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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211341/food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
A Nowak-Węgrzyn, E Jarocka-Cyrta, Apb Moschione Castro
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-, cell-mediated food allergy of unknown prevalence and pathophysiology. Onset is typically during the first year of life; seafood-induced FPIES may start in adulthood. Acute FPIES manifests within 1-4 hours after ingestion with repetitive emesis, pallor, and lethargy progressing to dehydration and hypovolemic shock in 15% of cases. Chronic FPIES manifests with intermittent emesis, watery diarrhea, and poor growth progressing to dehydration and hypovolemic shock over a period of days to weeks...
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209267/assessment-of-volume-status-and-appropriate-fluid-replenishment-in-the-setting-of-nephrotic-syndrome
#2
Pierluigi Marzuillo, Stefano Guarino, Andrea Apicella, Rosaria Marotta, Vincenzo Tipo, Laura Perrone, Angela La Manna, Giovanni Montini
BACKGROUND: When the permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier increases, leading to proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome (NS) occurs. First episodes or relapses of NS can be concurrent with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) infections. This condition can cause further deterioration of the hypovolemic state, as intravascular water is lost through both AGE-related vomiting/diarrhea and NS-related fluid shifting into the interstitium. In this case report, we wish to raise the issues about the difficult management of children presenting with both NS and AGE...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170133/optimal-strategies-for-the-diagnosis-of-community-onset-diarrhea-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-less-is-more
#3
Sonya A Trinh, Ignacio A Echenique, Sudhir Penugonda, Michael P Angarone
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea, a common complication after solid organ transplant (SOT), is associated with allograft failure and death. No evidence-based guidelines exist for the evaluation of diarrhea in SOT recipients. We performed a cost-analysis to derive a testing algorithm for the diagnosis of community-onset diarrhea that minimizes costs without compromising diagnostic yields. DESIGN: A cost-analysis was performed on a retrospective cohort of 422 SOT admissions for community-onset diarrhea over an 18-month period...
February 7, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163966/an-active-principle-of-nigella-sativa-l-thymoquinone-showing-significant-antimicrobial-activity-against-anaerobic-bacteria
#4
Mohammad Akram Randhawa, Awwad Khalaf Alenazy, Majed Gorayan Alrowaili, Jamith Basha
AIM/BACKGROUND: Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active principle of Nigella sativa seed (black seed) and is known to control many fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. However, the activity of TQ against anaerobic bacteria is not well demonstrated. Anaerobic bacteria can cause severe infections, including diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and brain abscess, particularly in immunodeficient individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TQ against some anaerobic pathogens in comparison to metronidazole...
January 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159782/effect-of-tenapanor-on-serum-phosphate-in-patients-receiving-hemodialysis
#5
Geoffrey A Block, David P Rosenbaum, Maria Leonsson-Zachrisson, Magnus Åstrand, Susanne Johansson, Mikael Knutsson, Anna Maria Langkilde, Glenn M Chertow
Hyperphosphatemia is common among patients with CKD stage 5D and is associated with morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend lowering serum phosphate concentrations toward normal. Tenapanor is a minimally absorbed small molecule inhibitor of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 that functions in the gut to reduce sodium and phosphate absorption. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the effects of tenapanor on serum phosphate concentration in patients with hyperphosphatemia receiving hemodialysis...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152970/factors-associated-with-toxicity-related-service-use-among-community-oncology-patients
#6
Beth Lavasseur, Philip J Stella, Paul T Adams, Lauren Swafford, JoAnn Lewis, Kari Mendelsohn-Victor, Christopher Ryan Friese
: 133 Background: Chemotherapy-associated toxicities occur often, yet sparse data are available to correlate toxicities with related service use. Toxicities may disrupt treatment, impair quality of life, and induce unplanned service use. We sought to understand the frequency and correlates of unplanned service use among patients receiving first-cycle chemotherapy at 5 community-based ambulatory oncology practices in southeast Michigan. METHODS: A prospective survey examined the dichotomous outcome of toxicity-related unplanned service use...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144199/open-clinical-trial-on-using-nifuroxazide-compared-to-probiotics-in-treating-acute-diarrhoeas-in-adults
#7
Begler Begovic, Sead Ahmedtagic, Lejla Calkic, Midhat Vehabović, Sanela Bakić Kovacevic, Tarik Catic, Meliha Mehic
BACKGROUND: Nifuroxazide is well known and often used anti-diarrhoeal medicine which has been pushed back from routine practice in recent years and often replaced with probiotics. Even probiotics are accepted and placed in some therapeutic guidelines for diarrhoea treatment, there are no enough evidence for its effectiveness and no comparative efficacy data with nifuroxazide in treatment of acute diarrhea. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In open, prospective observational study, the efficacy and safety of nifuroxazide were compared with a probiotic containing lactic acid bacteria in the treatment of acute diarrhoea...
