagonistic effect of BpS, BpR, BpL-H, BpL-A and cyclomicrobuxine were conclusively suggested, when spontaneous contractions of rabbit jejunal preparation was relaxed along with subsequent relaxation of potassium chloride (80 mM) induced contractions...
January 18, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087411/aspirin-prevents-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-by-regulating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-mir-155-enos-pathway-role-of-a-mir-155-enos-axis-in-preeclampsia
#4
Joohwan Kim, Kyu-Sun Lee, Ji-Hee Kim, Dong-Keon Lee, Minsik Park, Seunghwan Choi, Wonjin Park, Suji Kim, Yoon Kyoung Choi, Jong Yun Hwang, Jongseon Choe, Moo-Ho Won, Dooil Jeoung, Hansoo Lee, Sungwoo Ryoo, Kwon-Soo Ha, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim
Preeclampsia is an inflammatory disease with endothelial cell dysfunction that occurs via decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (eNOS/NO) activity. Aspirin reduces the incidence of hypertensive pregnancy complications. However, the underlying mechanism has not been clearly explained. Here, we found that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, microRNA (miR)-155, and eNOS levels as well as endothelial redox phenotype were differentially regulated in preeclamptic patients, implying the involvement of TNF-α- and redox signal-mediated miR-155 biogenesis and eNOS downregulation in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia...
January 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067836/alkaloids-and-phenolic-compounds-from-sida-rhombifolia-l-malvaceae-and-vasorelaxant-activity-of-two-indoquinoline-alkaloids
#5
Otemberg Souza Chaves, Yanna Carolina Ferreira Teles, Matheus Morais de Oliveira Monteiro, Leônidas das Graças Mendes Junior, Maria de Fátima Agra, Valdir de Andrade Braga, Tânia Maria Sarmento Silva, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza
The follow-up of phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) aims to strengthen the chemosystematics and pharmacology of Sida genera and support the ethnopharmacological use of this species as hypotensive herb. The present work reports phytoconstituents isolated and identified from aerial parts of S. rhombifolia by using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The study led to the isolation of scopoletin (1), scoporone (2), ethoxy-ferulate (3), kaempferol (4), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glycosyl-6''-α-d-rhamnose (5), quindolinone (6), 11-methoxy-quindoline (7), quindoline (8), and the cryptolepine salt (9)...
January 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066144/intravenous-administration-of-piceatannol-an-arginase-inhibitor-improves-endothelial-dysfunction-in-aged-mice
#6
Minh Cong Nguyen, Sungwoo Ryoo
Advanced age is one of the risk factors for vascular diseases that are mainly caused by impaired nitric oxide (NO) production. It has been demonstrated that endothelial arginase constrains the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and limits NO generation. Hence, arginase inhibition is suggested to be vasoprotective in aging. In this study, we examined the effects of intravenous injection of Piceatannol, an arginase inhibitor, on aged mice. Our results show that Piceatannol administration reduced the blood pressure in aged mice by inhibiting arginase activity, which was associated with NO production and reactive oxygen species generation...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054477/acute-treatment-with-lauric-acid-reduces-blood-pressure-and-oxidative-stress-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#7
Naiane Ferraz Bandeira Alves, Thyago Moreira de Queiroz, Rafael de Almeida Travassos, Marciane Magnani, Valdir de Andrade Braga
The effects of acute administration of lauric acid (LA), the most abundant medium-chain fatty acid of coconut oil, on blood pressure, heart rate and oxidative stress were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Intravenous doses of LA reduced blood pressure in a dose-dependent fashion (1, 3, 4, 8 and 10 mg/kg) in both SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats. LA (10(-8) to 3 × 10(-3) M) induced vasorelaxation in isolated superior mesenteric artery rings of SHR in the presence (n = 7) or absence (n = 8) of functional endothelium [maximum effect (ME) = 104 ± 3 versus 103 ± 4%]...
November 7, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049696/endothelium-derived-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-contributes-to-blood-pressure-regulation-by-maintaining-endothelial-integrity
#8
Kazuhiro Nakao, Koichiro Kuwahara, Toshio Nishikimi, Yasuaki Nakagawa, Hideyuki Kinoshita, Takeya Minami, Yoshihiro Kuwabara, Chinatsu Yamada, Yuko Yamada, Takeshi Tokudome, Chiaki Nagai-Okatani, Naoto Minamino, Yoko M Nakao, Shinji Yasuno, Kenji Ueshima, Masakatsu Sone, Takeshi Kimura, Kenji Kangawa, Kazuwa Nakao
We previously reported the secretion of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) from vascular endothelial cells and proposed the existence of a vascular natriuretic peptide system composed of endothelial CNP and smooth muscle guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B), the CNP receptor, and involved in the regulation of vascular tone, remodeling, and regeneration. In this study, we assessed the functional significance of this system in the regulation of blood pressure in vivo using vascular endothelial cell-specific CNP knockout and vascular smooth muscle cell-specific GC-B knockout mice...
