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Peng Li, Ya-Ling Yin, Tao Guo, Xue-Ying Sun, Hui Ma, Mo-Li Zhu, Fan-Rong Zhao, Ping Xu, Yuan Chen, Guang-Rui Wan, Fan Jiang, Qi-Sheng Peng, Chao Liu, Li-Ying Liu, Shuang-Xi Wang
BACKGROUND: -GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) deficiency is critical for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in endothelial dysfunction. MicroRNAs (miR) are a class of regulatory RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. We investigated whether statins prevent endothelial dysfunction via miR-dependent GCH1 upregulation. METHODS: -Endothelial function was assessed by measuring acetylcholine- induced vasorelaxation in the organ chamber. MiR-133a expression was assessed by RT-qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization...
October 20, 2016: Circulation
Albino Carrizzo, Antonio Damato, Mariateresa Ambrosio, Antonia Falco, Alessandra Rosati, Mario Capunzo, Michele Madonna, Maria C Turco, James L Januzzi, Vincenzo De Laurenzi, Carmine Vecchione
Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), is constitutively expressed in a few normal cell types, including myocytes, peripheral nerves and in the brain, and is also expressed in certain tumors. To date, the main studies about the role of BAG3 are focused on its pro-survival effect in tumors through various mechanisms that vary according to cellular type. Recently, elevated concentrations of a soluble form of BAG3 were described in patients affected by advanced stage of heart failure (HF), identifying BAG3 as a potentially useful biomarker in monitoring HF progression...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Byeong Hwa Jeon
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein that plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA damage and redox regulation against oxidative stress. APE1/Ref-1 is essential for cellular survival and embryonic lethal in knockout mouse models. Heterozygous APE1/Ref-1 mice showed impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, reduced vascular NO levels, and are hypertensive. APE1/Ref-1 reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species production by negatively regulating the activity of the NADPH oxidase...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ben Clark, Sarah Withers, Anthony Heagerty
OBJECTIVE: Resistance arteries significantly contribute to peripheral vascular resistance, and also determine insulin-sensitivity by controlling blood flow to skeletal muscle. Increased microvascular tone therefore facilitates the development of hypertension and insulin-resistance. Surrounding most blood vessels, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts a vasorelaxant 'anti-contractile' effect. Few studies on skeletal muscle resistance arteries have investigated this vasorelaxant effect and the role of insulin...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Modar Kassan, Ajit Vikram, Qiuxia Li, Young-Rae Kim, Santosh Kumar, Julia Jacob, Irani Kaikobad
OBJECTIVE: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to vascular endothelial dysfunction in hypertension. The role of microRNAs in vascular ER stress is not fully understood. Here we examined the role of vascular microRNA-204 (miR-204) in inducing endothelial ER stress and dysfunction by governing the expression of the SIRTUIN1 (SIRT1) lysine deacetylase. DESIGN AND METHOD: Human Umbilical Vein cells (HUVECs) were treated with tunicamycin or transfected with miR-204 Mimic or siRNA SIRT1...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fariba Samadian, Nooshin Dalili, Ali Jamalian
Hypertension is the most important, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. High salt intake may predispose children to develop hypertension later. A modest reduction in population salt intake worldwide would result in a major improvement in public health. Regarding smoking as another risk factor, there are various strategies that can be used to promote smoking cessation. Physicians are in an excellent position to help their patients stop smoking. Targeted weight loss interventions in population subgroups might be more effective for the prevention of hypertension than a general-population approach...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Anees A Syed, Shibani Lahiri, Divya Mohan, Guru R Valicherla, Anand P Gupta, Mohammed Riyazuddin, Sudhir Kumar, Rakesh Maurya, Kashif Hanif, Jiaur R Gayen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ulmus wallichiana Planchon (Himalayan Elm), a traditional medicinal plant, used in fracture healingin folk tradition of Uttarakhand, Himalaya, India. It is also used as diuretic. U. rhynchophylla, native to China, known as Gou Teng in Chinese medicine, is used for hypertension (WHO). U. macrocarpa has antihypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. However, no detailed studies related to hypertension have been reported previously, so we have explored the antihypertensive activity of U...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sen Li, Sai-Jie Zuo, Lei Cao, Dong-Zheng Liu, San-Qi Zhang, Yong-Xiao Cao
A novel 3-benzylquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivative Z32, namely 6,7-dimethoxy-3-(3-chloro-4-(4-fluorobenzyloxy)benzyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one was synthesized. The vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects of Z32 and its underlying mechanisms were investigated. The following methods were used. The isometric tension of artery ring segments was recorded using an in vitro myography system. Changes in the calcium influx in mesenteric arteries were surveyed using a real-time confocal microscopy. The arterial pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats was measured in vivo using a non-invasive tail cuff blood pressure system...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Geoffrey W Abbott, Thomas A Jepps
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels formed by Kv7 (KCNQ) α-subunits are recognized as crucial for vascular smooth muscle function, in addition to their established roles in the heart (Kv7.1) and the brain (Kv7.2-5). In vivo, Kv7 α-subunits are often regulated by KCNE subfamily ancillary (β) subunits. We investigated the effects of targeted germline Kcne4 deletion on mesenteric artery reactivity in adult male and female mice. Kcne4 deletion increased mesenteric artery contractility in response to α-adrenoceptor agonist methoxamine, and decreased responses to Kv7...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
Yulong Chen, Hongmei Zhang, Huanhuan Liu, Ailan Cao
Independent of its lipid-lowering properties, simvastatin (Sim) induces vasorelaxation; however, the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effects of Sim on rat superior mesenteric arteries and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat superior mesenteric arterial rings was recorded in vitro on a myograph. The results showed that Sim concentration-dependently relaxed the superior mesenteric artery rings with endothelium pre-contracted by phenylephrine hydrochloride [maximum relaxation (Emax)=51...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
Yulong Chen, Cangbao Xu, Yahui Wei, Yaping Zhang, Ailan Cao
Resveratrol (Res) is a specific agonist of sirtuin 1, and has many cardioprotective effects. Although Res is able to relax various vascular beds, its pharmacological properties in rat superior mesenteric arteries and the underlying mechanism are not well clarified. The aim of present study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effects of Res on rat superior mesenteric arteries and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat superior mesenteric arterial rings was recorded in vitro using myography. It was found that Res concentration-dependently relaxed endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine hydrochloride (Emax, 97...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Sumathi Thangarajan, Surekha Ramachandran, Priya Krishnamurthy
3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of mitochondrial complex-II that causes transcriptional dysregulation, bioenergetics failure, protein aggregation and oxidative damage similar to Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. Chrysin, a bioactive flavonoid reported to have anti-inflammation, antioxidant, vasorelaxant and neuroprotective property. The present study was framed to determine the neuroprotective efficiency of chrysin upon 3-NP induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and neurodegeneration...
