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Vasorelaxation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337396/aging-and-hypertension-decrease-endothelial-no-related-dilating-function-and-gamma-glutamyltransferase-activity-but-not-s-nitrosoglutathione-induced-aortic-vasodilation
#1
Caroline Perrin-Sarrado, Fatima Dahboul, Pierre Leroy, Isabelle Lartaud
S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which is involved in the transport and the storage of NO, induces vasorelaxation. It requires gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), an enzyme present on the endothelium, to transfer NO into the cell. We evaluated whether aging and hypertension, which induce NO-related dilating dysfunction, are associated with decreased vascular GGT activity and modify the vasorelaxant effect of GSNO. Thoracic aortic rings isolated from male Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto Rats (WKY) aged 20-22 (adult) or 57-60 weeks (mature) were preconstricted with phenylephrine, then submitted to concentration-vasorelaxant response curves (maximal response: Emax ; pD2 ) to GSNO and carbachol (the latter to measure NO-related dilating function)...
January 16, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335250/akap1-regulates-vascular-function-and-endothelial-cells-behavior
#2
Gabriele Giacomo Schiattarella, Fabio Cattaneo, Albino Carrizzo, Roberta Paolillo, Nicola Boccella, Mariateresa Ambrosio, Antonio Damato, Gianluigi Pironti, Anna Franzone, Giusi Russo, Fabio Magliulo, Marinella Pirozzi, Marianna Storto, Michele Madonna, Giuseppe Gargiulo, Valentina Trimarco, Laura Rinaldi, Massimiliano De Lucia, Corrado Garbi, Antonio Feliciello, Giovanni Esposito, Carmine Vecchione, Cinzia Perrino
MitoAKAPs (mitochondrial A kinase anchoring proteins), encoded by the Akap1 gene, regulate multiple cellular processes governing mitochondrial homeostasis and cell viability. Although mitochondrial alterations have been associated to endothelial dysfunction, the role of mitoAKAPs in the vasculature is currently unknown. To test this, postischemic neovascularization, vascular function, and arterial blood pressure were analyzed in Akap1 knockout mice (Akap1-/- ) and their wild-type (wt) littermates. Primary cultures of aortic endothelial cells (ECs) were also obtained from Akap1-/- and wt mice, and ECs migration, proliferation, survival, and capillary-like network formation were analyzed under different experimental conditions...
January 15, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333036/autonomic-receptors-and-nitric-oxide-involvements-in-mediating-vasorelaxation-effect-induced-by-syzygium-polyanthum-leaves-extract
#3
Azlini Ismail, Wan Amir Nizam Wan Ahmad
Context: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp leaves are traditionally used by Malays for treating hypertension. Our previous study showed that aqueous extract of S. polyanthum (AESP) and methanolic extract of S. polyanthum (MESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves significantly reduced blood pressure of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Aims: This study aimed to investigate their vasorelaxation potential and the possible involvement of autonomic receptors and nitric oxide in mediating their effect...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301239/characterization-of-vasorelaxant-principles-from-the-needles-of-pinus-morrisonicola-hayata
#4
Guan-Heng Chen, Yue-Chiun Li, Nan-Hei Lin, Ping-Chung Kuo, Jason T C Tzen
Pinus morrisonicola Hayata, usually called Taiwan five-leaf pine (5LP), is an endemic species in Taiwan and is traditionally used to relieve hypertension symptoms and improve cardiovascular function. In this study, the needle extract of 5LP was fractionated and analyzed by LC/MS/MS to search for possible antihypertensive candidates. In addition, bioassay-guided purification of the bioactive components was performed by Ca2+ fluorescent signal (Fluo 4-AM) assays. Two dihydrobenzofuran lignans, pinumorrisonide A (1) and icariside E4 (2), and one acylated flavonoid glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-(6‴-p-coumaroylglucosyl-β-1,4-rhamnoside) (3) were characterized from the active fractions...
