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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792841/decarboxylation-of-ang-1-7-to-ala-1-ang-1-7-leads-to-significant-changes-in-pharmacodynamics
#1
Anja Tetzner, Maura Naughton, Kinga Gebolys, Jenny Eichhorst, Esther Sala, Óscar Villacañas, Thomas Walther
The heptapeptide angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) is part of the beneficial arm of the renin-angiotensin system. Ang-(1-7) has cardiovascular protective effects, stimulates regeneration, and opposes the often detrimental effects of Ang II. We recently identified the G protein-coupled receptors Mas and MrgD as receptors for the heptapeptide. Ala1 -Ang-(1-7) (Alamandine), a decarboxylated form of Ang-(1-7), has similar vasorelaxant effects, but has been described to only stimulate MrgD. Therefore, this study aimed to characterise the consequences of the lack of the carboxyl group in amino acid 1 on intracellular signalling and to identify the receptor fingerprint for Ala1 -Ang-(1-7)...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780326/effects-of-ginseng-supplementation-and-endurance-exercise-in-the-artery-specific-vascular-responsiveness-of-diabetic-and-sedentary-rats
#2
Juan M Murias, Mao Jiang, Tomasz Dzialoszynski, Earl G Noble
This study examined the effects of 12 weeks North-American ginseng supplementation, exercise training, and sedentary behavior on vascular responses in type I diabetic rats. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) ginseng supplementation would result in improved vascular responsiveness and sensitivity; (2) exercise training would result in further improvement in these vascular responses; (3) control rats with no access to exercise would show a depressed vascular response compared to control rats that were not exposed to a sedentary lifestyle...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778808/maternal-treatment-with-a-placental-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-impacts-offspring-cardiovascular-function-in-a-rat-model-of-prenatal-hypoxia
#3
Mais M Aljunaidy, Jude S Morton, Raven Kirschenman, Tom Phillips, C Patrick Case, Christy-Lynn M Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction, a common consequence of prenatal hypoxia, is a leading cause of fetal morbidity and mortality with a significant impact on population health. Hypoxia may increase placental oxidative stress and lead to an abnormal release of placental-derived factors, which are emerging as potential contributors to developmental programming. Nanoparticle-linked drugs are emerging as a novel method to deliver therapeutics targeted to the placenta and avoid risking direct exposure to the fetus...
May 17, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773995/hypoxia-reoxygenation-of-rat-renal-arteries-impairs-vasorelaxation-via-modulation-of-endothelium-independent-sgc-cgmp-pkg-signaling
#4
Diana Braun, Christa Zollbrecht, Stefanie Dietze, Rudolf Schubert, Stefan Golz, Holger Summer, Pontus B Persson, Mattias Carlström, Marion Ludwig, Andreas Patzak
Ischemia/reperfusion injury holds a key position in many pathological conditions such as acute kidney injury and in the transition to chronic stages of renal damage. We hypothesized that besides a reported disproportional activation of vasoconstrictor response, hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) adversely affects endothelial dilatory systems and impairs relaxation in renal arteries. Rat renal interlobar arteries were studied under isometric conditions. Hypoxia was induced by application of 95% N2 , 5% CO2 for 60 min to the bath solution, followed by a 10 min period of reoxygenation (95% O2 , 5% CO2 )...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765617/accelerated-model-of-lupus-autoimmunity-and-vasculopathy-driven-by-toll-like-receptor-7-9-imbalance
#5
Yudong Liu, Nickie L Seto, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Mariana J Kaplan
Objectives: Activation of endosomal toll-like receptor (TLR)7 or TLR9 has been proposed as a critical step for the initiation and development of SLE. Traditional spontaneous lupus models normally introduce multiple risk alleles, thereby adding additional confounding factors. In the induced lupus models, the role of TLR9 remains unclear. In the present study, we explored the role of an imbalance between TLR7 and TLR9 pathways in the pathogenesis of lupus and its associated vasculopathy using the imiquimod model in TLR9 KO/B6 background...
