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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430997/global-impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination-on-childhood-hospitalizations-and-mortality-from-diarrhea
#1
Eleanor Burnett, Christine L Jonesteller, Jacqueline E Tate, Catherine Yen, Umesh D Parashar
In 2006, two rotavirus vaccines were licensed. We summarize the impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospitalizations and deaths from rotavirus and all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) during the first 10 years since vaccine licensure, including recent evidence from high child mortality countries. We used standardized guidelines (PRISMA) guidelines to identify observational evaluations of rotavirus vaccine impact among children <5 years of age that presented at least 12 months of pre- and post-vaccine introduction surveillance data...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427109/traveler-s-diarrhea-vision-abnormalities-and-unsteady-gait-in-a-young-woman
#2
Tobias Mühling, Felix Gundling, Thomas Helmberger, Wolfgang Schepp
We report on the course of disease in a young woman, originally admitted with suspected refractory infectious tropical traveler's diarrhea. However, symptoms did not resolve upon either symptomatic or subsequent antibiotic therapy. When neurologic deterioration was observed, imaging studies revealed a dramatic series of thromboembolic events, including intracranial hemorrhage caused by extensive sinus vein thrombosis as well as thrombi of the right cardiac ventricle. Colonic mucosal biopsy samples finally led to the histologic diagnosis of ulcerative colitis...
April 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398845/potentially-curable-pancreatic-cancer-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-clinical-practice-guideline-update
#3
Alok A Khorana, Pamela B Mangu, Jordan Berlin, Anitra Engebretson, Theodore S Hong, Anirban Maitra, Supriya G Mohile, Matthew Mumber, Richard Schulick, Marc Shapiro, Susan Urba, Herbert J Zeh, Matthew H G Katz
Purpose To update the Potentially Curable Pancreatic Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline published on May 31, 2016. The October 2016 update focuses solely on new evidence that pertains to clinical question 4 of the guideline: What is the appropriate adjuvant regimen for patients with pancreatic cancer who have undergone an R0 or R1 resection of their primary tumor? Methods The recently published results of a randomized phase III study prompted an update of this guideline...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321156/current-knowledge-on-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#4
REVIEW
Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Rayo Morfin-Otero, Héctor Jesús Maldonado-Garza, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Elvira Garza-González
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that is the principal etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Infection with C. difficile (CDI) is characterized by diarrhea in clinical syndromes that vary from self-limited to mild or severe. Since its initial recognition as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis, C. difficile has spread around the world. CDI is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among older adult hospitalized patients...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276820/cannabinoids-for-treating-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-go
#5
Carina Hasenoehrl, Martin Storr, Rudolf Schicho
Fifty years after the discovery of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as the psychoactive component of Cannabis, we are assessing the possibility of translating this herb into clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Here, a discussion on the problems associated with a potential treatment is given. From first surveys and small clinical studies in patients with IBD we have learned that Cannabis is frequently used to alleviate diarrhea, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite. Single ingredients from Cannabis, such as THC and cannabidiol, commonly described as cannabinoids, are responsible for these effects...
April 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267992/clostridium-difficile-disease-diagnosis-pathogenesis-and-treatment-update
#6
REVIEW
Lena M Napolitano, Charles E Edmiston
Clostridium difficile infections are the leading cause of health care-associated infectious diarrhea, posing a significant risk for both medical and surgical patients. Because of the significant morbidity and mortality associated with C difficile infections, knowledge of the epidemiology of C difficile in combination with a high index of suspicion and susceptible patient populations (including surgical, postcolectomy, and inflammatory bowel disease patients) is warranted. C difficile infections present with a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis or small bowel enteritis and recurrent C difficile infections...
March 3, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264648/a-phase-i-dose-escalation-study-of-selumetinib-in-combination-with-docetaxel-or-dacarbazine-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#7
Patricia M LoRusso, Jeffrey R Infante, Kevin B Kim, Howard A Burris, Gregory Curt, Ugochi Emeribe, Delyth Clemett, Helen K Tomkinson, Roger B Cohen
BACKGROUND: The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway is constitutively activated in many cancers. Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is an oral, potent and highly selective, allosteric MEK1/2 inhibitor with a short half-life that has shown clinical activity as monotherapy in phase I and II studies of advanced cancer. Preclinical data suggest that selumetinib may enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic agents. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) in combination with docetaxel or dacarbazine in patients with advanced solid tumors...