September 27, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jie Xiang, Hui Wang, Chengbang Ma, Mei Zhou, Yuxin Wu, Lei Wang, Shaodong Guo, Tianbao Chen, Chris Shaw
Bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs) are one of the most extensively studied frog secretions-derived peptide families identified from many amphibian species. The diverse primary structures of BRPs have been proven essential for providing valuable information in understanding basic mechanisms associated with drug modification. Here, we isolated, identified and characterized a dodeca-BRP (RAP-L1, T6-BK), with primary structure RAPLPPGFTPFR, from the skin secretions of Chinese large odorous frogs, Odorrana livida...
2016: Toxins
Debrabata Chanda, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Arjun Singh, Hina Iqbal, Pankaj Yadav, Vladimir Snetkov, Philip I Aaronson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glabridin is a major flavonoid in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) root, a traditional Asian medicine. Glabridin is reported to have anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nephritic properties; however its effects on vascular tone remain unexplored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We examined the effect of glabridin on rat main mesenteric artery using isometric myography and also ELISA to measure cGMP levels. KEY RESULTS: Glabridin (30μM) relaxed arteries pre-constricted with the thromboxane A2 analog U46619 (0...
September 26, 2016: Life Sciences
Daniel J DelloStritto, Pritam Sinharoy, Patrick J Connell, Joseph N Fahmy, Holly C Cappelli, Charles K Thodeti, Werner J Geldenhuys, Derek S Damron, Ian N Bratz
We demonstrated previously that TRPV1-dependent regulation of coronary blood flow (CBF) is disrupted in diabetes. Further, we have shown that endothelial TRPV1 is differentially regulated, ultimately leading to the inactivation of TRPV1, when exposed to a prolonged pathophysiological oxidative environment. This environment has been shown to increase lipid peroxidation byproducts including 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). 4-HNE is notorious for producing protein post-translation modification (PTM) via reactions with the amino acids: cysteine, histidine and lysine...
September 25, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Eun Young Choi, Youngouk Ro, Jong-Wook Choi, Chong Myung Kang, Gheun-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Cicletanine is an antihypertensive agent with vasorelaxant and diuretic properties. It has been widely used in European countries; however, cicletanine-associated electrolyte disturbances have yet to be defined. We investigated cicletanine-induced hyponatremia and hypokalemia in kidney transplant patients. METHODS: Data from a total of 68 kidney transplant recipients who were treated for hypertension with cicletanine were retrospectively analyzed. Cicletanine-induced hyponatremia and hypokalemia were defined as serum sodium < 135 mmol/L and potassium < 3...
September 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
Sorin Tunaru, Ramesh Chennupati, Rolf M Nüsing, Stefan Offermanns
19(S)-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (19(S)-HETE) belongs to a family of arachidonic acid metabolites produced by cytochrome P450 enzymes, which play critical roles in the regulation of cardiovascular, renal and pulmonary functions. Although it has been known for a long time that 19(S)-HETE has vascular effects, its mechanism of action has remained unclear. In this study we show that 19(S)-HETE induces cAMP accumulation in the human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line MEG-01. This effect was concentration-dependent with an EC50 of 520 nM, insensitive to pharmacological inhibition of COX-1/2 and required the expression of the G-protein Gs...
2016: PloS One
Agnieszka Piwkowska
Podocytes and their foot processes form an important cellular layer of the glomerular barrier involved in the regulation of glomerular permeability. Disturbing the function of podocytes plays a central role in the development of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Retraction of the podocyte foot processes that form slit diaphragms is a common feature of proteinuria; although, the correlation between these events in not well understood. Notably, it is unclear whether podocyte foot processes are able to regulate slit diaphragm permeability and glomerular ultrafiltration...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
G Brusotti, A Papetti, M Serra, C Temporini, E Marini, S Orlandini, A Kada Sanda, P Watcho, P Kamtchouing
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Allanblackia floribunda Oliv. is one of the most commonly used medicinal plant in Cameroon. The stem bark of the plant is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and antihypertensive properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: To validate the traditional uses of Allanblackia floribunda stem bark ethanol extract through the evaluation of their aphrodisiac and vasorelaxant properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extract's ability to increase sexual desire and the frequencies of erection (mount), intromission and prolonged latency of ejaculation were studied on adult male rats...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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