December 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295855/the-%C3%AE-2-agonist-terbutaline-specifically-decreases-pulmonary-arterial-pressure-under-normoxia-and-hypoxia-via-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-antagonism
#5
Vanessa Neumann, Ralf Knies, Alexander Seidinger, Annika Simon, Kristina Lorenz, Michaela Matthey, Johannes Breuer, Daniela Wenzel
Pulmonary hypertension is a severe, incurable disease with a poor prognosis. Although treatment regimens have improved during the last 2 decades, current pharmacologic strategies are limited and focus on the modulation of only a few pathways related to endothelin, NO, and prostacyclin signaling. Therefore, the identification of novel molecular targets is urgently needed. We found that the β2 adrenoceptor (AR) agonists terbutaline (TER) and salbutamol induced a dose-dependent vasorelaxation in large pulmonary arteries but not aortas of mouse...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291445/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-ring-opened-cromakalim-analogues-with-relaxant-effects-on-vascular-and-respiratory-smooth-muscles-and-as-stimulators-of-elastin-synthesis
#6
Mourad Bouhedja, Basile Peres, Wassim Fhayli, Zeinab Ghandour, Ahcène Boumendjel, Gilles Faury, Smail Khelili
Two new series of ring-opened analogues of cromakalim bearing sulfonylurea moieties (series A: with N-unmethylated sulfonylureas, series B: with N-methylated sulfonylureas) were synthesized and tested as relaxants of vascular and respiratory smooth muscles (rat aorta and trachea, respectively). Ex vivo biological evaluations indicated that the most active compounds, belonging to series B, displayed a marked vasorelaxant activity on endothelium-intact aortic rings and the trachea. A majority of series B compounds exhibited a higher vasorelaxant activity (EC50 < 22 μM) than that of the reference compound diazoxide (EC50 = 24 μM)...
December 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283284/endothelial-dysfunction-occurs-independently-of-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-ovariectomized-yucatan-miniature-swine
#7
Thomas J Jurrissen, T Dylan Olver, Nathan C Winn, Zachary I Grunewald, Gabriela S Lin, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Michelle L Gastecki, Rebecca J Welly, Craig A Emter, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Jaume Padilla
In rodents, experimentally-induced ovarian hormone deficiency increases adiposity and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, which is thought to contribute to insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, whether this occurs in a translationally-relevant large animal model remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that ovariectomy would promote visceral and perivascular AT (PVAT) inflammation, as well as subsequent insulin resistance and peripheral vascular dysfunction in female swine...
December 28, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279314/microtubule-regulation-of-kv7-channels-orchestrates-camp-mediated-vasorelaxations-in-rat-arterial-smooth-muscle
#8
Johanna Lindman, Makhala M Khammy, Pia R Lundegaard, Christian Aalkjær, Thomas A Jepps
Microtubules can regulate GPCR (G protein-coupled receptor) signaling in various cell types. In vascular smooth muscle, activation of the β-adrenoceptor leads to production of cAMP to mediate a vasorelaxation. Little is known about the role of microtubules in smooth muscle, and given the importance of this pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells, we investigated the role of microtubule stability on β-adrenoceptor signaling in rat renal and mesenteric arteries. In isometric tension experiments, incubation with the microtubule inhibitors colchicine and nocodazole enhanced isoprenaline-mediated relaxations of renal and mesenteric arteries that the microtubule stabilizer, paclitaxel, prevented...
December 26, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279024/ultrafine-particulate-matter-exposure-impairs-vasorelaxant-response-in-superoxide-dismutase-2-deficient-murine-aortic-rings
#9
Jacqueline D Carter, Nageswara R Madamanchi, George A Stouffer, Marschall S Runge, Wayne E Cascio, Haiyan Tong
Studies have linked exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (PM) and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism underlying observed adverse vascular effects. Advanced age is one factor known to decrease antioxidant defenses and confer susceptibility to the detrimental vascular effects seen following PM exposure. The present study was designed to investigate the vasomotor responses following ultrafine PM exposure in wild type (WT) and superoxide dismutase 2-deficient (SOD2+/-) mice that possess decreased antioxidant defense...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214400/vasomodulatory-effects-of-the-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-antagonist-losartan-on-experimentally-induced-cerebral-vasospasm-after-subarachnoid-haemorrhage
#10
Stefan Wanderer, Jan Mrosek, Gessler Florian, Seifert Volker, Juergen Konczalla
BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) remains one of the major factors contributing to poor overall patient outcome. Prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF2a) induces vasoconstriction. After SAH, PGF2a leads to cerebral inflammation and enhanced vasoconstriction, resulting in cerebral vasospasm. Losartan is already known to have beneficial effects in stroke models and also on several cerebral inflammatory processes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyse the effect of losartan on PGF2a-enhanced vasoconstriction after SAH...