March 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261918/methotrexate-induced-pancytopenia-a-case-series-of-46-patients
#8
Sajal Ajmani, Yogesh Preet Singh, Shiva Prasad, Abhra Chowdhury, Amita Aggarwal, Able Lawrence, Ramnath Misra, Richa Mishra, Vikas Agarwal
AIM: Methotrexate (MTX) has the potential to cause serious adverse reactions and even mortality. We analyzed the predisposing factors and outcome in patients with MTX-induced pancytopenia admitted into our unit from 1996 to 2015. METHODS: Patients were identified by departmental database search. Pancytopenia was defined as white blood cell count (WBC) < 3500 cells/mm(3) , hemoglobin (Hb) < 11 g/dL and platelet count < 150 000 cells/mm(3) . Severe pancytopenia was defined as WBC < 2000 cells/mm(3) , Hb < 10 g/dL and platelet count < 50 000 cells/mm(3) ...
March 5, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254483/acute-and-sub-chronic-toxicity-study-of-aqueous-extract-from-the-leaves-and-branches-of-campomanesia-velutina-cambess-o-berg
#9
Marcela Carolina de Paula Michel Araújo, Neila Márcia Silva Barcellos, Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira, Thiago Magalhães Gouveia, Martha Oliveira Guerra, Vera Maria Peters, Dênia Antunes Saúde-Guimarães
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Campomanesia velutina leaves and branches infusions are used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat diarrhea and to ameliorate intestinal cramps, respectively. AIM OF THE STUDY: Carry out the acute and sub chronic pre-clinical evaluation and thus assess the safety and toxicological potential of the specie. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo toxicity was evaluated by acute and sub chronic toxicity assays conducted according to the guidelines of the Brazilian Agency of National Health Surveillance (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA)...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244025/-consensus-paper-treatment-of-acute-traveler-s-diarrhea-practice-recommendation-for-travel-advice
#10
Tomas Jelinek, Hans-Dieter Nothdurft, Martin Haditsch, Thomas Weinke
BACKGROUND: In times of mass tourism, traveler's diarrhea is one of the most common health problems of long-distance travel. Globally, some 40 million cases occur annually. Travellers to risk areas should therefore be comprehensively advised beforehand, as to what action to take in case of an acute traveler's diarrhea and what drugs to add to their first-aid kit. To date none, or hardly any specific studies or valid specific guidelines for the treatment of traveler's diarrhea are available for Germany...
March 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221908/content-analysis-of-vomit-and-diarrhea-cleanup-procedures-to-prevent-norovirus-infections-in-retail-and-food-service-operations
#11
Morgan G Chao, Anne-Julie Dubé, Cortney M Leone, Christina M Moore, Angela M Fraser
Human noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States, sickening 19 to 21 million Americans each year. Vomit and diarrhea are both highly concentrated sources of norovirus particles. For this reason, establishing appropriate cleanup procedures for these two substances is critical. Food service establishments in states that have adopted the 2009 or 2013 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code are required to have a program detailing specific cleanup procedures. The aim of our study was to determine the alignment of existing vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures with the 11 elements recommended in Annex 3 of the 2011 Supplement to the 2009 Food Code and to determine their readability and clarity of presentation...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216959/prescription-patterns-and-appropriateness-of-antibiotics-in-the-management-of-cough-cold-and-diarrhea-in-a-rural-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#12
Akram Ahmad, Muhammad Umair Khan, Sadiqa Malik, Guru Prasad Mohanta, S Parimalakrishnan, Isha Patel, Sameer Dhingra
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illnesses are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of antibiotic utilization during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months in pediatric units of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Children under 5 years of age presenting with illness related to diarrhea and/or cough/cold were included in this study...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211341/food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
A Nowak-Węgrzyn, E Jarocka-Cyrta, Apb Moschione Castro
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-, cell-mediated food allergy of unknown prevalence and pathophysiology. Onset is typically during the first year of life; seafood-induced FPIES may start in adulthood. Acute FPIES manifests within 1-4 hours after ingestion with repetitive emesis, pallor, and lethargy progressing to dehydration and hypovolemic shock in 15% of cases. Chronic FPIES manifests with intermittent emesis, watery diarrhea, and poor growth progressing to dehydration and hypovolemic shock over a period of days to weeks...
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209267/assessment-of-volume-status-and-appropriate-fluid-replenishment-in-the-setting-of-nephrotic-syndrome
#14
Pierluigi Marzuillo, Stefano Guarino, Andrea Apicella, Rosaria Marotta, Vincenzo Tipo, Laura Perrone, Angela La Manna, Giovanni Montini
BACKGROUND: When the permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier increases, leading to proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome (NS) occurs. First episodes or relapses of NS can be concurrent with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) infections. This condition can cause further deterioration of the hypovolemic state, as intravascular water is lost through both AGE-related vomiting/diarrhea and NS-related fluid shifting into the interstitium. In this case report, we wish to raise the issues about the difficult management of children presenting with both NS and AGE...
