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diarrhea guidelines

Janet A Curran, Andrea Murphy, Emma Burns, Amy Plint, Monica Taljaard, Shannon MacPhee, Eleanor Fitzpatrick, Andrea Bishop, Jill Chorney, Megan Bourque
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the 5 most essential discharge instruction content elements that should be communicated to all caregivers of children who present to the emergency department (ED) with asthma, vomiting/diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, minor head injury, or bronchiolitis. METHODS: A discharge information content list was developed for each illness presentation following a review of the literature. Using a modified Delphi technique, 6 lists were distributed to a panel of experts from EDs across Canada using a secure online survey tool with the goal of achieving the 5 most essential discharge instruction elements...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Jieun Kim, Heejung Kim, Hyun Ju Oh, Hyung Sun Kim, Youn Jee Hwang, Dongeun Yong, Seok Hoon Jeong, Kyungwon Lee
Clostridium difficile is a significant nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen, and is the leading cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhea associated with high morbidity and mortality. Given that the treatment outcome depends on the severity of C. difficile infection (CDI), we aimed to establish an efficient method of assessing severity, and focused on the stool biomarker fecal calprotectin (FC). FC directly reflects the intestinal inflammation status of a patient, and can aid in interpreting the current guidelines, which requires the integration of indirect laboratory parameters...
January 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Bright C Orji, Namratha Rao, Elizabeth Thompson, William R Brieger, Emmanuel 'Dipo Otolorin
BACKGROUND: Throughout Nigeria malaria is an endemic disease. Efforts to treat malaria can also be combined with other illnesses including pneumonia and diarrhea, which are killing children under five years of age. The use of Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) aids early diagnosis of malaria and informs when other illnesses should be considered. Those with positive RDT results should be treated with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACTs), while those with negative RDTs results are further investigated for pneumonia and diarrhea...
October 26, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Wolfgang Fischbach, Viola Andresen, Marion Eberlin, Tobias Mueck, Peter Layer
Racecadotril is a guideline-recommended treatment to alleviate symptoms of acute diarrhea. A systematic review of randomized studies was performed comparing efficacy and safety of treatment with racecadotril to that with placebo or active treatments in adults. In five double-blind studies, racecadotril and placebo had comparable tolerability, but racecadotril was more effective. This was consistent across multiple efficacy parameters including duration of diarrhea, number of diarrheic stools, abdominal pain, and meteorism; it was also consistent across countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Peng Luo, Shuo Li, Yitai Chen, Yuwen Luo, Yun Li, Kai Wang, Yuxia Huang, Xin Chen
BACKGROUND: Roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor recommended by clinical guideline, is always being used in combination with at least one long-acting bronchodilator in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there are few evidences about whether the combination of roflumilast and long-acting bronchodilators is safer and more effective in patients with moderate-to-very severe stable COPD. In our study, we investigate the effect and safety of roflumilast combined with long-acting bronchodilators on moderate-to-severe stable COPD patients...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Shanti L Eswaran, William D Chey, Theresa Han-Markey, Sarah Ball, Kenya Jackson
OBJECTIVES: There has been an increasing interest in the role of fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We report results from the first randomized controlled trial of the low FODMAP diet in US adults with IBS and diarrhea (IBS-D). The objectives were to compare the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet vs. a diet based upon modified National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (mNICE) on overall and individual symptoms in IBS-D patients...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Mohammad Taghi Akhi, Sirus Jedari Seifi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Shahram Abdoli Oskuei, Tahereh Pirzadeh, Mohammad Yousef Memar, Naser Alizadeh, Hasan Seifi Yarijan Sofla
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is the most frequent health problem among children in developing countries. Defining the etiology of acute diarrhea is critical to disease therapy and prevention. Some anaerobic bacteria such as Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains cause diarrheal disease by production of enterotoxin in children less than 5 years old. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ETBF among common bacteria and viruses causing diarrhea in children aged less than five years...
June 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Mark Rohit Francis, Rajiv Sarkar, Sheela Roy, Shabbar Jaffar, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Gagandeep Kang, Vinohar Balraj
Since point-of-use methods of water filtration have shown limited acceptance in Vellore, southern India, this study evaluated the effectiveness of decentralized membrane filtration 1) with safe storage, 2) without safe storage, versus 3) no intervention, consisting of central chlorination as per government guidelines, in improving the microbiological quality of drinking water and preventing childhood diarrhea. Periodic testing of water sources, pre-/postfiltration samples, and household water, and a biweekly follow up of children less than 2 years of age was done for 1 year...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Charline Florence Awounfack, Sylvin Benjamin Ateba, Stéphane Zingue, Oumarou Riepouo Mouchili, Dieudonné Njamen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Myrianthus arboreus P. Beauv (Cecropiaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in forests and damp places of tropical Africa. Its leaves are widely used as food and/or for the treatment of various ailments including dysmenorrhoea, female infertility, tumors and diarrhea. However, to the best of our knowledge, no safety assessment of this plant has been reported yet. AIM OF STUDY: The present study aimed at evaluating the safety of the aqueous extract of leaves of Myrianthus arboreus (MAA) in Wistar rats through an acute and sub-acute oral administration...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Chima Ohuabunwo, Celestine Ameh, Oyin Oduyebo, Anthony Ahumibe, Bamidele Mutiu, Adebola Olayinka, Wasiu Gbadamosi, Erika Garcia, Carolina Nanclares, Wale Famiyesin, Abdulaziz Mohammed, Patrick Nguku, Richard I Koko, Joshua Obasanya, Durojaye Adebayo, Yemi Gbadegesin, Oni Idigbe, Olukayode Oguntimehin, Sara Nyanti, Charles Nzuki, Ismail Abdus-Salam, Joseph Adeyemi, Nnanna Onyekwere, Emmanuel Musa, David Brett-Major, Faisal Shuaib, Abdulsalami Nasidi
INTRODUCTION: The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Nigeria began when an infected diplomat from Liberia arrived in Lagos, the most populous city in Africa, with subsequent transmission to another large city. METHODS: First-, second-, and third-generation contacts were traced, monitored, and classified. Symptomatic contacts were managed at Ebola treatment centers as suspected, probable, and confirmed EVD cases using standard operating procedures adapted from the World Health Organization EVD guidelines...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Mojtaba Kianmehr, Ashraf Saber, Jalil Moshari, Reza Ahmadi, Mahdi Basiri-Moghadam
BACKGROUND: The world health organization guidelines for treatment of diarrhea in children emphasize on continued feeding together with prescription of oral rehydration solution (ORS) and supplementary zinc therapy. However, conflicting viewpoints exist regarding the optimal diet and dietary ingredients for children with diarrhea. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effect of rice soup along with ORS in the treatment of this disease. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore effects of simultaneous taking of glucose oral rehydration solution (G-ORS) and rice soup in the treatment of acute diarrhea in 8 to 24-month-old children...
