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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788296/comparison-of-c-difficile-stool-toxin-concentrations-in-adults-with-symptomatic-infection-and-asymptomatic-carriage-using-an-ultrasensitive-quantitative-immunoassay
#1
Nira R Pollock, Alice Banz, Xinhua Chen, David Williams, Hua Xu, Christine A Cuddemi, Alice X Cui, Matthew Perrotta, Eaman Alhassan, Brigitte Riou, Aude Lantz, Mark A Miller, Ciaran P Kelly
Background: We used an ultrasensitive, quantitative Single Molecule Array (Simoa) immunoassay to test whether concentrations of C. difficile toxins A and/or B in the stool of adult inpatients with CDI were higher than in asymptomatic carriers of toxinogenic C. difficile. Methods: Patients enrolled as CDI-NAAT had clinically significant diarrhea and positive nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), per US guidelines, and received CDI treatment. Potential carriers had recently received antibiotics and did not have diarrhea; positive NAAT confirmed carriage...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787356/selection-of-optimal-adjuvant-chemotherapy-and-targeted-therapy-for-early-breast-cancer-asco-clinical-practice-guideline-focused-update
#2
Neelima Denduluri, Mariana Chavez-MacGregor, Melinda L Telli, Andrea Eisen, Stephanie L Graff, Michael J Hassett, Jamie N Holloway, Arti Hurria, Tari A King, Gary H Lyman, Ann H Partridge, Mark R Somerfield, Maureen E Trudeau, Antonio C Wolff, Sharon H Giordano
Purpose To update key recommendations of the ASCO guideline adaptation of the Cancer Care Ontario guideline on the selection of optimal adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for early breast cancer and adjuvant targeted therapy for breast cancer. Methods An Expert Panel conducted targeted systematic literature reviews guided by a signals approach to identify new, potentially practice-changing data that might translate to revised practice recommendations. Results The Expert Panel reviewed phase III trials that evaluated adjuvant capecitabine after completion of standard preoperative anthracycline- and taxane-based combination chemotherapy by patients with early-stage breast cancer HER2-negative breast cancer with residual invasive disease at surgery; the addition of 1 year of adjuvant pertuzumab to combination chemotherapy and trastuzumab for patients with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer; and the use of neratinib as extended adjuvant therapy for patients after combination chemotherapy and trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763277/infectious-diarrhea-idsa-updates-guidelines-for-diagnosis-and-management
#3
Amber Randel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738561/high-dose-versus-standard-dose-amoxicillin-clavulanate-for-clinically-diagnosed-acute-bacterial-sinusitis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Andrea Matho, Mary Mulqueen, Miyuki Tanino, Aaron Quidort, Jesse Cheung, Jennifer Pollard, Julieta Rodriguez, Supraja Swamy, Brittany Tayler, Gina Garrison, Ashar Ata, Paul Sorum
BACKGROUND: The recommended treatment for acute bacterial sinusitis in adults, amoxicillin with clavulanate, provides only modest benefit. OBJECTIVE: To see if a higher dose of amoxicillin will lead to more rapid improvement. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Double-blind randomized trial in which, from November 2014 through February 2017, we enrolled 315 adult outpatients diagnosed with acute sinusitis in accordance with Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710295/effect-of-5-day-nitrofurantoin-vs-single-dose-fosfomycin-on-clinical-resolution-of-uncomplicated-lower-urinary-tract-infection-in-women-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Angela Huttner, Anna Kowalczyk, Adi Turjeman, Tanya Babich, Caroline Brossier, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Katarzyna Kosiek, Begoña Martinez de Tejada, Xavier Roux, Shachaf Shiber, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Elodie von Dach, Dafna Yahav, Leonard Leibovici, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Johan W Mouton, Stephan Harbarth
Importance: The use of nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin has increased since guidelines began recommending them as first-line therapy for lower urinary tract infection (UTI). Objective: To compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy of nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin in women with uncomplicated cystitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multinational, open-label, analyst-blinded, randomized clinical trial including 513 nonpregnant women aged 18 years and older with symptoms of lower UTI (dysuria, urgency, frequency, or suprapubic tenderness), a positive urine dipstick result (with detection of nitrites or leukocyte esterase), and no known colonization or previous infection with uropathogens resistant to the study antibiotics...
May 1, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704768/management-of-treatment-related-toxicities-in-advanced-medullary-thyroid-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Marcia S Brose, Keith C Bible, Laura Q M Chow, Jill Gilbert, Carolyn Grande, Francis Worden, Robert Haddad
Progress in the treatment of advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) has resulted from the approval of 2 drugs within the past 5 years, vandetanib and cabozantinib. These multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) possess overlapping specificities for multiple kinase targets implicated in the progression of MTC. Both drugs are associated with toxicities, including hypertension, hemorrhage/perforation, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal events, several dermatologic events, and hypothyroidism. In addition, vandetanib is uniquely associated with QTc prolongation through interaction with myocardial potassium channels, and cabozantinib is uniquely associated with hand-foot skin reaction...
