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diarrhea guidelines

Kexu Chen, Hanlin Liang, Jiewen Peng, Yanfang Zheng
Advanced extramammary Paget's disease does not have a standardized treatment guideline as its incidence is low and has been rarely reported in literature. Here we describe a case of metastatic extramammary Paget's disease successfully treated with topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and systemic pemetrexed. The therapy was safe without any appreciable adverse effects like diarrhea, rash, neutropenia or fatigue; maintaining remission for more than 6 months. Thus, we propose 5-FU and pemetrexed as the first-line therapy for advanced extramammary Paget's disease, especially for aged patients with unresectable skin lesions...
March 12, 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Yuan-Yuan Lei, Suzanne C Ho, Ashley Cheng, Carol Kwok, Chi-Kiu Iris Lee, Ka Li Cheung, Roselle Lee, Herbert H F Loong, Yi-Qian He, Winnie Yeo
Background: The 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guideline provides recommendations for cancer prevention among cancer survivors. Limited data have examined whether guideline adherence is related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Chinese patients with breast cancer. Methods: An ongoing prospective cohort study involving 1,462 Chinese women with early-stage breast cancer assessed exercise, diet, and body mass index (BMI) at baseline and at 18-months follow-up after diagnosis...
March 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Cynthia T Nguyen, Julius Li, Stephanie Anders, Julia Garcia-Diaz, Catherine Staffeld-Coit, Jonathan Hand
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend metronidazole for the treatment of mild-to-moderate C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), while oral vancomycin is preferred for severe disease. However, data are lacking among the solid organ transplant (SOT) population. METHODS: This single center, retrospective cohort study evaluated adult SOT recipients with mild-to-moderate CDAD. Analysis 1 evaluated patients receiving initial therapy with metronidazole versus oral vancomycin for at least 72 hours...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Stanley A Cohen, Hannah Oloyede
Background and Aims: Patients with a disaccharidase deficiency typically present with abdominal discomfort and often with diarrhea. However, disaccharidase deficiency is often overlooked as a cause of these complaints. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of lactase and sucrase deficiencies in a pediatric population undergoing diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and to describe disaccharidase testing practices among pediatric gastroenterologists. Methods: Endoscopic records from patients undergoing diagnostic EGD and disaccharidase analysis (DA) were retrospectively reviewed...
January 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Sajjad Omidi, Masoumeh Douraghi, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi Yazdi, Arash Okazi
Introduction: Shigella spp. is a growing global health concern due to increasing multiple drug resistance, commonly resulting in therapeutic failure. Integrons are gene expression systems run by integrase genes. The aims of this study were detection of class I, II and III integrons and assessment of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from acute pediatric diarrhea patients. Materials and methods: From January to December 2015, 16 Shigella spp. were isolated from 310 non-duplicative diarrheal stool samples in Children's Medical Center, Tehran, Iran...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
L Clifford McDonald, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson, Johan S Bakken, Karen C Carroll, Susan E Coffin, Erik R Dubberke, Kevin W Garey, Carolyn V Gould, Ciaran Kelly, Vivian Loo, Julia Shaklee Sammons, Thomas J Sandora, Mark H Wilcox
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. The update, which has incorporated recommendations for children (following the adult recommendations for epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment), includes significant changes in the management of this infection and reflects the evolving controversy over best methods for diagnosis...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Joana R Carvalho, Joana Tavares, Inês Goulart, Paula Moura Dos Santos, Emília Vitorino, Cristina Ferreira, Fátima Serejo, José Velosa
Signet ring cell carcinoma is a rare form of adenocarcinoma that predominantly affects the stomach. Signet ring cell carcinoma originated from the ileum is extremely rare and the prognosis is poor. We present a case of small bowel obstruction with features suggesting Crohn disease of the ileum. The symptoms were chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain with a family history of inflammatory bowel disease. The patient underwent surgery and histopathology revealed both aspects of signet ring cell carcinoma and Crohn disease of the ileum...
January 2018: GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology
Giovanni Dothel, Maria Raffaella Barbaro, Emanuel Raschi, Giovanni Barbara, Fabrizio De Ponti
Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a common disorder characterized by a complex pathophysiology hampering optimal targeted drug development. Recent advances in our understanding of key underlying mechanisms prompted novel therapeutics including novel pharmacological approaches. Areas covered: This review summarizes the latest advancements in the pipeline of IBS-D drugs focusing on new pharmacological targets, efficacy and safety of medicinal products considering the recent harmonization of regulatory requirements by the FDA and the EMA...
February 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Zehra Gok Metin, Nur Izgu, Canan Karadas, Ayse Arikan Donmez
In Turkey, between 22.1% and 84.1% of patients with cancer use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, few CAM-related studies have focused on the perspective of oncology nurses. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Turkish oncology nurses regarding CAM. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 127 participants was conducted in Ankara, Turkey. A semistructured questionnaire including characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of oncology nurses toward CAM was administered to participants...
March 2018: Holistic Nursing Practice
Stefan H F Hagmann, John C Christenson, Philip R Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Patricia B Pavlinac, Rebecca L Brander, Hannah E Atlas, Grace C John-Stewart, Donna M Denno, Judd L Walson
BACKGROUND: Although acute diarrhea often leads to acute dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, children with diarrhea also suffer long term morbidity, including recurrent or prolonged diarrhea, loss of weight, and linear growth faltering. They are also at increased risk of post-acute mortality. The objective of this systematic review was to identify interventions that address these longer term consequences of diarrhea. METHODS: We searched Medline for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries, published between 1980 and 2016 that included children under 15 years of age with diarrhea and follow-up of at least 7 days...