June 2016: Nursing and Midwifery Studies
Dayane K D Nascimento, Ivone A DE Souza, Antônio F M DE Oliveira, Mariana O Barbosa, Marllon A N Santana, Daniel F Pereira, Eduardo C Lira, Jeymesson R C Vieira
Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice...
September 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
M Scaillon, Y Vandenplas
Acute gastroenteritis remains one of the most frequent disorders in infants and children. The cornerstone of the treatment is oral rehydration, although the latter does not reduce the duration of the diarrhea, which is about four days. As a consequence, this quite benign condition of acute gastroenteritis in our countries still does have an important socio-economic impact. Therefore, recent European guidelines and recommendations consider the use of different medications and agents that reduce the duration of diarrhea...
March 2016: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Hossein Hosseini Nave, Shahla Mansouri, Amin Sadeghi, Mohammad Moradi
AIM: This study aims to determine the serogroup distribution and molecular diagnosis, as well as antimicrobial resistance profiles among Shigella spp. isolated from patients with diarrhea in Kerman, southeast of Iran. BACKGROUND: Shigella species are frequent cause of bacterial dysentery worldwide. Previous studies have been reported that S. sonnei and S. flexneri are the most prevalent serogroups in various parts of Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 624 stool samples were randomly collected from patients with diarrhea from June 2013 to August 2014...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Abha Choudhary
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) has high morbidity and mortality and can be prevented. It is extremely important to give clear guidance to patients and families on how to manage diabetes during intercurrent illnesses to avoid complications of ketoacidosis, dehydration,uncontrolled or symptomatic hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. This descriptive review of clinical cases and management guidelines for sick days in children and adolescents with diabetes is provided as a resource for physicians who may take calls from parents of sick children with diabetes or manage these children in a clinic, emergency room or hospital setting...
June 2016: Journal of the Arkansas Medical Society
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Anna-Maria Zuliani, Iyad Kabar, Todd Mitchell, Hauke Sebastian Heinzow
Amatoxins, which are mainly found in Amanita phalloides, Amanita virosa, and Galerina autumnalis, are responsible for the majority of fatal intoxication with green death cap. The intoxication is associated with acute liver failure, which explains the poor prognosis. Acute liver injury is generally preceeded by a gastrointestinal phase with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In the course, pre-renal kidney failure due to the associated fluid deficit and fulminant liver failure may occur. General guidelines for the treatment of amatoxin poisoning are yet not available...
July 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Marianne El-Khoury, Kathryn Banke, Phoebe Sloane
Diarrhea is the fourth leading cause of child mortality in Ghana. In 2010, Ghana endorsed guidelines from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund for use of zinc with low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) for the treatment of acute childhood diarrhea. From late 2011 through 2014, the Strengthening Health Outcomes through the Private Sector (SHOPS) project implemented a comprehensive program in 3 regions of Ghana to increase the availability and use of ORS and zinc and to decrease incorrect use of antibiotics and antidiarrheals...
June 20, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
Franco Scaldaferri, Viviana Gerardi, Francesca Mangiola, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Marco Pizzoferrato, Valentina Petito, Alfredo Papa, Jovana Stojanovic, Andrea Poscia, Giovanni Cammarota, Antonio Gasbarrini
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease, whose etiology is still unclear. Its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic factors, immune response and the "forgotten organ", Gut Microbiota. Several studies have been conducted to assess the role of antibiotics and probiotics as additional or alternative therapies for Ulcerative Colitis. Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN) is a nonpathogenic Gram-negative strain isolated in 1917 by Alfred Nissle and it is the active component of microbial drug Mutaflor(®) (Ardeypharm GmbH, Herdecke, Germany and EcN, Cadigroup, In Italy) used in many gastrointestinal disorder including diarrhea, uncomplicated diverticular disease and UC...
June 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud, Reem Nabil Said, Dalia Sayed Mosallam, Nahla Abdel Moniem Barakat, Mohamed Ahmed Sabry
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are becoming increasingly popular treatment for children diarrhea. Although there are several probiotic strains potentially useful, researches were often limited to certain strains. AIM: To test Bifidobacterium lactis on morbidity of acute diarrhea in children less than 2 years. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 children (1 - 23 months) admitted with acute diarrhea to the Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University and were randomly assigned to receive in addition to usual treatment of diarrhea according to WHO guidelines; one of two treatments either milk formula non-supplemented (n = 25) or supplemented (n = 25) with Bifidobacterium lactis 14...
September 15, 2015: Open Access Maced J Med Sci
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