April 22, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699418/role-of-early-palliative-care-interventions-in-hematological-malignancies-and-bone-marrow-transplant-patients-barriers-and-potential-solutions
#7
Marco Ruiz, Patrick Reynolds, Regina Marranzini, Alina Khan, Jessica Ketterer, Amanda Brahim
INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in palliative care management of physical, psychological, and emotional symptoms along the spectrum of chronic conditions, early palliative care interventions are not used frequently and comprehensively in bone marrow transplant units. METHODS: The literature review of PubMed articles in English published until December 2017. RESULTS: Patients with hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplant interventions are a heterogeneous group...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694372/data-quality-and-timeliness-of-outbreak-reporting-system-among-countries-in-greater-mekong-subregion-challenges-for-international-data-sharing
#8
Saranath Lawpoolsri, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Amnat Khamsiriwatchara, Ly Sovann, Bun Sreng, Bounlay Phommasack, Viengsavanh Kitthiphong, Soe Lwin Nyein, Nyan Win Myint, Nguyen Dang Vung, Pham Hung, Mark S Smolinski, Adam W Crawley, Moe Ko Oo
Cross-border disease transmission is a key challenge for prevention and control of outbreaks. Variation in surveillance structure and national guidelines used in different countries can affect their data quality and the timeliness of outbreak reports. This study aimed to evaluate timeliness and data quality of national outbreak reporting for four countries in the Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance network (MBDS). Data on disease outbreaks occurring from 2010 to 2015 were obtained from the national disease surveillance reports of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Vietnam...
April 25, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692577/antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-of-shigella-isolates-in-a-tertiary-healthcare-center
#9
Anitha Madhavan, Sobha Balakrishnan, Jayalakshmi Vasudevapanicker
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shigellosis is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published data in the study area on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and prevalence of Shigella species among diarrheagenic cases. Therefore, a retrospective analysis was done to find the Shigella serotypes, common age group affected, and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Shigella isolates in South Kerala...
April 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684967/-comparison-of-treatment-guidelines-for-ulcerative-colitis-role-of-biologics
#10
Jung Ho Bae, Dong Hoon Yang
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the colon, characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation with bloody diarrhea. The therapeutic goals in UC have evolved from symptomatic relief to deep remission, including sustained steroid-free clinical remission, mucosal healing, and ideally histologic remission. The management of UC has significantly been improved by advance of biologic agents including anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antibodies. Anti-TNF-α agent have progressively been introduced earlier in treatment algorithms for UC in order to minimize steroid exposure and dependence and to maximize disease control and quality of life...
April 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680101/the-cdi-daysyms-content-development-of-a-new-patient-reported-outcome-questionnaire-for-symptoms-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#11
Leah Kleinman, George H Talbot, Elke Hunsche, René Schüler, Carl Erik Nord
OBJECTIVES: To develop a patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaire for symptoms of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) following the US Food and Drug Administration PRO guidelines. METHODS: Patients' experiences of CDI symptoms were elicited in open-ended discussions with patients and nurses at five US sites (stage 1). A draft PRO measure was developed after demonstration of concept saturation. Two rounds of cognitive interviews were conducted with patients at three US sites (stage 2), with revision of the draft measure after each round...
April 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664951/universal-versus-conditional-day-3-follow-up-for-children-with-non-severe-unclassified-fever-at-the-community-level-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-a-cluster-randomized-community-based-non-inferiority-trial
#12
Luke C Mullany, Elburg W van Boetzelaer, Julie R Gutman, Laura C Steinhardt, Pascal Ngoy, Yolanda Barbera Lainez, Alison Wittcoff, Steven A Harvey, Lara S Ho
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's integrated community case management (iCCM) guidelines recommend that all children presenting with uncomplicated fever and no danger signs return for follow-up on day 3 following the initial consultation on day 1. Such fevers often resolve rapidly, however, and previous studies suggest that expectant home care for uncomplicated fever can be safely recommended. We aimed to determine if a conditional follow-up visit was non-inferior to a universal follow-up visit for these children...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650505/universal-versus-conditional-third-day-follow-up-visit-for-children-with-nonsevere-unclassified-fever-at-the-community-level-in-ethiopia-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-noninferiority-trial
#13
Karin Källander, Tobias Alfven, Ayalkibet Abebe Workineh, Abreham Hailemariam, Max Petzold, Dawit Getachew, Lawrence Barat, Laura C Steinhardt, Julie R Gutman
BACKGROUND: Under the World Health Organization's integrated community case management strategy, febrile children seen by community health workers (on day 1) without a diagnosable illness and without danger signs are advised to return on day 3, regardless of symptom resolution. This advice might be unnecessary and place additional time and cost burdens on caregivers and community health workers. However, the safety of not following up with respect to children with unclassified fever is unknown...