April 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170133/optimal-strategies-for-the-diagnosis-of-community-onset-diarrhea-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-less-is-more
#15
Sonya A Trinh, Ignacio A Echenique, Sudhir Penugonda, Michael P Angarone
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea, a common complication after solid organ transplant (SOT), is associated with allograft failure and death. No evidence-based guidelines exist for the evaluation of diarrhea in SOT recipients. We performed a cost analysis to derive a testing algorithm for the diagnosis of community-onset diarrhea that minimizes costs without compromising diagnostic yields. DESIGN: A cost analysis was performed on a retrospective cohort of 422 SOT admissions for community-onset diarrhea over an 18-month period...
April 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163966/an-active-principle-of-nigella-sativa-l-thymoquinone-showing-significant-antimicrobial-activity-against-anaerobic-bacteria
#16
Mohammad Akram Randhawa, Awwad Khalaf Alenazy, Majed Gorayan Alrowaili, Jamith Basha
AIM/BACKGROUND: Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active principle of Nigella sativa seed (black seed) and is known to control many fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. However, the activity of TQ against anaerobic bacteria is not well demonstrated. Anaerobic bacteria can cause severe infections, including diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and brain abscess, particularly in immunodeficient individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TQ against some anaerobic pathogens in comparison to metronidazole...
January 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159782/effect-of-tenapanor-on-serum-phosphate-in-patients-receiving-hemodialysis
#17
Geoffrey A Block, David P Rosenbaum, Maria Leonsson-Zachrisson, Magnus Åstrand, Susanne Johansson, Mikael Knutsson, Anna Maria Langkilde, Glenn M Chertow
Hyperphosphatemia is common among patients with CKD stage 5D and is associated with morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend lowering serum phosphate concentrations toward normal. Tenapanor is a minimally absorbed small molecule inhibitor of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 that functions in the gut to reduce sodium and phosphate absorption. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the effects of tenapanor on serum phosphate concentration in patients with hyperphosphatemia receiving hemodialysis...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152970/factors-associated-with-toxicity-related-service-use-among-community-oncology-patients
#18
Beth Lavasseur, Philip J Stella, Paul T Adams, Lauren Swafford, JoAnn Lewis, Kari Mendelsohn-Victor, Christopher Ryan Friese
133 Background: Chemotherapy-associated toxicities occur often, yet sparse data are available to correlate toxicities with related service use. Toxicities may disrupt treatment, impair quality of life, and induce unplanned service use. We sought to understand the frequency and correlates of unplanned service use among patients receiving first-cycle chemotherapy at 5 community-based ambulatory oncology practices in southeast Michigan. METHODS: A prospective survey examined the dichotomous outcome of toxicity-related unplanned service use...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144199/open-clinical-trial-on-using-nifuroxazide-compared-to-probiotics-in-treating-acute-diarrhoeas-in-adults
#19
Begler Begovic, Sead Ahmedtagic, Lejla Calkic, Midhat Vehabović, Sanela Bakić Kovacevic, Tarik Catic, Meliha Mehic
BACKGROUND: Nifuroxazide is well known and often used anti-diarrhoeal medicine which has been pushed back from routine practice in recent years and often replaced with probiotics. Even probiotics are accepted and placed in some therapeutic guidelines for diarrhoea treatment, there are no enough evidence for its effectiveness and no comparative efficacy data with nifuroxazide in treatment of acute diarrhea. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In open, prospective observational study, the efficacy and safety of nifuroxazide were compared with a probiotic containing lactic acid bacteria in the treatment of acute diarrhoea...
December 2016: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135050/automated-home-monitoring-and-management-of-patient-reported-symptoms-during-chemotherapy-results-of-the-symptom-care-at-home-rct
#20
Kathi H Mooney, Susan L Beck, Bob Wong, William Dunson, Debra Wujcik, Meagan Whisenant, Gary Donaldson
Technology-aided remote interventions for poorly controlled symptoms may improve cancer symptom outcomes. In a randomized controlled trial, the efficacy of an automated symptom management system was tested to determine if it reduced chemotherapy-related symptoms. Prospectively, 358 patients beginning chemotherapy were randomized to the Symptom Care at Home (SCH) intervention (n = 180) or enhanced usual care (UC) (n = 178). Participants called the automated monitoring system daily reporting severity of 11 symptoms...
March 2017: Cancer Medicine
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