February 1, 2018: BMC Public Health
Amar H Kelkar, Kavitha S Jacob, Eman B Yousif, John J Farrell
RATIONALE: Herein, we present a case of seemingly unprovoked portal vein thrombosis (PVT) occurring in the context of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and prolonged debilitating fatigue. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old male airline pilot presented with a 2 week history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and daily recurrent fevers. This was in the context of progressive, debilitating fatigue for 3 months forcing the patient to leave his job...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Wanessa Trindade Clemente, Lígia Camera Pierrotti, Edson Abdala, Michele I Morris, Luiz S Azevedo, Rogelio López-Vélez, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Julian Torre-Cisneros, Eskild Petersen, Luis Fernando A Camargo, Alissa Jade Wright, Nicholas J Beeching, Eduardo Garcia Vilela, Guilherme Santoro-Lopes, Oscar Len, Raquel S B Stucchi, Oriol Manuel, Luciana Costa Faria, Hakan Leblebicioglu, Shirish Huprikar, Israel Molina, Paulo Henrique Orlandi Mourão, Camille N Kotton, José María Aguado
The Recommendations for Management of Endemic Diseases and Travel Medicine in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors: Latin America clinical practice guideline is intended to guide clinicians caring for solid-organ transplant (SOT) donors, candidates and recipients regarding infectious diseases (ID) issues related to this geographical region, mostly located in the tropics. These recommendations are based on both systematic reviews of relevant literature and expert opinion from both transplant ID and travel medicine specialists...
February 2018: Transplantation
J P Machiels, P Bossi, J Menis, M Lia, C Fortpied, Y Liu, R Lhommel, M Lemort, S Schmitz, S Canevari, L De Cecco, M Guzzo, R Bianchi, P Quattrone, F Crippa, T Duprez, Y Lalami, M Quiriny, N de Saint Aubain, P M Clement, R Coropciuc, E Hauben, L F Licitra
Background: To investigate the activity and safety of afatinib in the pre-operative treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and methods: This study was an open-label, randomized, multicenter, phase II window of opportunity trial. Treatment-naïve SCCHN patients selected for primary curative surgery were randomized (5:1 ratio) to receive afatinib during 14 days (day -15 until day -1) before surgery (day 0) or no treatment. Tumor biopsies, 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed at diagnosis and just before surgery...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Abdur Razzaque Sarker, Marufa Sultana, Rashidul Alam Mahumud, Nausad Ali, Tanvir M Huda, M Salim Uzzaman, Sabbir Haider, Hafizur Rahman, Ziaul Islam, Jahangir A M Khan, Robert Van Der Meer, Alec Morton
Background: Diarrheal diseases are a major threat to human health and still represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the burden of the diarrheal diseases is much lower in developed countries, it is a significant public health problem in low and middle-income countries like Bangladesh. Though diarrhea is preventable and managed with low-cost interventions, it is still the leading cause of morbidity according to the patient who sought care from public hospitals in Bangladesh indicating that significant resources are consumed in treating those patients...
2018: Global health research and policy
R Cohen, J Raymond, D Gendrel
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) are usually caused by viruses, especially Rotavirus and Norovirus. Among the bacterial causes, very few warrant antibiotic treatment, mainly Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter (only for severe cases, particularly in the initial phase) and severe cases of Salmonella infection. The antimicrobial treatments proposed in this guide follow the latest guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Roger S McIntyre
Although many branded and generic antidepressants are approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Canada, efficacy and tolerability differ among patients, and new treatment options are needed. Symptom types (eg, fatigue, energy/motivation, cognition, and functioning), medication type, treatment duration, and the need for maintenance therapy are factors that may influence treatment effectiveness. Three antidepressants, vortioxetine, levomilnacipran extended-release (ER), and vilazodone have recently become available in Canada...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Roholla Taghadosi, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Reza Ghanbarpour, Hossein Hosseini-Nave
Background and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles, biofilm formation, presence of antigen 43 ( Ag 43) gene, and transfer of antibiotic resistance phenotype among non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Materials and Methods: From October 2014 to November 2015 a total of 276 stool samples were collected from healthy calves, goats and 395 patients with the sign of nonbloody diarrhea and screened for presence of stx and serotype O157 genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Andi L Shane, Rajal K Mody, John A Crump, Phillip I Tarr, Theodore S Steiner, Karen Kotloff, Joanne M Langley, Christine Wanke, Cirle Alcantara Warren, Allen C Cheng, Joseph Cantey, Larry K Pickering
These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
November 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Apoorva Krishna Chandar
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex functional gastrointestinal disorder that is exceedingly common in clinical practice. IBS with predominant constipation (IBS-C) is a subtype of IBS that accounts for more than a third of the IBS diagnosed. Diagnosis of IBS requires a careful personalized approach, a comprehensive clinical history, limited but relevant investigations, and continued follow-up. Major IBS societies and guidelines recommend offering a positive diagnosis of IBS based on presenting symptomatology...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
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