January 3, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012803/airway-and-pulmonary-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-vasodilatory-function-in-current-smokers-and-never-smokers
#9
Barry E Hurwitz, Eliana S Mendes, Andreas Schmid, Meela Parker, Johana Arana, Alex Gonzalez, Adam Wanner
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has been associated with diminished vasodilatory function in the airway circulation. It is possible that cigarette smoking similarly affects the pulmonary circulation before resting pulmonary circulatory abnormalities manifest. OBJECTIVES: To compare in smokers and never-smokers the acute effect of inhaled albuterol on airway and pulmonary hemodynamic function, as an index of β2-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation. METHODS: In 30 adults, airway and pulmonary vascular function was assessed before and 15-min after albuterol inhalation (270 μg)...
December 21, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008339/role-of-nitric-oxide-in-liver-transplantation-should-it-be-routinely-used
#10
REVIEW
Kyota Fukazawa, John D Lang
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) continues to be a major contributor to graft dysfunction, thus supporting the need for therapeutic strategies focused on minimizing organ damage especially with growing numbers of extended criteria grafts being utilized which are more vulnerable to cold and warm ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO·) is highly reactive gaseous molecule found in air and regarded as a pollutant. Not surprising, it is extremely bioactive, and has been demonstrated to play major roles in vascular homeostasis, neurotransmission, and host defense inflammatory reactions...
December 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999548/low-dose-lithium-stabilizes-human-endothelial-barrier-by-decreasing-mlc-phosphorylation-and-universally-augments-cholinergic-vasorelaxation-capacity-in-a-direct-manner
#11
Bert Bosche, Marek Molcanyi, Soham Rej, Thorsten R Doeppner, Mark Obermann, Daniel J Müller, Anupam Das, Jürgen Hescheler, R Loch Macdonald, Thomas Noll, Frauke V Härtel
Lithium at serum concentrations up to 1 mmol/L has been used in patients suffering from bipolar disorder for decades and has recently been shown to reduce the risk for ischemic stroke in these patients. The risk for stroke and thromboembolism depend not only on cerebral but also on general endothelial function and health; the entire endothelium as an organ is therefore pathophysiologically relevant. Regardless, the knowledge about the direct impact of lithium on endothelial function remains poor. We conducted an experimental study using lithium as pharmacologic pretreatment for murine, porcine and human vascular endothelium...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993120/in-vitro-vasorelaxant-effect-of-artemisia-herba-alba-asso-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#12
Zeggwah Naoufel, Morad Hebi, Muhammad Ajebli, Jean B Michel, Muhammad Eddouks
BACKGROUND: The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro vasorelaxant effect of Artemisia herba alba (Ah) aqueous extract. METHOD: Aortic rings were isolated from spontaneously hypertensive rats and incubated in aqueous Ah extract at the following doses: 3, 5, 10 and 20 mg/ml. Incubation of aqueous Ah extract for 30 minutes produced a significant shift of the dose response curve to Norepinephrine (NE) (10-8 to 10-5 M) (p<0.001). RESULTS: Endothelium ablation significantly reduced the vasorelaxant effect of aqueous Ah extract (p<0...
December 15, 2016: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978671/hypophyllins-a-d-labdane-type-diterpenoids-with-vasorelaxant-activity-from-hypoestes-phyllostachya-rosea
#13
Xing-De Wu, Dan Luo, Wen-Chao Tu, Zhen-Tao Deng, Xue-Jiao Chen, Jia Su, Xu Ji, Qin-Shi Zhao
Three rearranged labdane-type diterpenoids, hypophyllins A-C (1-3), and a caged labdane diterpenoid possessing a 8,9-dioxatricyclic[4.2.1.1(3,7)]decane moiety, hypophyllin D (4), as well as two new biogenetically related diterpernoids, hypophyllins E (5) and F (6), were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypoestes phyllostachya "Rosea". The absolute configurations of 1-4 were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The plausible biogenetic pathway for 1-4 was also proposed. Compounds 4 and 5 showed potent vasorelaxant activity on endothelium-intact thoracic aorta rings precontracted with KCl...
December 16, 2016: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976417/an-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-determination-of-protosappanin-b-in-rat-plasma-and-its-application-of-a-pharmacokinetic-and-bioavailability-study
#14
Wei-Ying Chen, Xian-Zhen Zhou, Li-Lan Wu, Yun-Shan Wu, Shu-Mei Wang, Bo Liu, De-An Guo
Caesalpinia sappan L. is a traditional medicinal plant which is used for promoting blood circulation and cerebral apoplexy therapy in China. Previous reports showed that the extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L. could exert vasorelaxant activity and anti-inflammation activity. Protosappanin B is a major constituent of Caesalpinia sappan L., and showed several important bioactivities. The separation was achieved by an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Symmetry Shield RP-18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 mm × 100 mm) column with the gradient mobile phase containing of 5 mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution and acetonitrile...
