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Mathias Reisbeck, Lukas Richter, Michael Johannes Helou, Stephan Arlinghaus, Birgit Anton, Ignas van Dommelen, Mario Nitzsche, Michael Baßler, Barbara Kappes, Oliver Friedrich, Oliver Hayden
Time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic sensing of rolling immunomagnetically-labeled cells offers great potential for single cell function analysis at the bedside in even optically opaque media, such as whole blood. However, due to the spatial resolution of the sensor and the low flow rate regime required to observe the behavior of rolling cells, the concentration range of such a workflow is limited. Potential clinical applications, such as testing of leukocyte function, require a cytometer which can cover a cell concentration range of several orders of magnitude...
March 12, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ryan B Scott, Jason Samaha, Ron Chrisley, Zoltan Dienes
While theories of consciousness differ substantially, the 'conscious access hypothesis', which aligns consciousness with the global accessibility of information across cortical regions, is present in many of the prevailing frameworks. This account holds that consciousness is necessary to integrate information arising from independent functions such as the specialist processing required by different senses. We directly tested this account by evaluating the potential for associative learning between novel pairs of subliminal stimuli presented in different sensory modalities...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Kshiti Singh, Nimisha Jadon, Rajeev Jain
Titanium oxide nanoparticles and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide modified glassy carbon electrode (TiO2 /IL/GCE) has been fabricated for electrochemical sensing of flunarizine (FRH). The electrochemical properties and morphology of the prepared nanocomposite were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The response of the electrochemical sensor was found to be proportional to the concentrations of FRH in the range from 0...
March 2, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jarrod S Johnson, Sasha Y Lucas, Lynn M Amon, Stephanie Skelton, Rodolfo Nazitto, Sara Carbonetti, D Noah Sather, Dan R Littman, Alan Aderem
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) have the innate capacity to sense pathogens and orchestrate immune responses. However, DCs do not mount efficient immune responses to HIV-1, primarily due to restriction of virus reverse transcription, which prevents accumulation of viral cDNA and limits its detection through the cGAS-STING pathway. By allowing reverse transcription to proceed, we find that DCs detect HIV-1 in distinct phases, before and after virus integration. Blocking integration suppresses, but does not abolish, activation of the transcription factor IRF3, downstream interferon (IFN) responses, and DC maturation...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Baruch B Hertzog, Yael Kaufman, Debabrata Biswas, Miriam Ravins, Poornima Ambalavanan, Reuven Wiener, Veronique Angeli, Swaine L Chen, Emanuel Hanski
Bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) to regulate gene expression. We identified a group A Streptococcus (GAS) strain possessing the QS system sil, which produces functional bacteriocins, through a sequential signaling pathway integrating host and bacterial signals. Host cells infected by GAS release asparagine (ASN), which is sensed by the bacteria to alter its gene expression and rate of proliferation. We show that upon ASN sensing, GAS upregulates expression of the QS autoinducer peptide SilCR. Initial SilCR expression activates the autoinduction cycle for further SilCR production...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Vitor Cabral, Karina B Xavier
Bacterial sensing is important for perceiving environmental cues and activating responses. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Hertzog et al. (2018) show that group A Streptococcus can couple the ability to respond to host cues with autoinduction of a quorum sensing system, leading to killing of bacterial competitors.