2018: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756401/alpha-1-adrenergic-stimulation-selectively-enhances-endothelium-mediated-vasodilation-in-rat-cremaster-arteries
#6
Ramesh C Mishra, Mohammad M Rahman, Michael J Davis, Heike Wulff, Michael A Hill, Andrew P Braun
We have systematically investigated how vascular smooth muscle α1 -adrenoceptor activation impacts endothelium-mediated vasodilation in isolated, myogenically active, rat cremaster muscle 1A arteries. Cannulated cremaster arteries were pressurized intraluminally to 70 mmHg to induce myogenic tone, and exposed to vasoactive agents via bath superfusion at 34°C. Smooth muscle membrane potential was measured via sharp microelectrode recordings in pressurized, myogenic arteries. The α1 -adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (25-100 nmol/L) produced further constriction of myogenic arteries, but did not alter the vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine (0...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748816/epicatechin-s-cardiovascular-protective-effects-are-mediated-via-opioid-receptors-and-nitric-oxide
#7
Kirsty MacRae, Kylie Connolly, Rebecca Vella, Andrew Fenning
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality globally. Epicatechin has previously been shown to improve vascular responses and possess cardioprotective properties. However, the mechanisms underpinning these cardiotropic outcomes remain unknown. The aim of this study was to further identify epicatechin's mechanism of action in the cardiovasculature. METHODS: The effects of epicatechin on isolated rat conduit arteries, resistance vessels and cardiac electrophysiology were investigated on resting tension and precontracted vessels and cardiac action potential parameters, both in the presence and in the absence of various antagonists...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741931/arginase-up-regulation-and-enos-uncoupling-contribute-to-impaired-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-in-a-rat-model-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#8
Isabelle Grandvuillemin, Christophe Buffat, Farid Boubred, Edouard Lamy, Julien Fromonot, Philippe Charpiot, Stephanie Simoncini, Florence Sabatier, Françoise Dignat-George, Anne-Christine Peyter, Umberto Simeoni, Catherine Yzydorczyk
Individuals born after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, notably hypertension (HTN). Alterations in the vascular system, particularly impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, may play an important role in long-term effects of IUGR. Whether such vascular dysfunction precedes HTN has not been fully established in individuals born after IUGR. Moreover, the intimate mechanisms of altered endothelium-dependent vasodilation remain incompletely elucidated...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741779/n1-methylnicotinamide-mnam-as-a-guardian-of-cardiovascular-system
#9
REVIEW
Hamid Reza Nejabati, Aynaz Mihanfar, Masoud Pezeshkian, Amir Fattahi, Zeinab Latifi, Naser Safaie, Mohammad Valiloo, Ahmad Reza Jodati, Mohammad Nouri
Atherosclerosis is identified as the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, which could initiate the formation of a blood clot in which its growth to coronary artery can lead to a heart attack. N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is an enzyme that converts the NAM (nicotinamide) to its methylated form, N1-methylnicotinamide (MNAM). Higher levels of MNAM have been reported in cases with coronary artery disease (CAD). Further, MNAM increases endothelial prostacyclin (PGI2) and nitric oxide (NO) and thereby causes vasorelaxation...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727734/millettia-macrophylla-fabaceae-phenolic-fraction-prevents-differentiation-of-3t3-l1-adipocytes-and-the-increased-risks-of-cardiovascular-diseases-in-ovariectomized-rats
#10
Stéphane Zingue, Ícaro Andrade Rodrigues do Carmo, Job Tchoumtchoua, Edwige Nana Tchoupang, Letícia de Oliveira Souza Bratti, Tamara Dal Mora, Maria Halabalaki, Dieudonné Njamen, Tânia Beatriz Creczynski-Pasa, Fabíola Branco Filippin-Monteiro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A prolonged estrogen deficiency alters lipid metabolism and increases risks of cardiovascular diseases. Phytoestrogens, naturally occurring compounds with estrogenic properties are reported to have cardiovascular protective effects. Millettia macrophylla used in the Cameroonian traditional system to treat physiological disorders related to menopause, was previously reported to have estrogenic effects. AIM: We, therefore, proposed evaluating the in vitro and in vivo effects of M...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727218/activated-no-pathway-in-uterine-arteries-during-pregnancy-in-iugr-rat-model
#11
Emilie Bigonnesse, Benoit Sicotte, Michele Brochu
Insufficient development of the utero-placental circulation may contribute to the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We developed a rat model of IUGR by administering a low-sodium diet. This diet reduces maternal blood volume expansion and uteroplacental perfusion. We hypothesized that an impaired endothelial function in radial arteries decreases vasorelaxation and lowers placental perfusion in this IUGR model. The objective was to assess radial uterine artery responses to vasoactive agents in the IUGR model, versus controls...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727040/how-is-the-human-umbilical-artery-regulated
#12
REVIEW
Margarida Lorigo, Melissa Mariana, Joana Feiteiro, Elisa Cairrao
The purpose of this review is to present an update of the main mechanisms involved in the physiological regulation of contraction and relaxation of the human umbilical artery (HUA) smooth muscle cells. A literature review was performed based on the analysis of papers available on PubMed. The most important and relevant studies regarding the regulation of the HUA are presented in this article. The vascular smooth muscle is a highly specialized structure, whose main function is to regulate the vascular tonus...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724533/targeting-phosphodiesterase-5-by-vardenafil-improves-vascular-graft-function
#13
Gábor Veres, Martin Hagenhoff, Harald Schmidt, Tamás Radovits, Sivakkanan Loganathan, Yang Bai, Sevil Korkmaz-Icöz, Paige Brlecic, Alex Ali Sayour, Matthias Karck, Gábor Szabó
OBJECTIVES: Ischaemia reperfusion (IR) injury occurs during vascular graft harvesting and implantation during vascular/cardiac surgery. Elevated intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels contribute to an effective endothelial protection in different pathophysiological conditions. The hypothesis that the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor vardenafil would protect vascular grafts against IR injury by upregulating the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in the vessel wall of the bypass graft was investigated...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723154/an-aqueous-extract-of-the-anogeissus-leiocarpus-bark-aeal-induces-the-endothelium-dependent-relaxation-of-porcine-coronary-artery-rings-involving-predominantly-nitric-oxide