December 6, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209225/cxl-1020-a-novel-nitroxyl-hno-prodrug-is-more-effective-than-milrinone-in-models-of-diastolic-dysfunction-a-cardiovascular-therapeutic-an-efficacy-and-safety-study-in-the-rat
#11
Steve R Roof, Yukie Ueyama, Reza Mazhari, Robert L Hamlin, J Craig Hartman, Mark T Ziolo, John E Reardon, Carlos L Del Rio
The nitroxyl (HNO) prodrug, CXL-1020, induces vasorelaxation and improves cardiac function in canine models and patients with systolic heart failure (HF). HNO's unique mechanism of action may be applicable to a broader subset of cardiac patients. This study investigated the load-independent safety and efficacy of CXL-1020 in two rodent (rat) models of diastolic heart failure and explored potential drug interactions with common HF background therapies. In vivo left-ventricular hemodynamics/pressure-volume relationships assessed before/during a 30 min IV infusion of CXL-1020 demonstrated acute load-independent positive inotropic, lusitropic, and vasodilatory effects in normal rats...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200901/the-bifunctional-effect-of-propofol-on-thromboxane-agonist-u46619-induced-vasoconstriction-in-isolated-human-pulmonary-artery
#12
Ning Hao, Wang Zhaojun, Sujuan Kuang, Guangyan Zhang, Chunyu Deng, Jue Ma, Jianxiu Cui
Propofol is known to cause vasorelaxation of several systemic vascular beds. However, its effect on the pulmonary vasculature remains controversial. In the present study, we investigated the effects of propofol on human pulmonary arteries obtained from patients who had undergone surgery. Arterial rings were mounted in a Multi-Myograph system for measurement of isometric forces. U46619 was used to induce sustained contraction of the intrapulmonary arteries, and propofol was then applied (in increments from 10-300 µM)...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193528/-epicatechin-induced-relaxation-of-isolated-human-saphenous-vein-roles-of-k-and-ca2-channels
#13
Marija Marinko, Goran Jankovic, Dragoslav Nenezic, Predrag Milojevic, Ivan Stojanovic, Vladimir Kanjuh, Aleksandra Novakovic
In this study, we aimed to investigate relaxant effect of flavanol (-)-epicatechin on the isolated human saphenous vein (HSV), as a part of its cardioprotective action, and to define the mechanisms underlying this vasorelaxation. (-)-Epicatechin induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of HSV pre-contracted by phenylephrine. Among K+ channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine, margatoxin, and iberiotoxin significantly inhibited relaxation of HSV, while glibenclamide considerably reduced effects of the high concentrations of (-)-epicatechin...
November 29, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191384/the-effect-of-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffold-implantation-on-distal-coronary-endothelial-function-in-dyslipidemic-swine-with-and-without-diabetes
#14
Mieke van den Heuvel, Oana Sorop, Nienke S van Ditzhuijzen, René de Vries, Richard W B van Duin, Ilona Krabbendam-Peters, Janine E van Loon, Moniek P de Maat, Heleen M van Beusekom, Wim J van der Giessen, A H Jan Danser, Dirk J Duncker
BACKGROUND: We studied the effect of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) implantation on distal coronary endothelial function, in swine on a high fat diet without (HFD) or with diabetes (DM+HFD). METHODS: Five DM+HFD and five HFD swine underwent BVS implantation on top of coronary plaques, and were studied six months later. Conduit artery segments >5mm proximal and distal to the scaffold and corresponding control segments of non-scaffolded coronary arteries, as well as segments of small arteries within the flow-territories of scaffolded and non-scaffolded arteries were harvested for in vitro vasoreactivity studies...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191197/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-aphrodisiac-properties-of-the-seed-extract-from-allium-tuberosum-on-corpus-cavernosum-smooth-muscle-relaxation-and-sexual-behavior-parameters-in-male-wistar-rats
#15
Xingli Tang, Opeyemi J Olatunji, Yifeng Zhou, Xilin Hou
BACKGROUND: Allium tuberosum is a well-known spice as well as a herb in traditional Chinese medicine, used for increasing libido and treating erectile dysfunction. However, not many studies have been done to evaluate the sexual enhancing properties of A. tuberosum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aphrodisiac and vasorelaxant properties of A. tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) as well as checking the effect on enhancing male rat sexual behavior, libido, potency as well as its spermatogenic properties...