December 14, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943628/variations-in-chemical-composition-vasorelaxant-and-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-activities-of-essential-oil-from-aerial-parts-of-seseli-pallasii-besser-apiaceae
#15
Relja Suručić, Tatjana Kundaković, Branislava Lakušić, Dragana Drakul, Slobodan R Milovanović, Nada Kovačević
The present paper describes environmental and seasonal-related chemical composition variations, vasorelaxant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activities of essential oil from aerial parts of Seseli pallasii Besser. The composition was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Monoterpens were found to be the most abundant chemical class with α-pinene (42.7-48.2%) as the most prevalent component. Seseli pallasi essential oil relaxed isolated endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries rings precontracted with phenylephrine with IC50 = 3...
December 10, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941804/resveratrol-rescues-hyperglycemia-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-via-activation-of-akt
#16
Jin-Yi Li, Wei-Qiang Huang, Rong-Hui Tu, Guo-Qiang Zhong, Bei-Bei Luo, Yan He
Resveratrol (RSV), a phytoalexin, has shown to prevent endothelial dysfunction and reduce diabetic vascular complications and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling mechanisms underlying the protecting effects of RSV against endothelial dysfunction during hyperglycemia in vitro and in vivo. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with RSV, and then exposed to high glucose (HG, 30 mmol/L). Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation, eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation, and PTEN protein levels in the cells were detected using Western blot...
December 12, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932239/the-therapeutic-effect-of-rosuvastatin-and-propylthiouracil-on-ameliorating-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-rabbit-aortic-atherosclerosis-and-stiffness
#17
Pao-Yuan Lin, Fan-Yen Lee, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Kuan-Hung Chen, Gour-Shenq Kao, Pei-Hsun Sung, Sarah Chua, Sheung-Fat Ko, Yung-Lung Chen, Shun-Cheng Wu, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Hon-Kan Yip, Pei-Lin Shao
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that arteriosclerosis-augmented aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and -impaired vasorelaxation were attenuated by rosuvastatin (Rosu) and propylthiouracil (PTU) therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were equally divided into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 [high-cholesterol-diet (HCD) for 8weeks], group 3 [HCD-Rosu (20mg/kg/day administration after 4-week HFD for 4weeks)], and group 4 [HCD-PTU (0.1% PTU in drinking water), the treatment course as group 3]...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927026/modulation-of-local-and-systemic-heterocellular-communication-by-mechanical-forces-a-role-of-enos
#18
Ralf Erkens, Tatsiana Suvorava, Christian M Kramer, Lukas Diederich, Malte Kelm, Miriam Margherita Cortese-Krott
SIGNIFICANCE: In this review, we discuss the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a key physiological mechanotransducer modulating both local and systemic heterocellular communication, and contributing to the integrated (patho)physiology of the cardiovascular system. A deeper understanding of mechanotransduction-mediated local and systemic nodes controlling heterocellular communication between the endothelium, blood cells and other cell types (e.g. cardiomyocytes) may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease...
December 7, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920123/selective-enhancement-of-insulin-sensitivity-in-the-endothelium-in-vivo-reveals-a-novel-proatherosclerotic-signalling-loop
#19
Hema Viswambharan, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Anshuman Sengupta, Helen Imrie, Matthew C Gage, Natalie J Haywood, Andrew M Walker, Anna Skromna, Natalia Makova, Stacey L Galloway, Pooja Shah, Piruthivi Sukumar, Karen E Porter, Peter J Grant, Ajay M Shah, Celio X Santos, Jing Li, David J Beech, Stephen Wheatcroft, Richard M Cubbon, Mark T Kearney
RATIONALE: In the endothelium, insulin stimulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to generate the anti-atherosclerotic signalling radical NO. Insulin resistant type 2 diabetes is associated with reduced NO availability and accelerated atherosclerosis. The effect of enhancing endothelial insulin sensitivity on NO availability is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To answer this question we generated a mouse with endothelial cell (EC)-specific over-expression of the human insulin receptor (hIRECO) using the Tie2 promoter-enhancer...
December 5, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919660/a-comparison-of-vasodilation-mode-among-selexipag-ns-304-2-4-5-6-diphenylpyrazin-2-yl-isopropyl-amino-butoxy-n-methylsulfonyl-acetamide-its-active-metabolite-mre-269-and-various-prostacyclin-receptor-agonists-in-rat-porcine-and-human-pulmonary-arteries
#20
Chiaki Fuchikami, Kohji Murakami, Koyuki Tajima, Junko Homan, Keiji Kosugi, Kazuya Kuramoto, Michiko Oka, Keiichi Kuwano
Selexipag (NS-304; [2-{4-[(5,6-diphenylpyrazin-2-yl)(isopropyl)amino]butoxy}-N- (methylsulfonyl)acetamide]) is a novel, orally available non-prostanoid prostacyclin receptor (IP receptor) agonist that has recently been approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We examined the effect of the active metabolite of selexipag, MRE-269, and IP receptor agonists that are currently available as PAH therapeutic drugs on the relaxation of rat, porcine and human pulmonary artery. cAMP formation in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells was induced by all test compounds (MRE-269, epoprostenol, iloprost, treprostinil and beraprost sodium) and suppressed by IP receptor antagonists (CAY10441 and 2-[4-(1H-indol-4-yloxymethyl)-benzyloxycarbonylamino]-3-phenyl-propionic acid)...
December 3, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
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