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Olivier Poupel, Caroline Proux, Bernd Jagla, Tarek Msadek, Sarah Dubrac
The success of Staphylococcus aureus, as both a human and animal pathogen, stems from its ability to rapidly adapt to a wide spectrum of environmental conditions. Two-component systems (TCSs) play a crucial role in this process. Here, we describe a novel staphylococcal virulence factor, SpdC, an Abi-domain protein, involved in signal sensing and/or transduction. We have uncovered a functional link between the WalKR essential TCS and the SpdC Abi membrane protein. Expression of spdC is positively regulated by the WalKR system and, in turn, SpdC negatively controls WalKR regulon genes, effectively constituting a negative feedback loop...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Ya-Li Zhang, Xiao-Bin Fu, Hong-Chun Cui, Lei Zhao, Ji-Zhong Yu, Hong-Liang Li
As one of the main lepidopteran pests in Chinese tea plantations, Ectropis obliqua Warren (tea geometrids) can severely decrease yields of tea products. The olfactory system of the adult tea geometrid plays a significant role in seeking behaviors, influencing their search for food, mating partners, and even spawning grounds. In this study, a general odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene, EoblGOBP2 , was identified in the antennae of E. obliqua using reverse transcription quantification PCR (RT-qPCR). Results showed that EoblGOBP2 was more highly expressed in the antennae of males than in females relative to other tissues...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
William R Critchley, Caroline Pellet-Many, Benjamin Ringham-Terry, Michael A Harrison, Ian C Zachary, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are membrane-based sensors that enable rapid communication between cells and their environment. Evidence is now emerging that interdependent regulatory mechanisms, such as membrane trafficking, ubiquitination, proteolysis and gene expression, have substantial effects on RTK signal transduction and cellular responses. Different RTKs exhibit both basal and ligand-stimulated ubiquitination, linked to trafficking through different intracellular compartments including the secretory pathway, plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosomes...
March 15, 2018: Cells
Biyun Ling, Chunrong Peng, Ren Ren, Zhaozhi Chu, Zhouwei Zhang, Hucheng Lei, Shanhong Xia
One of the major concerns in the development of three-dimensional (3D) electric field sensors (EFSs) is their susceptibility to cross-axis coupling interference. The output signal for each sensing axis of a 3D EFS is often coupled by electric field components from the two other orthogonal sensing axes. In this paper, a one-dimensional (1D) electric field sensor chip (EFSC) with low cross-axis coupling interference is presented. It is designed to be symmetrical, forming a pair of in-plane symmetrically-located sensing structures...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Qiong Zheng, Wenjiang Huang, Ximin Cui, Yue Shi, Linyi Liu
Yellow rust is one of the most destructive diseases for winter wheat and has led to a significant decrease in winter wheat quality and yield. Identifying and monitoring yellow rust is of great importance for guiding agricultural production over large areas. Compared with traditional crop disease discrimination methods, remote sensing technology has proven to be a useful tool for accomplishing such a task at large scale. This study explores the potential of the Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI), a newly launched satellite with refined spatial resolution and three red-edge bands, for discriminating between yellow rust infection severities (i...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Jeevan K Pant, Sridhar Krishnan
OBJECTIVE: To present a new compressive sensing (CS)-based method for the acquisition of ECG signals and for robust estimation of heart-rate variability (HRV) parameters from compressively sensed measurements with high compression ratio. APPROACH: CS is used in the biosensor to compress the ECG signal. Estimation of the locations of QRS segments is carried out by applying two algorithms on the compressed measurements. The first algorithm reconstructs the ECG signal by enforcing a block-sparse structure on the first-order difference of the signal, so the transient QRS segments are significantly emphasized on the first-order difference of the signal...