#14
Lazare Belemnaba, Sylvin Ouédraogo, Mathieu Nitiéma, Thierry Chataigneau, Innocent Pierre Guissou, Valérie B Schini-Kerth, Bernard Bucher, Cyril Auger
BACKGROUND: Anogeissus leiocarpus is a Sahel tree traditionally used by the residents of Burkina Faso for its antihypertensive properties. In this study, experiments were conducted to evaluate whether an aqueous extract of the Anogeissus leiocarpus (AEAL) trunk bark induces a vasorelaxant effect on porcine coronary artery rings and to investigate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: AEAL-induced relaxations were assessed using porcine coronary artery rings suspended in organ chambers...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712741/cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-produced-hydrogen-sulfide-controls-endothelial-no-bioavailability-and-blood-pressure
#15
István András Szijártó, Lajos Markó, Milos R Filipovic, Jan Lj Miljkovic, Christoph Tabeling, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Ning Wang, Luiza A Rabelo, Martin Witzenrath, André Diedrich, Jens Tank, Noriyuki Akahoshi, Shotaro Kamata, Isao Ishii, Maik Gollasch
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and NO are important gasotransmitters, but how endogenous H2 S affects the circulatory system has remained incompletely understood. Here, we show that CTH or CSE (cystathionine γ-lyase)-produced H2 S scavenges vascular NO and controls its endogenous levels in peripheral arteries, which contribute to blood pressure regulation. Furthermore, eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) and phospho-eNOS protein levels were unaffected, but levels of nitroxyl were low in CTH-deficient arteries, demonstrating reduced direct chemical interaction between H2 S and NO...
April 30, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709920/impairment-of-protease-activated-receptor-2-induced-relaxation-of-aortas-of-aged-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#16
Makoto Ando, Takayuki Matsumoto, Shota Kobayashi, Maika Iguchi, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide and can cause harmful complications within the vascular system. Further research on vascular responsiveness to different ligands and diverse receptors in various arteries is required to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of these vascular complications. Here, we investigated the vasorelaxant effect of the protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) agonist 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide (2-Fly) and two commonest agents, namely endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine (ACh) and endothelium-independent dilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on the thoracic aorta isolated from aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (age, 52±1 weeks)...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709439/vasodilator-effects-and-putative-guanylyl-cyclase-stimulation-by-2-nitro-1-phenylethanone-and-2-nitro-2-phenyl-propane-1-3-diol-on-rat-aorta
#17
Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos, Helder Veras Ribeiro Filho, Saad Lahlou, José Geraldo de Carvalho Pereira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de Oliveira, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães
Compounds containing a nitro group may reveal vasodilator properties. Several nitro compounds have a NO2 group in a short aliphatic chain connected to an aromatic group. In this study, we evaluated in rat aorta the effects of two nitro compounds, with emphasis on a putative recruitment of a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) pathway to induce vasodilation. Isolated aortic rings were obtained from male Wistar rats to compare the effects induced by 2-nitro-1-phenylethanone (NPeth) or 2-nitro-2-phenyl-propane-1,3-diol (NPprop)...
April 27, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702251/structure-function-of-the-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-catalytic-domain
#18
REVIEW
Kenneth C Childers, Elsa D Garcin
Soluble guanylyl cyclase (GC-1) is the primary receptor of nitric oxide (NO) in smooth muscle cells and maintains vascular function by inducing vasorelaxation in nearby blood vessels. GC-1 converts guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) into cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), which acts as a second messenger to improve blood flow. While much work has been done to characterize this pathway, we lack a mechanistic understanding of how NO binding to the heme domain leads to a large increase in activity at the C-terminal catalytic domain...
April 24, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698509/microrna-425-and-microrna-155-cooperatively-regulate-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-expression-and-cgmp-production
#19
Sara Vandenwijngaert, Clara D Ledsky, Obiajulu Agha, Connie Wu, Dongjian Hu, Aranya Bagchi, Ibrahim J Domian, Emmanuel S Buys, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Donald B Bloch
AIMS: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), secreted primarily by atrial cardiomyocytes, decreases blood pressure by raising cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels and inducing vasorelaxation, natriuresis, and diuresis. Raising the level of ANP has been shown to be an effective treatment for hypertension. To advance the future development of an anti-microRNA (miR) approach to increasing expression of ANP, we investigated the regulation of NPPA expression by two miRs: miR-425 and miR-155...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693418/vasorelaxant-effect-of-quercetin-on-cerebral-basilar-artery-in-vitro-and-the-underlying-mechanisms-study
#20
Tian-Yi Yuan, Zi-Ran Niu, Di Chen, Yu-Cai Chen, Hui-Fang Zhang, Lian-Hua Fang, Guan-Hua Du
The aim of this study is to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of quercetin on cerebral basilar artery in vitro and provide a preliminary discussion concerning the underlying mechanisms. Using a DMT-isolated micro vessel system, quercetin was found to exhibit a vasodilatory effect on basilar arteries contracted by potassium chloride (KCl), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The vasorelaxant effect of quercetin was partially attenuated when endothelium cells were removed. L-NAME, indomethacin, and ODQ treatment also decreased the potency of quercetin...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
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