December 2016: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135050/automated-home-monitoring-and-management-of-patient-reported-symptoms-during-chemotherapy-results-of-the-symptom-care-at-home-rct
#8
Kathi H Mooney, Susan L Beck, Bob Wong, William Dunson, Debra Wujcik, Meagan Whisenant, Gary Donaldson
Technology-aided remote interventions for poorly controlled symptoms may improve cancer symptom outcomes. In a randomized controlled trial, the efficacy of an automated symptom management system was tested to determine if it reduced chemotherapy-related symptoms. Prospectively, 358 patients beginning chemotherapy were randomized to the Symptom Care at Home (SCH) intervention (n = 180) or enhanced usual care (UC) (n = 178). Participants called the automated monitoring system daily reporting severity of 11 symptoms...
January 30, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130774/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-safety-concerns
#9
REVIEW
Raymond A Tetteh, Barbara A Yankey, Edmund T Nartey, Margaret Lartey, Hubert G M Leufkens, Alexander N O Dodoo
Available evidence supports the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in decreasing the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among high-risk individuals, especially when used in combination with other behavioural preventive methods. Safety concerns about PrEP present challenges in the implementation and use of PrEP. The aim of this review is to discuss safety concerns observed in completed clinical trials on the use of PrEP. We performed a literature search on PrEP in PubMed, global advocacy for HIV prevention (Aids Vaccine Advocacy Coalition) database, clinical trials registry " http://www...
January 28, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124965/-bacteremia-caused-by-ciprofloxacin-resistant-salmonella-serotype-kentucky-a-case-report-and-the-review-of-literature
#10
Tuba Müderris, Fatma Yekta Ürkmez, Şeref Alp Küçüker, Muhammet Fethi Sağlam, Gül Ruhsar Yılmaz, Rahmet Güner, Revasiye Güleşen, Ziya Cibali Açıkgöz
Salmonella infections can be seen in four clinical types, namely gastroenteritis, bacteremia/sepsis, enteric fever and carriage. These infections can result in uncomplicated diarrhea in most cases, but can lead to invasive disease requiring antimicrobial therapy and can be life-threatening in elderly or immunocomprimised patients. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are crucial options in the treatment of the invasive infections. Ciprofloxacin resistance is rarely seen in non-typhoid Salmonella enterica isolates, and only in S...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124291/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-complications-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#11
REVIEW
Peyton Cramer, Robert S Bresalier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal complications are very common in patients undergoing cancer treatment. Some of these complications can be life threatening and require prompt and appropriate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this review is to address luminal gastrointestinal and hepatic complications associated with a new class of anticancer drugs, immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), and focuses on the identification, evaluation, and management of the complications associated with this class of drugs...
January 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122542/universal-versus-conditional-three-day-follow-up-visit-for-children-with-uncomplicated-fever-at-the-community-level-design-of-a-cluster-randomized-community-based-non-inferiority-trial-in-tanganyika-democratic-republic-of-congo
#12
Elburg van Boetzelaer, Lara S Ho, Julie R Gutman, Laura C Steinhardt, Alison Wittcoff, Yolanda Barbera, Pascal Ngoy, Steven A Harvey, Luke C Mullany
BACKGROUND: The current recommendation within integrated Community Case Management guidelines that all children presenting with uncomplicated fever and no danger signs be followed up after three days may not be necessary. Such fevers often resolve rapidly (usually within 48-96 h), and previous studies suggest that expectant home care for uncomplicated fever can be safely recommended. We aim to determine the non-inferiority of a conditional versus a universal follow-up visit for these children...
January 26, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095824/community-based-health-care-is-an-essential-component-of-a-resilient-health-system-evidence-from-ebola-outbreak-in-liberia
#13
Kendra Siekmans, Salim Sohani, Tamba Boima, Florence Koffa, Luay Basil, Saïd Laaziz
BACKGROUND: Trained community health workers (CHW) enhance access to essential primary health care services in contexts where the health system lacks capacity to adequately deliver them. In Liberia, the Ebola outbreak further disrupted health system function. The objective of this study is to examine the value of a community-based health system in ensuring continued treatment of child illnesses during the outbreak and the role that CHWs had in Ebola prevention activities. METHODS: A descriptive observational study design used mixed methods to collect data from CHWs (structured survey, n = 60; focus group discussions, n = 16), government health facility workers and project staff...