March 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Jiyoung Hwang, Lisa Wang, Jodi Siever, Talia Del Medico, Charlotte A Jones
OBJECTIVES: Loneliness and social isolation (L&SI) are associated with physical and cognitive decline in older adults. Walk 'n' Talk for your Life (WTL) is a community-based program of socialization, health education, falls prevention exercise and walking for community-dwelling older adults. This qualitative study was done to gain further insight into the experience and impacts of the WTL on seniors' L&SI. METHODS: One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen participants who had completed the WTL ...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Rachel M Latham, Katharine M Mark, Bonamy R Oliver
Parenting sense of competence (PSOC) is a critical aspect of parental adjustment that may be undermined by children's disruptive behavior. Interparental relationships have been shown to shape how parents react and respond to their children's characteristics, but little is known about the role of parenting teamwork, known as 'coparenting.' We examined mothers' and fathers' perceptions of children's disruptive behavior and the quality of coparenting, as well as their interaction in association with PSOC. Mothers and fathers from 108 'intact' families participating in the Twins, Family, and Behavior (TFaB) Study reported on their children's disruptive behavior, coparenting and PSOC via postal questionnaire (Mchild age = 6 years, SDchild age = 6...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Julie A Cohen, Anusha Kassan
This qualitative study explored the cultural identity negotiation of young adult immigrants. Using a grounded theory research design, 10 semistructured interviews were conducted with emerging adult immigrants (EAI), ages 19-27. Results yielded a substantive model of cultural identity negotiation (MCIN) for EAI and posited that One's Motivation and Sense of Agency to Negotiate Cultural Identity is at the core of how participants navigate their cultural identities. This model included 6 major categories: (a) Family Cultural Rigidity ; (b) Connections Specific to Canada ; (c) Connection to a Same Cultured Community ; (d) Sense of Permanency ; (e) Desire to Preserve Culture of Origin ; (f) Desire to Fit in to Canadian Culture , as well as 2 overarching factors ( Dimension of Time and Dimension of Age ), which were found to be influential on participants' cultural identity negotiation...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Yan Zhang, Zhongyuan Huang, Letao Wang, Chunming Wang, Changde Zhang, Thomas E Wiese, Guangdi Wang, Kevin Eugene Riley, Zhe Wang
This work aims to face the challenge of monitoring small molecule drugs accurately and rapidly for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis in current clinical settings. Overdose of acetaminophen (AP), a commonly used OTC analgesic drug, has been determined to be a major cause of acute liver failure in the US and the UK. However, there is no rapid and accurate detection method available for this drug in the emergency room. The present study examined an AP sensing strategy that relies on a previously unexplored strong interaction between AP and the arginine (Arg) molecule...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Pei Huang, Yuanqing Li, Xiao-Guang Yu, Wei-Bin Zhu, Shu-Yan Nie, Hao Zhang, Jin-Rui Liu, Ning Hu, Shao-Yun Fu
The mimicry of human skin to detect both oncoming and physical-contacting object is of great importance in the fields of manufacturing, artificial robots and vehicles, etc. Herein, a novel bio-inspired flexible and highly responsive dual-mode strain/magnetism composite sensor which works via both contact and contactless modes, is first fabricated by incorporating Fe3O4/silicone system into a carbon fiber aerogel. The distance-dependence of magnetic field endorses the CFA/Fe3O4/silicone composite possible for spatial sensing due to the introduction of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles...
March 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Aaron M Michalko, James R Fienup
Transverse translation diverse phase retrieval (TTDPR), a ptychographic image-based wavefront-sensing technique, is a viable method for optical shop testing due to its high accuracy and relatively simple experimental arrangement. However, when measuring a reflective optic, a normally hard-edged translating illumination will become soft-edged due to diffraction, which may reduce the accuracy of TTDPR by suppressing fine structures in measured data. In this Letter, we quantitatively explore the wavefront-sensing accuracy of TTDPR in the presence of soft-edged translating illumination...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Fedor Rudakov, Joseph D Geiser, Peter M Weber
A technique for the spatially resolved and molecule-specific detection of chemical vapors is presented. The chemical specificity arises from a transient absorption spectrum where an ultraviolet (UV) pulse excites the molecule to a Rydberg state, and a near-infrared (NIR) or visible probe pulse records a transient absorption spectrum. By recording the NIR pulse reflected off a random, distant object and measuring the elapsed time between the emission of the UV pulse and the absorption of a counter-propagating NIR pulse, the distance to the absorber is obtained...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Scott W Paine, James R Fienup
For large amounts of wavefront error, gradient-based optimization methods for image-based wavefront sensing are unlikely to converge when the starting guess for the wavefront differs greatly from the true wavefront. We use machine learning operating on a point-spread function to determine a good initial estimate of the wavefront. We show that our trained convolutional neural network provides good initial estimates in the presence of simulated detector noise and is more effective than using many random starting guesses for large amounts of wavefront error...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
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