April 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614995/racecadotril-in-the-treatment-of-acute-diarrhea-in-children-a-systematic-comprehensive-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
Marion Eberlin, Min Chen, Tobias Mueck, Jan Däbritz
BACKGROUND: Racecadotril is a guideline-recommended option for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children but existing guidelines and previous reviews of the field are based on a small fraction of published evidence. Therefore, we have performed a systematic search for randomized controlled trials evaluating racecadotril as add-on or in comparison to other treatments. METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar without limits about country of origin or reporting language...
April 3, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562920/the-safety-of-live-attenuated-vaccines-in-patients-using-il-1-or-il-6-blockade-an-international-survey
#15
Jerold Jeyaratnam, Nienke M Ter Haar, Helen J Lachmann, Ozgur Kasapcopur, Amanda K Ombrello, Donato Rigante, Fatma Dedeoglu, Ezgi H Baris, Sebastiaan J Vastert, Nico M Wulffraat, Joost Frenkel
BACKGROUND: Withholding live-attenuated vaccines in patients using interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6 blocking agents is recommended by guidelines for both pediatric and adult rheumatic diseases, since there is a risk of infection in an immune suppressed host. However, this has never been studied. This retrospective, multicenter survey aimed to evaluate the safety of live-attenuated vaccines in patients using IL-1 or IL-6 blockade. METHODS: We contacted physicians involved in the treatment of autoinflammatory diseases to investigate potential cases...
March 21, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562266/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-and-children-2017-update-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-idsa-and-society-for-healthcare-epidemiology-of-america-shea
#16
L Clifford McDonald, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson, Johan S Bakken, Karen C Carroll, Susan E Coffin, Erik R Dubberke, Kevin W Garey, Carolyn V Gould, Ciaran Kelly, Vivian Loo, Julia Shaklee Sammons, Thomas J Sandora, Mark H Wilcox
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. The update, which has incorporated recommendations for children (following the adult recommendations for epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment), includes significant changes in the management of this infection and reflects the evolving controversy over best methods for diagnosis...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559143/treatment-of-cryptosporidiosis-in-captive-green-iguanas-iguana-iguana
#17
Remigiusz Gałęcki, Rajmund Sokół
There are no standard guidelines for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in reptiles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two cryptosporidiosis therapies in captive green iguanas. Eight green iguanas aged 2-6 years, including 6 (1 ♂ and 5 ♀) animals with chronic diarrhea, received treatment for cryptosporidiosis. The presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was determined in 8 iguanas (100%), Isospora sp. oocysts were detected in 3 animals (37.5%), and Oxyuridae eggs were observed in 5 iguanas (62...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536970/successful-treatment-of-metastatic-extramammary-paget-s-disease-with-pemetrexed-monotherapy-systematically-and-5-fluorouracil-topically
#18
Kexu Chen, Hanlin Liang, Jiewen Peng, Yanfang Zheng
Advanced extramammary Paget's disease does not have a standardized treatment guideline as its incidence is low and has been rarely reported in literature. Here we describe a case of metastatic extramammary Paget's disease successfully treated with topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and systemic pemetrexed. The therapy was safe without any appreciable adverse effects like diarrhea, rash, neutropenia or fatigue; maintaining remission for more than 6 months. Thus, we propose 5-FU and pemetrexed as the first-line therapy for advanced extramammary Paget's disease, especially for aged patients with unresectable skin lesions...
March 12, 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523666/adherence-to-the-world-cancer-research-fund-american-institute-for-cancer-research-guideline-is-associated-with-better-health-related-quality-of-life-among-chinese-patients-with-breast-cancer
#19
Yuan-Yuan Lei, Suzanne C Ho, Ashley Cheng, Carol Kwok, Chi-Kiu Iris Lee, Ka Li Cheung, Roselle Lee, Herbert H F Loong, Yi-Qian He, Winnie Yeo
Background: The 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guideline provides recommendations for cancer prevention among cancer survivors. Limited data have examined whether guideline adherence is related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Chinese patients with breast cancer. Methods: An ongoing prospective cohort study involving 1,462 Chinese women with early-stage breast cancer assessed exercise, diet, and body mass index (BMI) at baseline and at 18-months follow-up after diagnosis...
March 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512244/comparison-of-outcomes-with-vancomycin-or-metronidazole-for-mild-to-moderate-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-among-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Cynthia T Nguyen, Julius Li, Stephanie Anders, Julia Garcia-Diaz, Catherine Staffeld-Coit, Jonathan Hand
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin for the treatment of mild-to-moderate Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), while metronidazole is recommended as an alternative when oral vancomycin and fidaxomicin are unavailable. However, data are lacking among the solid organ transplant (SOT) population. METHODS: This single center, retrospective cohort study evaluated adult SOT recipients with mild-to-moderate CDAD. Analysis 1 evaluated patients receiving initial therapy with metronidazole vs oral vancomycin for at least 72 hours...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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