January 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093134/management-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-expert-review-from-the-clinical-practice-updates-committee-of-the-aga-institute
#14
REVIEW
Sahil Khanna, Andrea Shin, Ciarán P Kelly
The purpose of this expert review is to synthesize the existing evidence on the management of Clostridium difficile infection in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel disease. The evidence reviewed in this article is a summation of relevant scientific publications, expert opinion statements, and current practice guidelines. This review is a summary of expert opinion in the field without a formal systematic review of evidence. Best Practice Advice 1: Clinicians should test patients who present with a flare of underlying inflammatory bowel disease for Clostridium difficile infection...
February 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068177/safety-profile-of-nivolumab-monotherapy-a-pooled-analysis-of-patients-with-advanced-melanoma
#15
Jeffrey S Weber, F Stephen Hodi, Jedd D Wolchok, Suzanne L Topalian, Dirk Schadendorf, James Larkin, Mario Sznol, Georgina V Long, Hewei Li, Ian M Waxman, Joel Jiang, Caroline Robert
Purpose We conducted a retrospective analysis to assess the safety profile of nivolumab monotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma and describe the management of adverse events (AEs) using established safety guidelines. Patients and Methods Safety data were pooled from four studies, including two phase III trials, with patients who received nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. We evaluated rate of treatment-related AEs, time to onset and resolution of select AEs (those with potential immunologic etiology), and impact of select AEs and suppressive immune-modulating agents (IMs) on antitumor efficacy...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063287/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-use-of-video-capsule%C3%A2-endoscopy
#16
Robert A Enns, Lawrence Hookey, David Armstrong, Charles N Bernstein, Steven J Heitman, Christopher Teshima, Grigorios I Leontiadis, Frances Tse, Daniel Sadowski
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Video capsule endoscopy (CE) provides a noninvasive option to assess the small intestine, but its use with respect to endoscopic procedures and cross-sectional imaging varies widely. The aim of this consensus was to provide guidance on the appropriate use of CE in clinical practice. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified studies on the use of CE in patients with Crohn's disease, celiac disease, gastrointestinal bleeding, and anemia...
January 4, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049258/the-impact-of-implementation-of-an-enteral-feeding-protocol-on-the-improvement-of-enteral-nutrition-in-critically-ill-adults
#17
Seoung-Hyun Kim, Chi-Min Park, Jeong-Meen Seo, Mingew Choi, Dae-Sang Lee, Dong Kyung Chang, Miyong Rha, Soyoung Yu, Seonhye Lee, Eunmee Kim, Young Yun Cho
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The optimal delivery of enteral nutrition (EN) may improve clinical outcomes in critically ill patients; thus, optimal EN protocols should be developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing an EN protocol on the improvement of EN practices and on the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study with prospectively collected data. Multidisciplinary working group developed an evidence-based EN protocol based on an extensive review of literature and existing guidelines...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043020/management-of-childhood-diarrhea-by-healthcare-professionals-in-low-income-countries-an-integrative-review
#18
REVIEW
Ana F Diallo, Xiaomei Cong, Wendy A Henderson, Jacqueline McGrath
BACKGROUND: The significant drop in child mortality due to diarrhea has been primarily attributed to the use of oral rehydration solutions, continuous feeding and zinc supplementation. Nevertheless uptake of these interventions have been slow in developing countries and many children suffering from diarrhea are not receiving adequate care according to the World Health Organization recommended guidelines for the clinical management of childhood diarrhea. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this integrative review is to appraise healthcare professionals' management of childhood diarrhea in low-income countries...
January 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033143/probiotics-for-trauma-patients-should-we-be-taking-a-precautionary-approach
#19
Heather A Vitko, L Kathleen Sekula, Martin A Schreiber
The use of probiotics in the hospital setting is largely understudied and highly controversial. Probiotics are living organisms that, when taken internally, can produce an immunomodulating effect and improve the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal barrier. Although used for centuries by healthy individuals for GI health, their use in the hospital setting is now gaining wide attention for the prevention of infectious complications such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infections, multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018330/porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-shedding-and-antibody-response-in-swine-farms-a-longitudinal-study
#20
Cristina Bertasio, Enrico Giacomini, Massimiliano Lazzaro, Simona Perulli, Alice Papetti, Antonio Lavazza, Davide Lelli, Giovanni Alborali, Maria B Boniotti
The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes an acute and highly contagious enteric disease characterized by severe enteritis, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and a high mortality rate in seronegative neonatal piglets. In the last few years, PED had a large economic impact on the swine industries in Asia and the US, and in 2014, the PEDV also re-emerged in Europe. Two main PEDV variants circulate worldwide but only the S INDEL variant, considered a mild strain, is spreading in Europe. To gain insights into the pathogenicity of this variant, its viral load and temporal shedding pattern were evaluated in piglets from infected farms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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