December 1, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185178/vasorelaxant-activities-and-the-underlying-pharmacological-mechanisms-of-gynura-procumbens-merr-leaf-extracts-on-rat-thoracic-aorta
#16
Zafar Iqbal, Idris Bello, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Ashfaq Ahmad, Qaiser Jabeen, Yam Mun Fei
Previous studies have investigated the cardiovascular activity of Gynura procumbens Merr. single-solvent extracts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro vasorelaxant properties and the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of serial extracts and fractions of Gynura procumbens (GP). The leaves of GP were serially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water using the maceration method. Suspended aortic ring preparations were pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE 1 µM), followed by cumulative addition of GP extracts (0...
November 28, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172521/small-peptides-isolated-from-enzymatic-hydrolyzate-of-fermented-soybean-meal-promotes-endothelium-independent-vasorelaxation-and-ace-inhibition
#17
Zhengquan Wang, Yunyun Cui, Pengyang Liu, Yong Zhao, Liping Wang, Yuan Liu, Jing Xie
Fermentation of soybean is a process in which soy proteins are broken down into small peptides to exert various physiological functions beyond their nutritional value, and to improve food source bioactive components responsible for health benefits. Enzymatic hydrolysis could speed up the degradation of proteins during fermentation of soybean thus resulting in higher peptide production. In the present study, fermented soy meal (fermented with Bacillus subtilis from Douchi) was hydrolyzed by thermolysin, and the water extraction was then separated into four fractions using ultrafiltration membranes...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159021/mitochondrial-uncoupler-triclosan-induces-vasorelaxation-of-rat-arteries
#18
Xiyue Zhang, Xinzi Zhang, Yanqiu Zhang, Mingyu Liu, Jing Jin, Jie Yan, Xin Shen, Nan Hu, Deli Dong
Our previous studies found that mitochondrial uncouplers induced vasodilation. Triclosan, the broad spectrum antibacterial agent, is the active ingredient in soaps and toothpastes. It was reported that triclosan induced mitochondrial uncoupling, so we aim to investigate the effects of triclosan on vascular function of rat mesenteric arteries and aorta. The isometric tension of rat mesenteric artery and thoracic aorta was recorded by multi-wire myograph system. The cytosolic [Ca(2+)]i, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitoROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential of smooth muscle cells (A10 cells) were measured using laser scanning confocal microscopy...
November 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155298/mechanisms-of-l-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol-induced-relaxation-in-human-pulmonary-arteries
#19
Olga Karpińska, Marta Baranowska-Kuczko, Barbara Malinowska, Monika Kloza, Magdalena Kusaczuk, Agnieszka Gęgotek, Paweł Golec, Irena Kasacka, Hanna Kozłowska
AIMS: l-Alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is an endogenous agonist of G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) which relaxes mesenteric arteries on activation. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence and underlying mechanisms of LPI-induced relaxation in human pulmonary arteries (hPAs). MAIN METHODS: Functional studies were performed in isolated hPAs using organ bath technique. The expression of GPR55 in hPAs and bronchioles was determined by real-time qPCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry...
November 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151079/mechanisms-of-vasorelaxation-induced-by-total-flavonoids-of-euphorbia-humifusa-in-rat-aorta
#20
T T Wang, Z Q Zhou, S Wang, X W Ji, B Wu, L Y Sun, J F Wen, D G Kang, H S Lee, K W Cho, S N Jin
Euphorbia humifusa Willd. (EH), rich in flavonoids, has long been used for the treatment of bacillary dysentery and enteritis in China, and is known to have antioxidant, hypotensive and hypolipidemic properties. However, the vasorelaxant effect of total flavonoids of EH (TFEH) and action mechanisms are not clearly defined yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of TFEH on the vascular tension and its underlying mechanisms. Experiments were performed in rat thoracic aorta using the organ bath system...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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